Aula 8 21032013 sii-vfinal

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Aula 8 21032013 sii-vfinal

  1. 1. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial1Class 8Business Process ModellingAno 2013Sistemas de Informaçãopara a IndústriaAntónio Grilo, Izunildo CabralProf. Auxiliar FCT-UNL,
  2. 2. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial2Content• What is Business Process?• Examples of Business Process• Why modelling Business Process?• Business Process Modelling Standards (Approaches)• Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN)• BPMN core elements• Description of BPMN core elements• BPMN: types of models/diagrams• Business Process Diagram (example)• Some considerations• References
  3. 3. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial3What is Business ProcessProcess is defined in the dictionary as ―a series of actions, changes, or functionsbringing a result‖ (Mili et al., 2010). There are so many other definitions but inessence all are the same: processes are relationships between inputs andoutputs, where inputs are transformed into outputs using a series ofactivities, which add value to the inputs (Aguilar-Savén, R. S., 2004).Business process is is ―a set of one or more linked procedures or activities whichcollectively realize a business objective or policy goal, normally within the contextof an organizational structure defining functional roles and relationships (WorkflowManagement Coalition, 1999).Business process modelling (BPM) is a group of techniques that allow to modelthe business aspects necessaries for a correct performance and comprehension ofthe business process applications (Fernández et al., 2010). BPM is a flowchart of abusiness process, representing the flows or progression of activities and how theyare linked toward some business goal.
  4. 4. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial4Examples of Business ProcessThere are several types of business process depending on the businessarea which can be classified in marketing, customer service, qualitycontrol, logistic, product design, tourism, etc: Make order Check inventory Prepare invoice Send invoice Select supplier Define production plan Request transportation Generate report Reserve Hotel Cancel Reserve
  5. 5. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial5Why modelling Business Process?Business process modelling is important due to the following reasons: Enable the capturing of existing processes by structurally representing theiractivities and inter-related elements. Facilitate the compression and understanding of organisational or cross-organisational processes. Improve process efficiency (cost and time) and quality by improving thebusiness process (business process reengineering). Allow the description of who performs each task or function, and where in theorganisation (functionally or physically). Provides sequencing and control information about process (maindata/information associated to each process/activity). Identify the systems requirements before their development (alignment of thesystems with the underlying business processes). Enable the identification of the cross-functional/organisational interfaces(interoperability issues).
  6. 6. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial6Business Process Modeling standards/approaches Data Flow Diagram (DFD) System Flowcharts Resource-event-agent (REA) modelling IDEF0/IDEF3 models Extended Event-driven Process Chain Diagrams (EPC) Unified Modelling Language (UML) activity diagrams Business Process Diagram (Business Process Modelling Notation– BPMN) Role Activity Diagrams (RADs)For more detail, see: Carnaghan, Carla (2006). Business process modeling approaches in the context ofprocess level audit risk assessment: An analysis and comparison , International Journal of AccountingInformation Systems, Vol. 7.
  7. 7. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial7Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) The BPMN is a standard notation for capturing and designing businessprocesses in the phases of systems design or systemsredesign, especially at the level of domain analysis. The first goal of BPMN is to provide a standard notation that is easilyunderstandable by business analysts and users (its primary goal ishuman understanding). Provides a set of standard notations (BPMN) elements for modellingbusiness process. Focuses on the dynamic aspects of business process. Allows the creation of end-to-end business process in the form ofBusiness Process Diagram (BPD).
  8. 8. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial8BPMN core elementsSource: Rodriguez et al., 2007
  9. 9. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial9BPMN core elementsSource: http://www.bpmn.org/Samples/Elements/Core_BPMN_Elements.htm - 28-02-2011
  10. 10. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial10Description of the BPMN core elementsEvent – something that ―happens‖ during the execution of a businessprocess and starts, ends, delays, or interrupts the flow. Start (starting point of a BPD) – in a supplier-customer relationship, theprocess can start with the customer contact. Intermediate (occur between a Start event and an End Event, or moreprecisely, between two sequenced processes). End (indicates the end of a BPD) – in a supplier-customerrelationship, the process can end with the order delivery (close order).
  11. 11. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial11Description of the BPMN core elementsActivities – is a work that an organisation (actor) performs via businessprocesses. Task (atomic) – procedure carried out by an actor in order to achievean objective. Is used when the work in the process is not broken downto a finer level of process model detail. Sub-process (non-atomic) – set of activities, gateways, and itssequence flow. Is a compound activity in that it has detail that is definedas a flow of other activities. Process (non atomic, no notation) – is a sequence of activities that aresupported by one or more participants (actors).
  12. 12. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial12Description of the BPMN core elementsSub-processThere are two notation forms for sub-processes: expanded and collapsed.The interior of an expanded sub-process diagrams its detailed flow.Incoming and out-going sequence flow must never be connected with theinternal elements, but only with the boundary of the sub-process.
  13. 13. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial13Description of the BPMN core elementsActivities
  14. 14. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial14Description of the BPMN core elementsCollapsed and Expanded Sub-process
  15. 15. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial15Description of the BPMN core elementsConnecting objectsSequence flow – shows the order of execution of activities within a BPD,from start to end event.Message flow – symbolises the information that is exchanged betweenparticipants (actors). Participants use messages to communicate with oneanother.Association – An association connects a data object with a flow object(activity, gateway, or event), a message flow, or a sequence flow.
  16. 16. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial16Description of the BPMN core elementsMessage flow (some considerations)A message flow is used to show the flow of messages between twoparticipants (pools) that are able to send and receive them.The following connection rules for message flows must be taken intoaccount. Message flows are permitted: Between two separate pools Between pool and flow object Between two flow objects
