Module-1 Introduction to Linux
Tushar B Kute
In 80’s, Microsoft’s DOS was the dominated OS
for PC, Apple MAC was better, but expensive.
UNIX was much better, but much, much more
expensive. Only for minicomputer for
People was looking for a UNIX based system,
which is cheaper and can run on PC.
Both DOS, MAC and UNIX were proprietary, i.e.,
the source code of their kernel is protected.
No modification is possible without paying high
How Linux initiated?
A famous professor Andrew Tanenbaum
developed Minix, a simplified version of
UNIX that runs on PC
Minix is for class teaching only. No
intention for commercial use
In Sept 1991, Linus Torvalds, a second
year student of Computer Science at the
University of Helsinki, developed the
preliminary kernel of Linux, known as
Linux version 0.0.1
Linux has been used for many computing
platforms PC, PDA, Supercomputer,…
Not only character user interface but
graphical user interface is available
Commercial vendors moved in Linux
itself to provide freely distributed code.
They make their money by compiling up
various software and gathering them in a
Red Hat, Debian, Slackware etc.
Excellent networking facilities
Ideal environment to run servers such as a
web server, or an ftp server.
A wide variety of commercial software is
available if not satisfied by the free software
Supports multiple processors.
True multi-tasking, multi-user OS.
An excellent window system called X, the
equivalent of Windows but much more flexible.
Full source code is provided and free.
Linux is powerful OS
Today Linux has joined the desktop market.
On the server side, Linux is well-known as a
stable and reliable platform.
Linux provides many applications like:
Network services(Web Servers,DNS, Proxy,
Software development tools(C, Java,
Office automation tools
And many more…
Is Linux difficult?
There is excellent and free Internet
support and documentation
The graphical user interface (GUI) is
similar in design to that on any other
A very powerful command line
alternative is also available.
Linux is user friendly.
Properties of Linux
It is Open Source
Today, Linux is ready to accept the
challenge of a fast-changing world.
Linux is free:
If you want to spend absolutely nothing,
you don't even have to pay the price of
Linux can be downloaded in its entirety
from the Internet completely for free.
Properties of Linux
Linux is portable to any hardware platform.
Linux was made to keep on running.
As with UNIX, a Linux system expects to run
without rebooting all the time.
Tasks can be scheduled to run at suitable times.
Linux is secure and versatile.
The security model used in Linux is based on the
UNIX idea of security which is robust.
It is less prone to virus attacks.
Linux is scalable
Key factors: features and
It runs on a wider range of hardware
platforms and run on less expensive
and powerful systems.
Linux exceeds other operating
systems in its multiprocessing
capabilities and its support of
advanced TCP/IP networking facilities
Linux does not restrict the number of
clients connected at the same time
It provides more reliable data
storage than other operating
Linux provides advanced disk
management (RAID) which makes it
possible to automatically duplicate
stored data on several hard drives
Free Open Source Software
Free – Means Liberty and not related
to Price or cost
Open – Source code is available and
any body can contribute to the
The opposite of OSS/FS is “closed” or
Source code that can be viewed
But cannot be modified and redistributed
without further limitation
Microsoft Windows has most of the
Freedom with the FOSS
Freedom to run the software
Freedom to study how the programs
work. i.e source code will be
Freedom to redistribute copies
Freedom to improve the software
If a software has all these 4
freedoms, then it is a FOSS
Founded by Richard Stallman in 1983
Organisation that started developing
Project – GNU Project
GNU Not Unix
Novell’s SUSE Linux
Live CDs – Knoppix and more
Only the kernel is called by the name
The rest are the tools developed
under GNU Project
Hence the name GNU/Linux
What is GNU?
GNU stands for GNU Not Unix
The goal of GNU
Create a free and complete UNIX-like
▪ This has been in development since 1984
▪ Towards this goal the GNU project has released:
▪ GCC, GNU Emacs, Bash, to name a few
For more information see the GNU
What is GNU GPL?
The GNU General Public License
Ensures that GNU software stays free
This is done through Copy Lefting
Any modification to GPL software is
required to be released to the public
Linux is released under the GPL
Due to its restrictive nature the GPL
has recently come under fire
Where Linux stands?
More than 90% of today's 500 fastest
supercomputers run some variant of Linux,
including the 10 fastest.
Linux also runs on embedded systems
(devices where the operating system is
typically built into the firmware ) such as
mobile phones, tablet computers, network
routers, televisions and video game
The Android system in wide use on mobile
devices is built on the Linux kernel.
Linux vs. Windows
Cost for Businesses
Companies have to spend millions for
licenses for ever individual windows
For Linux companies don’t have to spend
Online Downloads Free Not Available
Retail Price, CD Rs. 100 Rs. 3000 +
Keeping up to date by Upgrading
Linux upgrades faster than Windows
Almost after every 6 months Linux distro is
Linux is Backward Compatible unlike Windows.
Linux have multi-user support.
No commercial word processor for Linux,
which matches the quality for Windows
Proprietary vs. Open Source
Windows is a Proprietary Technology
▪ Applications will only work on Windows
Linux – Open Source
Complete information needed for download
Technical help – Available on Internet (user must
be comfortable with UNIX system)
Windows word processor is better
In commercial arena
Windows – is easy for
Linux – is programmer-based culture.
From our point of view
Due to the properties of Open source,
freeware, and security use of Linux is
growing in State and Central government
in India. Kerala and Andhra has already
started their movement.
University of Pune has converted its
syllabus into open source based
technologies from last academic year.
Linux User Group
GNU/Linux User Group (GLUG) is a
private, generally non-profit or
not-for-profit organization that provides
support and/or education for Linux users.
The term commonly refers to local groups
that meet in person, but is also used to
refer to online support groups that may
have members spread over a very wide
area and which do not organize, or which
are not based around, physical meetings.
User groups meetings
LUGs typically meet once per month in
facilities freely provided by universities,
colleges, community centers, private
corporations, or banquet rooms in
Joining is free.
Informal conferences and round table
Close geographical locations such as
City or University.
User Group activities
Development of project and
Gifting books, Linux magazines, Linux
Organizing guest lectures and seminars
from Linux expertises.
Free software day.
Kind of meetings in
Informal discussion groups
User group business
Configuration and bug-squashing
Activities in meetings
Install distributions for newcomers and
Teach members about GNU/Linux.
Compare GNU/Linux to other operating
Teach members about application software.
Discuss the free software / open-source
Discuss user group business.
Groups uses internet
Atlanta Linux Enthusiasts
Boston Linux and Unix
Colorado Linux Users and
Düsseldorfer Linux Users Group
India Linux Users Group - Delhi
Israeli Group of Linux Users
Korean Linux Users Group
Linux México (La Cofradía Digital)
Linux User Group Austria
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