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2012 02-11 ibs nahbrc - changing with the times
 

2012 02-11 ibs nahbrc - changing with the times

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  • Oil fired boilers replaced for safety reasons – changed to baseboard heatingIndividually controlled baseboard electric heaters were installed in each room, except in kitchens and bathrooms where ceiling fan-coil heaters with wall-thermostats were installed; Upgraded electrical and installed individual meters for each unitFifty-two (52) gallon electric water heaters were installed for use in every home;Insulation was added in attics, crawl spaces and exterior walls of vinyl-sided frame homes; in attics and crawl spaces of brick homes and in crawl spaces of block homes.Original steel-frame casement windows were replaced with vinyl or aluminum double-glazed window units.
  • BackgroundGoals: Health & safety Comfort Increased IEQ Durability Affordability Lower utility bills Maintenance
  • Collaboration of GHI, NAHBRC, & NREL
  • Collaboration of GHI, NAHBRC, & NREL
  • Recording house and window dimensions (including additions),Determining insulation levels in the walls, ceilings, and foundations,Documenting equipment and appliance models,Noting locations of baseboard heaters,Calculating capacity of heating and cooling equipmentDetermining the hot water system configuration
  • The Research Center performed short-term testing in conjunction with the walk-through evaluations. This testing included performing a blower door test for each unit (hot water temperatures and fixture flow rates were also measured). Multi-point house depressurization measurements provided total air leakage (which would include leakage to adjacent units) and leakage to the outdoors. Leakage to outdoors was determined by simultaneously running blower doors in adjacent units. Significant air leakage was consistently noticed at the attic access panels, around through-wall and through-window air conditioners, doors, mail slots, and windows, particularly the windows that were unlatched due to malfunction. Frame houses all had significant leakage through the floor at electrical and plumbing penetrations, particularly at the water heater closet. A duct blaster test was performed on the one unit with a ducted system. The air flow of the bath exhaust fans was measured using a flow hood. The actual air leakage measurements were used in simulation models for specific units.
  • The Research Center performed short-term testing in conjunction with the walk-through evaluations. This testing included performing a blower door test for each unit (hot water temperatures and fixture flow rates were also measured). Multi-point house depressurization measurements provided total air leakage (which would include leakage to adjacent units) and leakage to the outdoors. Leakage to outdoors was determined by simultaneously running blower doors in adjacent units. Significant air leakage was consistently noticed at the attic access panels, around through-wall and through-window air conditioners, doors, mail slots, and windows, particularly the windows that were unlatched due to malfunction. Frame houses all had significant leakage through the floor at electrical and plumbing penetrations, particularly at the water heater closet. A duct blaster test was performed on the one unit with a ducted system. The air flow of the bath exhaust fans was measured using a flow hood. The actual air leakage measurements were used in simulation models for specific units.
  • Plus visual inspection & utility bills
  • Energy Simulation Optimization
  • Energy Simulation Optimization
  • Features that are not directly responsible for increased energy efficiency were added to the estimated cost analysis to enhance building durability and/or indoor air quality. These are: Mechanical ventilation and controls to provide point source and whole house air exchange; andRemediate crawlspaces to improve insulation performance and indoor air quality through minimizing moisture entrance to the home through the crawlspace
  •  While it is admittedly tidy and perhaps overly-simplistic, the majority of the building envelope improvements recommended have been assigned useful life spans of 30 years. The life span coincides with the estimated life of the assumed mortgage (if used to purchase the upgrades). GHI reserve estimates have placed various life spans from 35 to 40 years (vinyl siding on smaller frame homes and windows) to 85 years (exterior doors) on these building elements. Because they are each integral components of the building system, replacement should be planned to occur at the same time to protect the integrity of the buildings. For internal reporting and reserve calculations, the useful lives can be adapted to reflect the experience of GHI and warranty periods offered by the manufacturers whose products are selected for the pilot study.
  • Exterior Wall Insulation2” thickness (extruded polystyrene, XPS, or polyisocyanurate) or 3” expanded polystyrene or polyisocyanurate materialThe masonry block and masonry brick frame crawlspace foundations extend continuously around the buildings encompassing the front and rear porch slabs, as well as the conditioned spaces. Where these do not have an addition (conditioned space) above, two inches of closed cell SPF, R-12, should be applied to the bottom of the slab, accessible from the crawlspace. Unconditioned porch slabs average roughly 400 square feet per building.
