Anatomy of the digestive system

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Anatomy of the digestive system

  1. 1. ANATOMY OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
  2. 2. Mouth and throat Food is chewed and travels down the pharynx and through the esophagus Contains the following:  Salivary glands  Teeth  Tongue  Hard palate  Soft palate  Uvula  epiglottis
  3. 3. Salivary Glands  Include the parotid gland, sublingual gland, and submandibular gland.  Secrete saliva (mixture of water, enzymes, and mucin)  Moistens food  Enzymes within saliva begin the chemical break down of food.
  4. 4. Teeth  Tear, chop, and grind food for swallowing.  Mechanical digestion  Front teeth and “canines” are used to tear into tough food  Flat molars grind grains and plant matter
  5. 5. Tongue  Moves food around while chewing and mixes it  Contains taste buds
  6. 6. Hard Palate  Roof of the mouth  Covered by a mucous membrane  Made of bone
  7. 7. Soft Palate  Behind hard palate  Made up of muscular fibers  Covered by a mucous membrane  Closes off nasal passage when food is being swallowed
  8. 8. Uvula  Stops food from entering the nasal cavity when being swallowed
  9. 9. Epiglottis  Prevents food from entering trachea
  10. 10. Esophagus Large tube that connects pharynx to the stomach. Peristalsis occurs, and pushes food down throat. Contains:  Upper esophageal sphincter  Lower esophageal sphincter
  11. 11. Upper Esophageal Sphincter  Found below intersection of the throat and esophagus  Relaxes to let food enter esophagus
  12. 12. Lower Esophageal Sphincter  Located above the connection between the esophagus and stomach  Relaxes to let food into stomach  Keeps stomach’s contents from pushing back into the esophagus
  13. 13. Stomach Area  Muscular and expandable  Holds, digests, and removes nutrients from food  Turns food into chyme Contains the following:  Pyloric Sphincter  Gastric Folds  Muscular Walls  Greater Curvature  Lesser Curvature  Liver  Gallbladder  Pancreas
  14. 14. Pyloric Sphincter  Forms valve in between stomach and intestine  Controls passage of food to small intestine
  15. 15. Gastric Folds  Increase surface area  Help with digestion
  16. 16. Muscular Walls  Squeeze and expand stomach  Helps churn food
  17. 17. Greater Curvature  Curve along lower edge of stomach
  18. 18. Lesser Curvature  Curve along the upper edge of the stomach
  19. 19. Liver  Body’s largest gland  Accessory organ  Detoxifies blood  Creates bile
  20. 20. Gallbladder  Collects, stores, and concentrates bile from liver
  21. 21. Pancreas  Located behind stomach  Produces insulin  Enzymes secreted help digest food  Insulin regulates sugar in blood
  22. 22. Intestines  Small Intestine: 1. Duodenum 2. Jejunum 3. Ileum  Large Intestine: 1. Ascending Colon 2. Transverse Colon 3. Descending Colon 4. Rectum 5. Anus
  23. 23. Duodenum  First piece of the small intestine  Receives secretions from the liver and pancreas  Most of where chemical digestion takes place
  24. 24. Jejunum  Middle portion of the small intestine
  25. 25. Ileum  Last piece of small intestine  Rest of nutrients are absorbed and used for the body
  26. 26. Ascending Colon  First portion of large intestine  Located on the right side of the body  Extracts remaining moisture from food
  27. 27. Transverse Colon  Connects ascending and descending colon  Sits horizontally on top of small intestine
  28. 28. Descending Colon  Found on left side of body  Stores stool
  29. 29. Rectum  Sits above anal canal  Stores feces before defecation
  30. 30. Anus  External opening of rectum  Expels fecal matter

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