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Module 01 Introduction to Linux


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The presentation was given by Tushar B Kute in workshop "Open Source Software" at PCCOE, Pune.

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Module 01 Introduction to Linux

  1. 1. Module-1 Introduction to Linux Tushar B Kute
  2. 2. Before Linux  In 80’s, Microsoft’s DOS was the dominated OS for PC, Apple MAC was better, but expensive.  UNIX was much better, but much, much more expensive. Only for minicomputer for commercial applications.  People was looking for a UNIX based system, which is cheaper and can run on PC.  Both DOS, MAC and UNIX were proprietary, i.e., the source code of their kernel is protected.  No modification is possible without paying high license fees.
  3. 3. How Linux initiated?  A famous professor Andrew Tanenbaum developed Minix, a simplified version of UNIX that runs on PC  Minix is for class teaching only. No intention for commercial use  In Sept 1991, Linus Torvalds, a second year student of Computer Science at the University of Helsinki, developed the preliminary kernel of Linux, known as Linux version 0.0.1
  4. 4. Linux Today  Linux has been used for many computing platforms PC, PDA, Supercomputer,…  Not only character user interface but graphical user interface is available  Commercial vendors moved in Linux itself to provide freely distributed code. They make their money by compiling up various software and gathering them in a distributable format  Red Hat, Debian, Slackware etc.
  5. 5. Growing and Growing
  6. 6. Why Linux  Excellent networking facilities  Ideal environment to run servers such as a web server, or an ftp server.  A wide variety of commercial software is available if not satisfied by the free software  Easily upgradeable.  Supports multiple processors.  True multi-tasking, multi-user OS.  An excellent window system called X, the equivalent of Windows but much more flexible.  Full source code is provided and free.
  7. 7. Linux is powerful OS  Today Linux has joined the desktop market.  On the server side, Linux is well-known as a stable and reliable platform.  Linux provides many applications like:  Databases (MySQL,Postgresql),  Network services(Web Servers,DNS, Proxy, firewall etc)  Software development tools(C, Java, Python,Perl etc.)  Office automation tools  And many more…
  8. 8. Is Linux difficult?  There is excellent and free Internet support and documentation available.  The graphical user interface (GUI) is similar in design to that on any other system  A very powerful command line alternative is also available.  Linux is user friendly.
  9. 9. Properties of Linux  It is Open Source  Today, Linux is ready to accept the challenge of a fast-changing world.  Linux is free:  If you want to spend absolutely nothing, you don't even have to pay the price of a CD.  Linux can be downloaded in its entirety from the Internet completely for free.
  10. 10. Properties of Linux  Linux is portable to any hardware platform.  Linux was made to keep on running.  As with UNIX, a Linux system expects to run without rebooting all the time.  Tasks can be scheduled to run at suitable times.  Linux is secure and versatile.  The security model used in Linux is based on the UNIX idea of security which is robust.  It is less prone to virus attacks.  Linux is scalable
  11. 11. Linux Performance  Key factors: features and performance  It runs on a wider range of hardware platforms and run on less expensive and powerful systems.  Linux exceeds other operating systems in its multiprocessing capabilities and its support of advanced TCP/IP networking facilities
  12. 12. Linux Performance  Linux does not restrict the number of clients connected at the same time  It provides more reliable data storage than other operating systems  Linux provides advanced disk management (RAID) which makes it possible to automatically duplicate stored data on several hard drives
  13. 13. FOSS  Free Open Source Software  Free – Means Liberty and not related to Price or cost  Open – Source code is available and any body can contribute to the development. Organization independent
  14. 14. Commercial Software  The opposite of OSS/FS is “closed” or “proprietary” software.  Software  Source code that can be viewed  But cannot be modified and redistributed without further limitation  Microsoft Windows has most of the commercial software.
  15. 15. Freedom with the FOSS  Freedom to run the software anywhere  Freedom to study how the programs work. i.e source code will be accessible  Freedom to redistribute copies  Freedom to improve the software  If a software has all these 4 freedoms, then it is a FOSS
  16. 16. Free Software Foundation  Founded by Richard Stallman in 1983  Organisation that started developing copylefted programs  Project – GNU Project  GNU Not Unix  Recursive expansion