  • Attic insulation currently is about R-16
  • For this building type, it is recommended that the existing siding be removed and a weather resistant barrier (WRB) is installed over the wood sheathing and sealed. One inch thickness of rigid foam, R-5 to R-7, installed beneath the horizontal vinyl siding that is scheduled for replacement between 2015 and 2023, is also recommended to compensate for the blown-in cavity insulation which may have settled in the wall. The WRB or the foam should be installed and taped to provide an air barrier over the exterior sheathing which consists of 1”x6”/1”x8” boards.
  • Integrating needs & values
  • Homeowner mindset - better conditions them to understand the value of making energy efficient upgrades beyond the scope of their remodeling project.

2012 02-11 ibs nahbrc - changing with the times 2012 02-11 ibs nahbrc - changing with the times Presentation Transcript

  • Changing with the Times: Major Improvements to the Energy Efficiency of an Aging Residential Community Amber Wood Manager, Energy Programs International Builders’ Show February 11, 2012Driving Innovation in Housing Technology
  • Building America Private/public R&D partnership sponsored by DOE Energy-efficient solutions for new and existing housing  Technologies/Systems  Whole-House Test Homes  Quality Processes
  • Presentation Topics Greenbelt Homes (GHI) pilot project GHI Crawlspace Scope of Work (SOW) Needs & motivations for adding energy efficiency to remodeling 3
  • Greenbelt Homes, Inc. Privately-owned co-op 1,600 units 4 units/building Courtesy of www.greenbelt.com 1930’s-40’s Roosevelt work- force housing
  • 5Courtesy of www.greenbelt.com
  • 6Courtesy of www.greenbelt.com
  • 1970’s Energy Upgrade Insulation  Install 52 gal electric  Attic water heaters  Crawlspaces  Upgrade electrical  Exterior walls Replace steel frame windows Remove oil-fired boilers Install electric baseboard 7
  • GHI Pilot Program Community  Goals: Upgrade in 2015  Health & safety  Comfort 7 buildings, 28  Increased IEQ units  Durability  3 block  2 frame  Affordability  2 brick
  • Why?Motivations for pilot program: Lower utility bills Comfort Lower life-cycle costs  Maintenance & replacement Photo by Doriann Asch courtesy of www.greenbelthomes.net
  • Pilot Program Baseline Monitoring (underway)  Pre-Retrofit baseline  Install Monitoring Equipment  Air infiltration  Temperature/Humidity/Energy Use  Humidity
  • Pilot Program Building Envelope Upgrades  Retrofit building envelopes  Monitor envelope upgrade HVAC Upgrades  Retrofit HVAC  Monitor upgrade package
  • Pilot House Assessment Walk-Through Evaluation  Visual Inspection  Homeowner Operation  Utility Bills Short-term Testing 12 Photo by Celestine Ranney-Howes courtesy of www.greenbelthomes.net
  • Walk-Through Evaluation Dimensions Insulation  Walls, ceilings, and foundations, Baseboard heaters  Locations , calculating capacity Hot water system Appliances 13
  • 14
  • Construction Total No. of General Conditions Type Units Frame Built in 1941-42, unit sizes range from 574 to 928 sq ft. and 992 Vinyl-Sided consist of the following features: (140 of • Common ventilated crawl space of 8” CMU block, 4 ½ these are courses high (3’) apartments) • 2x8-16”o.c. floor joists with mid-span dropped beam 3- 2x10” on CMU piers • R-11 kraft-faced fiberglass batt insulation in floor joists (1980) • Balloon-framed 2x4-16”o.c walls • Blown-in cellulose insulation in walls (1980) • Board wall and roof sheathing (1x6/1x8) • Double glazed vinyl or aluminum windows (1980) • Vinyl siding, no WRB • Gable roof with asphalt shingles • Ventilated attic • Attics are insulated with rock wool, blown-in cellulose, and fiberglass batt floor insulation (1980 to present) 15
  • Construction Total No. General Conditions Type of Units Frame Built in 1935-38, unit sizes range from 555 to 1,577 sq ft. and 318Brick-Veneer consist of the following features: • Formed concrete crawl space foundations, with structural concrete first floors over common crawl spaces • Crawl spaces are 4’ and retrofitted as closed crawlspaces with 1” to 2” of rigid extruded polystyrene foam applied to the perimeter walls • Crawl space walls extend under front and rear porch slabs (many exposed to ambient conditions) • Structural concrete first floor • Main house and porch slabs lack thermal breaks • Balloon- framed 2x4-16”o.c. walls with plasterboard interior finish • Blown-in cellulose/rock wool insulation in walls (1980) • Board wall and roof sheathing (1x6/1x8) • Exterior brick veneer, no WRB • Double glazed vinyl windows (1980) • Gable roofs with slate shingles • Ventilated attic with rock wool, blown-in cellulose, and fiberglass batt floor insulation (1980 to current) 16
