Biodiversity draft8
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  • Regional:vegetation, soils, and topography are used to infer the regional climate and to identify geographic areas that have relatively uniform climate. These geographic areas are termed biogeoclimatic units.Local: segments of the landscape are classified into site units that have relatively uniform vegetation, soils, and topography. Several site units are distributed within each biogeoclimatic unit, according to differences in topography, soils, and vegetation.Chronological: ecosystems are classified and organized according to site-specific chronosequences. To do this, the vegetation units recognized for a particular site unit are arranged according to site history and successional status.
  • Regional:vegetation, soils, and topography are used to infer the regional climate and to identify geographic areas that have relatively uniform climate. These geographic areas are termed biogeoclimatic units.Local: segments of the landscape are classified into site units that have relatively uniform vegetation, soils, and topography. Several site units are distributed within each biogeoclimatic unit, according to differences in topography, soils, and vegetation.Chronological: ecosystems are classified and organized according to site-specific chronosequences. To do this, the vegetation units recognized for a particular site unit are arranged according to site history and successional status.
  • Regional:vegetation, soils, and topography are used to infer the regional climate and to identify geographic areas that have relatively uniform climate. These geographic areas are termed biogeoclimatic units.Local: segments of the landscape are classified into site units that have relatively uniform vegetation, soils, and topography. Several site units are distributed within each biogeoclimatic unit, according to differences in topography, soils, and vegetation.Chronological: ecosystems are classified and organized according to site-specific chronosequences. To do this, the vegetation units recognized for a particular site unit are arranged according to site history and successional status.
  • Landscape-unit planning in British Columbia presently emphasizes biodiversity management. With the focus on retaining old-growth forest and on maintaining stand structure through wildlife tree retention (priority biodiversity planning), forest managers are presented with the challenge of establishing old-growth management areas as the most important component in conserving biological diversity.
  • Landscape-unit planning in British Columbia presently emphasizes biodiversity management. With the focus on retaining old-growth forest and on maintaining stand structure through wildlife tree retention (priority biodiversity planning), forest managers are presented with the challenge of establishing old-growth management areas as the most important component in conserving biological diversity.
  • Landscape-unit planning in British Columbia presently emphasizes biodiversity management. With the focus on retaining old-growth forest and on maintaining stand structure through wildlife tree retention (priority biodiversity planning), forest managers are presented with the challenge of establishing old-growth management areas as the most important component in conserving biological diversity.
  • Landscape-unit planning in British Columbia presently emphasizes biodiversity management. With the focus on retaining old-growth forest and on maintaining stand structure through wildlife tree retention (priority biodiversity planning), forest managers are presented with the challenge of establishing old-growth management areas as the most important component in conserving biological diversity.
  • Landscape-unit planning in British Columbia presently emphasizes biodiversity management. With the focus on retaining old-growth forest and on maintaining stand structure through wildlife tree retention (priority biodiversity planning), forest managers are presented with the challenge of establishing old-growth management areas as the most important component in conserving biological diversity.
  • Landscape-unit planning in British Columbia presently emphasizes biodiversity management. With the focus on retaining old-growth forest and on maintaining stand structure through wildlife tree retention (priority biodiversity planning), forest managers are presented with the challenge of establishing old-growth management areas as the most important component in conserving biological diversity.
  • Landscape-unit planning in British Columbia presently emphasizes biodiversity management. With the focus on retaining old-growth forest and on maintaining stand structure through wildlife tree retention (priority biodiversity planning), forest managers are presented with the challenge of establishing old-growth management areas as the most important component in conserving biological diversity.
  • Landscape-unit planning in British Columbia presently emphasizes biodiversity management. With the focus on retaining old-growth forest and on maintaining stand structure through wildlife tree retention (priority biodiversity planning), forest managers are presented with the challenge of establishing old-growth management areas as the most important component in conserving biological diversity.
  • Landscape-unit planning in British Columbia presently emphasizes biodiversity management. With the focus on retaining old-growth forest and on maintaining stand structure through wildlife tree retention (priority biodiversity planning), forest managers are presented with the challenge of establishing old-growth management areas as the most important component in conserving biological diversity.
  • Landscape-unit planning in British Columbia presently emphasizes biodiversity management. With the focus on retaining old-growth forest and on maintaining stand structure through wildlife tree retention (priority biodiversity planning), forest managers are presented with the challenge of establishing old-growth management areas as the most important component in conserving biological diversity.
  • Landscape-unit planning in British Columbia presently emphasizes biodiversity management. With the focus on retaining old-growth forest and on maintaining stand structure through wildlife tree retention (priority biodiversity planning), forest managers are presented with the challenge of establishing old-growth management areas as the most important component in conserving biological diversity.