  17. 17. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial17Description of the BPMN core elementsAssociation(some considerations)Information, such as text annotations and data objects, can be appendedto the model elements to be documented using the association.Associations can be directional or non-directional and are modelled with adotted line:
  18. 18. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial18Description of the BPMN core elementsMessage flow (example)
  19. 19. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial19Description of the BPMN core elementsConnecting objects (some errors)
  20. 20. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial20Description of the BPMN core elementsConnecting objects (some errors) Error 1: Sequence flow between pools is not permitted. Error 2: The direction of the message flow is incorrect. It must lead fromthe throw to the catch event. Error 3: Flow objects must never be on the boundary of a pool or alane. Error 4: Message flows between lanes are not permitted. Error 5: Flow objects must never be on the boundary of a pool or alane.
  21. 21. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial21Description of the BPMN core elementsConnecting message flows
  22. 22. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial22Description of the BPMN core elementsArtifact – is a graphical object that provides supporting information aboutthe process or elements within the process. However, it does not affect theflow of the process.
  23. 23. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial23Description of the BPMN core elementsArtifactsGroup – is a visual mechanism to group elements of a diagram informally.
  24. 24. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial24Description of the BPMN core elementsArtifactsText annotations – are a mechanism for a modeller to provide additionalinformation for the reader of a BPMN diagram.Data object – is a business object that can begenerated, required, changed, or destroyed by an activity. Moreover, adata object can have a specific state.
  25. 25. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial25Description of the BPMN core elementsAssociations vs data objects/ message/sequence flowsDirectional associations between data objects and message or sequenceflows are not permitted. Associations have no direction in sequence ormessage flows.
  26. 26. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial26Description of the BPMN core elementsGateway – depicts the control of divergence and convergence of thesequence flow of the elements in a BPD. Thus, it will determine branching,forking, merging, and joining of paths. Can be parallel (AND), exclusive(XOR), inclusive (OR) or complex. Parallel – splits the sequence flow into two or more parallel flows andjoins the parallel flows again. Exclusive – restricts the sequence flow in such a way that exactly onealternative is selected from a set of alternatives at runtime. Inclusive – sequence flow continues along one or more alternativepathways, depending on branch conditions.
  27. 27. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial27Description of the BPMN core elementsParallel gateway
  28. 28. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial28Description of the BPMN core elementsExclusive gateway
  29. 29. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial29Description of the BPMN core elementsInclusive gateway
  30. 30. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial30Description of the BPMN core elementsComplex gateway
  31. 31. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial31Description of the BPMN core elementsSwimlanes – frequently, different roles, such as customer, organisationunits, or an IT system participate in the handling of a business flow.Swimlanes structure a process according to organisational aspects. Aswimlane is a graphical container for partitioning a set of activities fromother activities. Pool – represents a participant in a process and acts as the containerfor the sequence flow between activities (suppliers, focalfirm, distribution centre, final customers, or a supply chain). Lanes (within a pool) – is a sub-partition within a pool. Lanes are usedto organise and categorize activities (internal organisation units orroles.
  32. 32. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial32Description of the BPMN core elementsPools and lanes (some considerations)Pools can be aligned vertically or horizontally. Every process is alwayslocated in a pool. A pool can contain multiple lanes, but each lane mustalways be completely within a single pool. Lanes can be further subdividedinto more lanes too. All activities are always completely within a pool orwithin a lane.
  33. 33. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial33BPM: types of models/diagrams Private (internal) business processes – internal to an organisation.Source: Mili et al., 2010
  34. 34. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial34BPM: types of models/diagrams Abstract (public) business processes – represents the interactionpoints between a process that is internal to an organisation and theoutside world.Source: Mili et al., 2010
  35. 35. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial35BPM: types of models/diagrams Collaboration (global) business processes – describe the interactionbetween two or more business entities, each of which has its owninternal processes.Source: Mili et al., 2010
  36. 36. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial36Examples of Business Process DiagramSource: Cabral, I. F. 2011
  37. 37. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial37Some considerationsBusiness analysts vs business users- The business analysts are the unique capable of modelling thebusiness process because they are the unique users that know andunderstand the notations because of their technical capability. Onthe other hand some business users can understand the notationbut they are not able to model their own business processes.- Other problem is the impossibility of business analysts to model allaspects of business because they do not have the sufficientknowledge of the business processes to be modelled.
  38. 38. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial38References- Cabral, I. F. (2011). An Information Model for Lean, Agile, Resilient and GreenSupply Chain Management. Master thesis, FCT/UNL- (OMG), O. M. G. (January 2011). Business Process Model and Notation(BPMN) (version 2.0)- Curtis, B., Kellner, M. I., & Over, J. (1992). Process modeling. Communicationsof the ACM. 35(9), 75 - 90- Mili, H., Tremblay, G., Jaoude, G. B., Lefebvre, E., Elabed, L., & El Boussaidi,G. (2010). Business Process Modeling Languages: Sorting Through theAlphabet Soup. [Article]. Acm Computing Surveys, 43(1), 56.- Hammer, M., & Champy, J. (1993). Reengineering the Corporation. New York:Harper Business
  39. 39. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial39References- Rodriguez, A., Fernandez-Medina, E., & Piattini, M. (2007). A BPMN extensionfor the modeling of security requirements in business processes. IeiceTransactions on Information and Systems, E90D(4), 745-752. doi:10.1093/ietisy/e90-d.4.745- Fernández, H. F., Palacios-González, E., García-Díaz, V., Pelayo G-Bustelo, B.C., Sanjuán Martínez, O., & Cueva Lovelle, J. M. (2010). SBPMN — An easierbusiness process modeling notation for business users. Computer Standards &Interfaces, 32(1–2), 18-28. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csi.2009.04.006- http://www.bpmn.org/Samples/Elements/Core_BPMN_Elements.htm - 28-02-2011

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