  • Construction Total No. General Conditions Type of Units Block - Built in 1935-38, unit sizes range from 555 to 1,577 sq ft. and 256 8” CMU consist of the following features: • Formed concrete crawl space foundations, with structural concrete first floors over common crawl spaces • Crawl spaces are 4’ and retrofitted as closed crawlspaces with 1” to 2” of rigid extruded polystyrene foam applied to the perimeter walls • Crawl space walls extend under front and rear porch slabs (many exposed to ambient conditions) • Structural concrete floors (1st and 2nd levels) • Main house and porch slabs lack thermal breaks • CMU walls, finished with plaster • Some interior common walls are wood-framed (where party walls breach the adjacent units’ footprint). • Double glazed vinyl windows (1980) • Exterior walls are painted (B) or have vinyl siding attached (BV) • Flat concrete roofs retrofitted with 3 ½” of polyisocianurate insulating tapered sheathing and EPDM roofing 17
  • Baseline Short-term Testing Blower door test Courtesy of www. energyconservatory.com  Multi-point house depressurization Multiple blower doors  Simultaneous testing in adjacent units 18
  • Baseline Short-term Testing Significant air leakage  Attic access panels  Air conditioners  Penetrations (doors, mail slots, windows, electrical, plumbing) 19
  • Pre-Remodel Assessment Summary
  • Simulation Parameters 13 of the 28 homes  Frame w/Brick Painted block  End & inside units  End & inside units  Frame w/Vinyl Block w/ Vinyl  End & inside units  End & inside units  End, front addition  End & inside units w/  End, side addition w/ large basement glass area  End, full rear addition  Inside, full rear addition 21 Artwork by Isabelle Gournay courtesy of www.greenbelthomes.net
  • Beopt Energy Simulation Optimizations All electric  Source savings = electricity savings Annualized cost of the upgrades + utility costs  30 years at 7% Block unit example: 22
  • Energy Simulation Optimization Block unit example Costs & savings comparison 23
  • Installation Costs for Building Envelope Improvements  Evaluated on a per-building basis  Do not include remediation associated with environmental hazards (such as lead paint, radon, or asbestos)  Costs are exclusive of management fees 24
  • 25
  • Durability & IAQ Mechanical ventilation Crawlspace moisture management 26
  • GHI Reserve Funds
  • Cost Analysis 28
  • Masonry Block Building Recommendations Exterior Wall  Crawlspace Wall Insulation Insulation Repair  R-12 (2”-3”)  Continuous R-10  Finishing  Porch Slab  Siding Insulation  Ext insulation finish system (EIFS) Installation  R-12 (2” closed cell Window spray foam)  U=0.30 &SHGC=0.30 Exterior Door  U-value ≤ 0.23 29
  • Frame w/Brick Building Recommendations Attic Sealing &  Crawlspace Wall Insulation Insulation Repair  R-38  Continuous R-10  Storage?  Porch Slab  Create space using Insulation 2” rigid foam and OSB Installation Window  R-12 (2” closed cell spray foam)  U=0.30 &SHGC=0.30 Exterior Door  U-value ≤ 0.23 30 Photo courtesy of www.greenbelthomes.net
  • Frame w/Vinyl Building Recommendations Exterior Wall  Window Insulation  U=0.30  Taped WRB &SHGC=0.30  R-5 (1” rigid foam)  Exterior Door  Replace siding  U-value ≤ 0.23 Attic Sealing &  Crawlspace Wall Insulation Insulation Repair  R-38  R-19 (3” closed cell  Storage? spray foam) 31
  • Energy & Performance Monitoring Indoor air temperature and relative humidity in multiple locations; Crawlspace and outdoor temperature and relative humidity; Heating energy use (where feasible); Hot water energy use; Dryer energy use (if applicable); and Total electric energy use. 32 Photo courtesy of www.greenbelthomes.net
  • Parameter of Test Method Purpose InterestWhole House Energy transducer and Record whole house electricity useElectric Energy recording devices Develop use profile for winter monthsUse Integrate energy use data with general weather data Provide comparison with energy simulation resultsSpace and Water Energy transducers and Proportion heating energy use as a fraction of totalHeating and recording devices energy useDryer Energy Summarize total internal heating energy andUse major loadsIndoor Temperature/Relative Provide indoor conditions for energy analysisEnvironment Humidity sensors – 3 to 4 Assess interior moisture loading/dilution devices per unit, located 1st Support ventilation option development and control and 2nd floors Assess range of indoor temperature settingsFoundation Temperature/humidity Provide crawl space foundation conditions forEnvironment loggers, at least 2 sensors in energy analysis crawl space Assess potential moisture issues Compare with air sealing/ventilation/insulation options in pilot renovation plan 33
  • 34
  • Long-term Monitoring 35
  • Energy Use Analysis 36
