Aula 9 21032013 sii-v0

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Aula 9 21032013 sii-v0

  1. 1. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial1Class 9UML: Use Case Class Diagram ModellingRelational ModelAno 2013Sistemas de Informaçãopara a IndústriaAntónio Grilo, Izunildo CabralProf. Auxiliar FCT-UNL,
  2. 2. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial2Content• What is UML?• Types of UML diagrams• Use case modelling• Use case diagram- Core elements- Examples• Class diagram (the Entity Relationships, E-R)- Core elements- Examples• References
  3. 3. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial3What is UML?The UML is a language for the visual modelling of software systems. The reasonsfor the wide appliance of the UML to modelling software systems (and non-software too), stand in the fact that the UML is only a rich notation independentfrom the modelling process, which gives possibilities for defining differentapproaches with the use of the language in different manners and for differentpurposes (Brdjanin, Maric, & Ieee, 2007).In UML, five views of a system can be developed: Use case (external user perspective) Logical (internal system design) Component (architectural constituents) Concurrency (describing mechanisms of co-ordination between independentlyprocessing system parts) Deployment (mapping system parts onto a physical architecture)
  4. 4. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial4Types of UML diagramsFrom UML views a series of diagrams are developed. They are: Use case Class Object State Sequence Collaboration Activity Component Deployment
  5. 5. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial5Use case modellingUse case modelling was first presented as part of the Object-OrientedSoftware Engineering (OOSE) methodology for software development(Jacobson et al., 1992, 1995).Use case modelling is a requirement engineering technique that similarlyleads to the identification od system activities, but is driven more by theneeds of the system’s users than those of the system. In use casemodelling, a system is defined by a set of use cases, each describing asystem requirement (transaction or function) (Bustard, He, & Wilkie, 2000).
  6. 6. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial6Use cases and use cases diagramA use case is a description of system usage and represent a very suitabletool for the identification and specification of system requirements. Usecase modelling is concerned with system description in a conceptual way.Use case diagrams show the interaction of the system with externalentities, the so-called actors and describe the functionality of the systemas a black box, without revealing its internal structure (Back, Petre, & Paltor, 1999).
  7. 7. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial7Use cases diagram – core elementsSource: T. A. Pender, 2002
  8. 8. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial8Use cases diagram – core elementsSystem - sets the boundary of the system in relation to the actors who useit (outside the system) and the features it must provide (inside the system)(T. A. Pender, 2002).Actors - Roles adopted by external entities that interact with the systemdirectly (Arlow & Neustadt, 2005). Represent the agents who carry out, or causeto be carried out, the main activities of the system (Bustard, He, & Wilkie, 2000).Use case - identifies a key feature (requirements) of the system (T. A.Pender, 2002).
  9. 9. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial9Use cases diagram – core elementsAssociation - identifies an interaction between actors and Use Cases (T.A.Pender, 2002).Dependency - identifies a communication relationship between two usecases (T. A. Pender, 2002).Generalization - defines a relationship between two actors or two usecases where one use case inherits and adds to or overrides the propertiesof the other (T. A. Pender, 2002).
  10. 10. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial10Use cases diagram – examplesConsider the example of a Car Driver visiting a Shopping Centre:Actors: Car Driver and Shopping Centre Information System (IS).Description of the use case diagram (enter the Car Park): the CarDriver visit the Shopping Centre and attempt to enter in the Park. TheShopping Centre IS will check if space is available, and if so increment thenumber of Cars present, allow the Car Driver to enter, and record the dateand time of entry. If the park is full, the driver wait or drive on.
  11. 11. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial11Use cases diagram – Car Driver example
  12. 12. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial12Use cases diagram – login into a Supply Chain IS
  13. 13. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial13Use cases diagram – search and insert a conferenceSource: António, 2008
  14. 14. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial14Use cases diagram – check suppliers’ inventory level
