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Anatomy of the digestive system

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    Anatomy of the digestive system Anatomy of the digestive system Presentation Transcript

    • Anatomy of the Digestive System
    • Mouth and throat
      Food is chewed and travels down the pharynx and through the esophagus
      Contains the following:
      Salivary glands
      Teeth
      Tongue
      Hard palate
      Soft palate
      Uvula
      epiglottis
    • Salivary Glands
      Include the parotid gland, sublingual gland, and submandibular gland.
      Secrete saliva (mixture of water, enzymes, and mucin)
      Moistens food
      Enzymes within saliva begin the chemical break down of food.
    • Teeth
      Tear, chop, and grind food for swallowing.
      Mechanical digestion
      Front teeth and “canines” are used to tear into tough food
      Flat molars grind grains and plant matter
    • Tongue
      Moves food around while chewing and mixes it
      Contains taste buds
    • Hard Palate
      Roof of the mouth
      Covered by a mucous membrane
      Made of bone
    • Soft Palate
      Behind hard palate
      Made up of muscular fibers
      Covered by a mucous membrane
      Closes off nasal passage when food is being swallowed
    • Uvula
      Stops food from entering the nasal cavity when being swallowed
    • Epiglottis
      Prevents food from entering trachea
    • Esophagus
      Large tube that connects pharynx to the stomach. Peristalsis occurs, and pushes food down throat.
      Contains:
      Upper esophageal sphincter
      Lower esophageal sphincter
    • Upper Esophageal Sphincter
      Found below intersection of the throat and esophagus
      Relaxes to let food enter esophagus
    • Lower Esophageal Sphincter
      Located above the connection between the esophagus and stomach
      Relaxes to let food into stomach
      Keeps stomach’s contents from pushing back into the esophagus
    • Stomach Area
      Muscular and expandable
      Holds, digests, and removes nutrients from food
      Turns food into chyme
      Contains the following:
      Pyloric Sphincter
      Gastric Folds
      Muscular Walls
      Greater Curvature
      Lesser Curvature
      Liver
      Gallbladder
      Pancreas
    • Pyloric Sphincter
      Forms valve in between stomach and intestine
      Controls passage of food to small intestine
    • Gastric Folds
      Increase surface area
      Help with digestion
    • Muscular Walls
      Squeeze and expand stomach
      Helps churn food
    • Greater Curvature
      Curve along lower edge of stomach
    • Lesser Curvature
      Curve along the upper edge of the stomach
    • Liver
      Body’s largest gland
      Accessory organ
      Detoxifies blood
      Creates bile
    • Gallbladder
      Collects, stores, and concentrates bile from liver
    • Pancreas
      Located behind stomach
      Produces insulin
      Enzymes secreted help digest food
      Insulin regulates sugar in blood
    • Intestines
      Small Intestine:
      Duodenum
      Jejunum
      Ileum
      Large Intestine:
      Ascending Colon
      Transverse Colon
      Descending Colon
      Rectum
      Anus
    • Duodenum
      First piece of the small intestine
      Receives secretions from the liver and pancreas
      Most of where chemical digestion takes place
    • Jejunum
      Middle portion of the small intestine
    • Ileum
      Last piece of small intestine
      Rest of nutrients are absorbed and used for the body
    • Ascending Colon
      First portion of large intestine
      Located on the right side of the body
      Extracts remaining moisture from food
    • Transverse Colon
      Connects ascending and descending colon
      Sits horizontally on top of small intestine
    • Descending Colon
      Found on left side of body
      Stores stool
    • Rectum
      Sits above anal canal
      Stores feces before defecation
    • Anus
      External opening of rectum
      Expels fecal matter