  • Retrofit Solutions forEnhancing Energy Efficiency  Energy Savings: Household to National  Comfort: Temperature swings to consistency  Moisture: Reduce potential problems  Indoor Air: Controlled ventilation  Technology: Options and performance  Installation: Contractor training/QA  Cost: Installation/operation/savings  Value: Demonstrate values at sale
  • GHI Crawlspace Scope of Work (SOW) 38
  • HPH Quality Management Systems  Concrete slabs and vinyl siding wall updates with CAD details  Crawlspace research & scopes outline  Quality management section update of ToolBase
  • QA Strategy Inspection/ assessment Design, specification, planning Work execution Completion inspection/ assessment 40
  • Pre-Design Assessment (PDA) 41
  • PDA (cont.) 42
  • 43
  • Crawlspace Scope of Work (SOW) Vented or Unvented Correct existing issues Address moisture Air sealing Insulation 44
  • Detailed SOW A. Correct exterior moisture and thermal conditions B. Remove wet products and debris from the interior C. Repair structural damage D. Repair/install interior foundation drain system E. Correct interior floor moisture conditions F. Correct interior wall moisture G. Remove mold and replace rotten wood H. Repair/install ground vapor barrier I. Correct structural defects – i.e. load path tie-down hardware J. Repair/replace HVAC, pipes, ducts, and equipment within crawlspace K. Seal interior thermal boundaries L. Insulate floor system and air seal assembly (ventilated crawlspace) M. Insulate crawlspace wall (closed crawlspace) 45
  • GHI Crawlspace SOW 46
  • 47
  • 48
  • 49
  • 50
  • Existing Home SOW  Emphasis on existing conditions  Create complete bid package  More accurate costing  Set expectations 51
  • Needs & Motivations ofRemodelers for Adding Energy Efficiency 52
  • Needs & Motivations of Remodelers Current remodeling industry Role of energy efficiency Identify the gaps and barriers Quantify and prioritize needs to increase sales & projects involving improving home energy efficiency 53
  • Remodelers’ View of CurrentIndustry & Energy Efficiency(initial set of focus groups) 54
  • Current Remodeling Industry  The economic climate has shifted greater to focus to remodeling  More consumers are staying in their homes  Many builders are turning to remodeling work  Competitive, price sensitive market due to  Lending restrictions  Lack of appraisal value on energy efficient upgrades  Flood of individuals into the remodeling arena 55
  • Current Industry (cont.) Qualified remodelers strive to differentiate themselves  Convey to the consumer the value of an experienced, qualified remodeler  Position the remodeler as the expert & serve to build trust and confidence among consumers 56
  • “This is the way we build”Believe energy efficient upgrades are part of “doing things the right way”;incorporate as part of their business modelHave certain upgrades that include as standard part of process, if warrantedApproach as “this is what we’re going to do” then educate consumer as towhy they do it “My responsibility to recommend”Believe energy efficient upgrades are in customer’s best interest and activelyseek opportunities to recommend upgradesSeek to guide consumers as to benefits; try to drive them toward itMay recommend upfront, but most often wait until have gotten a feel for thehouse and customer “We’ll offer as an option”Intellectually know it should be recommended, but don’t have strength ofconvictionView more as a consumer driven decision; give them information then let themdecideAnticipate consumer bottom line focus 57
  • Role of Energy Efficiency in Remodeling Provide a cost/benefit analysis for energy efficient upgrades  Include an energy audit assessing energy consumption & lifestyle  Demonstrate potential savings for various upgrades; connect the dots in terms of upgrades and real world benefits. 58
  • Best Approach to Energy Efficiency Knowledgeable recommendation with the consumer’s best interest in mind Sales attempt with the remodeler’s/builder’s financial interest in mind. 59
  • Remodelers’ Gaps & Barriers to Adding Energy Efficiency into Remodeling (2nd set of focus groups) 60
  • Gaps & Barriers to Adding Energy Efficiency See growth potential for energy efficient upgrades Long-term success is dependent on upgrades becoming market driven.  Need incentives based on improved home performance (not specific products)  Shifting homeowner mindsets to “performance” of the home 61
  • Challenges . . . Perceived value in doing energy efficient upgrades Costs  Auditing/testing  Limited homeowner resources  Energy savings vs. upgrade investment  Energy efficient improvements do not add appraisal value 62
  • Reasons to Invest in Energy Upgrades Motivators Include:  Reducing monthly energy bills  Having more predictable energy bills  Increased comfort  Improving indoor air quality  Environment, conservation, and/or green Helping homeowners to connect the dots between a problem and solutions is necessary for buy in 63