  17. 17. Linux Distributions  Redhat  Fedora  Debian  Novell’s SUSE Linux  Ubuntu  Mandrake  Linux MINT  Live CDs – Knoppix and more
  18. 18. GNU/Linux  Only the kernel is called by the name Linux  The rest are the tools developed under GNU Project  Hence the name GNU/Linux
  19. 19. What is GNU?  GNU stands for GNU Not Unix  The goal of GNU  Create a free and complete UNIX-like operating system ▪ This has been in development since 1984 ▪ Towards this goal the GNU project has released: ▪ GCC, GNU Emacs, Bash, to name a few  For more information see the GNU Manifesto ▪
  20. 20. What is GNU GPL?  The GNU General Public License  Ensures that GNU software stays free  This is done through Copy Lefting  Any modification to GPL software is required to be released to the public  Linux is released under the GPL  Due to its restrictive nature the GPL has recently come under fire 
  21. 21. Where Linux stands?  More than 90% of today's 500 fastest supercomputers run some variant of Linux, including the 10 fastest.  Linux also runs on embedded systems (devices where the operating system is typically built into the firmware ) such as mobile phones, tablet computers, network routers, televisions and video game consoles;  The Android system in wide use on mobile devices is built on the Linux kernel.
  22. 22. Supercomputer’s List Source: Wikipedia
  23. 23. Linux Operating System
  24. 24. Linux vs. Windows  Financial Differences  Technical Differences  End-User Differences
  25. 25. Financial Differences  Cost for Businesses  Companies have to spend millions for licenses for ever individual windows computer  For Linux companies don’t have to spend anything COST LINUX WINDOWS Online Downloads Free Not Available Retail Price, CD Rs. 100 Rs. 3000 +
  26. 26. Technical Differences  Keeping up to date by Upgrading  Linux upgrades faster than Windows  Almost after every 6 months Linux distro is upgraded.  Compatibility  Linux is Backward Compatible unlike Windows.  Linux have multi-user support.  Application Differences  No commercial word processor for Linux, which matches the quality for Windows
  27. 27. End-user differences  Proprietary vs. Open Source  Windows is a Proprietary Technology ▪ Applications will only work on Windows  Linux – Open Source  Linux  Complete information needed for download  Technical help – Available on Internet (user must be comfortable with UNIX system)  Windows word processor is better than Linux
  28. 28. In commercial arena  Windows – is easy for non-programmer.  Linux – is programmer-based culture.
  29. 29. From our point of view  Due to the properties of Open source, freeware, and security use of Linux is growing in State and Central government in India. Kerala and Andhra has already started their movement.  University of Pune has converted its syllabus into open source based technologies from last academic year.
  30. 30. Linux User Group  GNU/Linux User Group (GLUG) is a private, generally non-profit or not-for-profit organization that provides support and/or education for Linux users.  The term commonly refers to local groups that meet in person, but is also used to refer to online support groups that may have members spread over a very wide area and which do not organize, or which are not based around, physical meetings.
  31. 31. User groups meetings  LUGs typically meet once per month in facilities freely provided by universities, colleges, community centers, private corporations, or banquet rooms in restaurants.  Joining is free.  Informal conferences and round table discussions.  Close geographical locations such as City or University.
  32. 32. User Group activities  Organizes installfests.  Development of project and international stature.  Gifting books, Linux magazines, Linux CDs.  Socialization.  Organizing guest lectures and seminars from Linux expertises.  Hackfests  Free software day.
  33. 33. Main activities  Advocasy  Education  Support  User  Consultant  Business  Movement  Socialising
  34. 34. Kind of meetings in group  Social  Technical presentations  Informal discussion groups  User group business  GNU/Linux installation  Configuration and bug-squashing
  35. 35. Activities in meetings  Install distributions for newcomers and strangers.  Teach members about GNU/Linux.  Compare GNU/Linux to other operating systems.  Teach members about application software.  Discuss advocacy.  Discuss the free software / open-source movement.  Discuss user group business.
  36. 36. Groups uses internet  Atlanta Linux Enthusiasts  Boston Linux and Unix  Colorado Linux Users and Enthusiasts  Düsseldorfer Linux Users Group  India Linux Users Group - Delhi  Israeli Group of Linux Users  Korean Linux Users Group  Linux México (La Cofradía Digital)  Linux User Group Austria
  37. 37. This presentation is created using LibreOffice Writer available freely under GNU public license. Thank you