  15. 15. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial15Use cases diagram – calculate the SC LARG performanceSuper EntityInsert Entity IDIntroduce LARGindicatorsEdit system contentSearch for LARGindicatorsExtract LARGindicatorsData analysisDefine formulaExtract LARGperformanceSystem
  16. 16. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial16Class diagram – the Entity Relationship, E - RClass diagram (overview)Classes represent things; relationships represent the connectionsbetween things (Vidgen, 2003).The class diagram illustrates the structural component of the system andclearly identifies the classes, interfaces and their relationships within thesystem (António, 2008).Besides representing the concepts, the class diagram allows us toestablish the relationships between classes (António, 2008).
  17. 17. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial17Class diagram – core elements and types of relationshipsSource: Haug et al., 2010
  18. 18. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial18Class diagram – class notationSource: T. A. Pender, 2002
  19. 19. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial19Class diagram – relationships descriptionAssotiation - An association is a structural relationship between thingsshowing that one can navigate from the instances of one class to theinstances of another (and possibly vice versa) (Vidgen, 2003).Source: T. A. Pender, 2002
  20. 20. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial20Class diagram – relationships descriptionAggregation – is a special type of association used to indicate that theparticipating objects are not just independent objects that know abouteach other (T. A. Pender, 2002). Represents the association that exists when anobject contains other (António, 2008).Source: T. A. Pender, 2002
  21. 21. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial21Class diagram – relationships descriptionComposition – is a special way of aggregation, with the restriction thatthe objects components belong, in fact, the object compound (António, 2008).Is used for aggregations where the life span of the part depends on the lifespan of the aggregate (T. A. Pender, 2002).Source: T. A. Pender, 2002
  22. 22. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial22Class diagram – aggregation vs compositionSource: T. A. Pender, 2002
  23. 23. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial23Class diagram – relationships descriptionGeneralization – is the process of organizing the properties of a set ofobjects that share the same purpose. Generalization relates classestogether where each class contains a subset of the elements needed todefine a type of object (T. A. Pender, 2002).Source: T. A. Pender, 2002
  24. 24. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial24Class diagram – relationships descriptionDependence – the dependence relationships is used to describesituations in which a class depends on the other (António. 2008).Source: T. A. Pender, 2002
  25. 25. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial25Class diagram – examplesSource: T. A. Pender, 2002
  26. 26. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial26Class diagram – examplesSource: Alsaadi, 2006
  27. 27. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial27References- Cabral, I. F. (2011). An Information Model for Lean, Agile, Resilient and GreenSupply Chain Management. Master thesis, FCT/UNL.- Jacobson, I., Christerson, Jonsson, P., & Overgaard, G. (1992). Object OrientedSoftware Engineering: A Use Case Driven Approach.- Jacobson, I., Ericcson, M., & Jacobson, A. (1995). The Object Advantage:Business Process Re-Engineering With Object Technology.- Bustard, D. W., He, Z., & Wilkie, F. G. (2000). Linking soft systems and use-case modelling through scenarios. Interacting with Computers, 13(1), 97-110.- Brdjanin, D., Maric, S., & Ieee. (2007). An example of use-case-drivenconceptual design of relational database.
  28. 28. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial28References- António, N. R. (2008). Um Processo de Modelação de Sistemas Software comIntegração de Especificações Rigorosas. (PhD), Universidade do Minho.- Pender, T. A. (2002). UML Weekend Crash Course- Arlow, J., & Neustadt, I. (2005). UML 2 and the Unified Process.- Back, R. J., Petre, L., & Paltor, I. R. (1999). Analysing UML use cases ascontracts. In R. France & B. Rumpe (Eds.), Uml99 - the Unified ModelingLanguage - Beyond the Standard (Vol. 1723, pp. 518-533). Berlin: Springer-Verlag Berlin.
  29. 29. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial29References- Vidgen, R. (2003). Requirements analysis and UML - Use cases and classdiagrams. [Article]. Computing & Control Engineering Journal, 14(1), 12-17.- Haug, A., Hvam, L., & Mortensen, N. H. (2010). A layout technique for classdiagrams to be used in product configuration projects. Computers inIndustry, 61(5), 409-418. doi: 10.1016/j.compind.2009.10.002.- Alsaadi, A. (2006). Applying the UML class diagram in the performanceanalysis. In A. Horvath & M. Telek (Eds.), Formal Methods and StochasticModels for Performance Evaluation (Vol. 4054, pp. 148-165). Berlin: Springer-Verlag Berlin.

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