  • Selling vs. Solutions for Remodelers Educational information regarding energy inefficiency can create awareness  Did you know that you could be paying more than you should be in monthly energy costs because of leaky ducts, drafts, outdated heating & cooling systems or insufficient insulation? 64
  • Growing Energy Upgrades  Nationwide existing home performance scores  Establishing appraisal value for energy efficient upgrades  Realtor education as to value energy efficient upgrades bring, and how to sell the features  Points off mortgage interest for energy efficient upgrades 65
  • Tools Needed Informational/educational resources  Shift consumer thinking to home performance  Increase understanding of problems  Understand benefits of various types of upgrades  Website, DVD, printed materials 66
  • Tools Needed (cont.) Consumer campaign Free/low cost energy audits for homeowners Key questions to ask in order to identify opportunities Means of quantifying impact of energy efficient upgrades Connecting remodelers with energy auditors to develop referral network 67
  • Remodelers’ Needs forImproving Home Energy Efficiency (quantitative marketresearch based on focus groups) 68
  • Prioritize the Support Needs Quantitative market research with remodelers. Build upon the qualitative remodeler focus groups, Quantify and prioritize the support needs  Increase sales and projects involving improving home energy efficiency 69
  •  What percentage of your recent clients fit into the following groups when it comes to accepting energy efficient upgrades? % Clients in Following Groups Mean Bottom line focused - will not spend any more 40% than they have to. Can be convinced - may or may not think about 39% energy efficiency, but are open to the upgrades once they understand the benefits. Embraces, or actively seeks, energy efficiency. 21% Total 100% 70
  •  When working with clients, which of the following statements most closely describes your company’s approach to energy efficient upgrades? Company Approach to Energy Efficient Upgrades Freq. We do not try to sell or offer energy efficient 6% upgrades unless they are specifically asked for by the client. We offer or recommend it when the energy 51% efficient upgrade is cost effective and is directly related to the home improvement project. We believe energy efficient upgrades are part of 43% “doing it the right way” and incorporate this into as many remodeling jobs as possible. Total 100% 71
  •  What is the relative importance of all of the issues?Priority Issues sorted by Importance to Remodelers 1 Appraisal values factor into what type of remodels clients are willing to undertake, and energy efficiency is difficult to value. 2 Clients are typically unable to discern between high quality and low quality construction at the bidding phase. Often they select the lowest cost bidder. This makes selling upgraded energy efficiency difficult. 3 Realtors, who are in contact with homeowners as they buy/sell homes, aren’t able to describe the value of energy efficiency. 4 There is no standard way to compare a home’s energy efficiency when buying or selling an existing home. 5 Homeowners want to see tangible differences, often focusing on aesthetics or functionality, which makes energy efficiency a difficult sell. 72
  •  What is the relative importance of all of the issues?Priority Issues sorted by Importance to Remodelers 6 One popular way to determine airtighness, a blower door test, is expensive and most clients are not willing to pay for just an evaluation. 7 Homeowners see energy efficiency upgrade costs as an expense and not an investment. 8 Clients don’t understand the value of energy efficiency. They place little value on it. If consumers don’t see a problem, then they won’t purchase the solution. 9 There is little real demand for energy efficiency. Homeowners are just following the money for rebates. 10 No coordinated efforts between the federal government, state government, and utilities when it comes to offering, applying for, and complying with energy efficiency incentive programs. 73
  • Next Steps Outline potential solutions Determine homeowners gaps & needs 74
  • Resources Building America  www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/building_america Builders Challenge  Program: www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/challenge NAHB Research Center  Main Website: www.nahbrc.com  Technical Info: www.toolbase.org
  • Questions? 76
  • Thank You! Amber Wood NAHB Research Center Manager, Energy Programs 400 Prince George’s Blvd  Upper Marlboro, MD 20774 (direct) 301.430.6309  (fax) 301.430.6180 www.nahbrc.comDriving Innovation in Housing Technology