  • Landscape-unit planning in British Columbia presently emphasizes biodiversity management. With the focus on retaining old-growth forest and on maintaining stand structure through wildlife tree retention (priority biodiversity planning), forest managers are presented with the challenge of establishing old-growth management areas as the most important component in conserving biological diversity.
  • Landscape-unit planning in British Columbia presently emphasizes biodiversity management. With the focus on retaining old-growth forest and on maintaining stand structure through wildlife tree retention (priority biodiversity planning), forest managers are presented with the challenge of establishing old-growth management areas as the most important component in conserving biological diversity.
  • Landscape-unit planning in British Columbia presently emphasizes biodiversity management. With the focus on retaining old-growth forest and on maintaining stand structure through wildlife tree retention (priority biodiversity planning), forest managers are presented with the challenge of establishing old-growth management areas as the most important component in conserving biological diversity.
  • Landscape-unit planning in British Columbia presently emphasizes biodiversity management. With the focus on retaining old-growth forest and on maintaining stand structure through wildlife tree retention (priority biodiversity planning), forest managers are presented with the challenge of establishing old-growth management areas as the most important component in conserving biological diversity.
  • Landscape-unit planning in British Columbia presently emphasizes biodiversity management. With the focus on retaining old-growth forest and on maintaining stand structure through wildlife tree retention (priority biodiversity planning), forest managers are presented with the challenge of establishing old-growth management areas as the most important component in conserving biological diversity.
  • Landscape-unit planning in British Columbia presently emphasizes biodiversity management. With the focus on retaining old-growth forest and on maintaining stand structure through wildlife tree retention (priority biodiversity planning), forest managers are presented with the challenge of establishing old-growth management areas as the most important component in conserving biological diversity.
  • Regional:vegetation, soils, and topography are used to infer the regional climate and to identify geographic areas that have relatively uniform climate. These geographic areas are termed biogeoclimatic units.Local: segments of the landscape are classified into site units that have relatively uniform vegetation, soils, and topography. Several site units are distributed within each biogeoclimatic unit, according to differences in topography, soils, and vegetation.Chronological: ecosystems are classified and organized according to site-specific chronosequences. To do this, the vegetation units recognized for a particular site unit are arranged according to site history and successional status.

Biodiversity draft8 Biodiversity draft8 Presentation Transcript

  • Sunshine Coast Conservation AssociationUnderstanding Biodiversity in Coastal Forested LandscapesSunshine Coast Forest District
  • Introduction  Sunshine Coast Forest District  Biogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classification System  Landscape Units  Forest Cover  Areas at High Risk of Species Extinction  Fisheries Significant Watersheds  Critical Habitat  Conservation Priorities for Protecting Biological Diversity
  • Sunshine Coast Forest District Geographic Landscape Strathcona RD Political Landscape  Town of Gibsons  District of Sechelt  Sechelt Indian Government District  Sunshine Coast Regional Powell River District SCRD  Powell River Regional Sechelt District Gibsons West Vancouver
  • Biogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classification System BEC Classification System  www.for.gov.bc.ca/hre/becweb/  Organizes ecosystems at 3 levels of integration  VEGETATION Classification 1. Regional  CLIMATIC (Zonal) Classification 2. Local 3. Chronological  SITE Classification  Framework for  SERAL Classification integrated resource management  Naming BEC Units
  • BEC Zones of BCBiogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classification System
  • BEC Zones of the SCFDBiogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classification System
  • BEC Subzones of the SCFDBiogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classification System
  •  CDF Zone PhotographsCoastal Douglas Fir ZoneBiogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classification System
  •  CDF mm-02  Sea-side forest  Very dry forest that supports Douglas Fir, Arbutus and Shore Pine Coastal Douglas Fir Zone Biogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classification System
  •  CDF mm-02  Extremely Dry Coastal Douglas Fir Zone Biogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classification System
  •  CDF  Fairy Slipper (Calypso Bulbosa) CDF mm-02  Extremely Dry Coastal Douglas Fir Zone Biogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classification System
  •  CDF  Douglas Fir Trees in a dune forest on Savary IslandCoastal Douglas Fir ZoneBiogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classification System
  •  Coastal Western Hemlock very dry maritime zonal site 01 (CWHxm-01) The ‘average’ site of this zone  Douglas Fir appears as the pioneer species with Western Red Cedar and Western Hemlock in the understory Coastal Western Hemlock Zone Biogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classification System
  •  CWH very dry maritime zone 12 – Very Wet  These sites feature ephemeral ponds, fluctuating water tables, skunk cabbage and a component of Sitka Spruce (shown).  Skunk Cabbage Coastal Western Hemlock Zone Biogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classification System
  •  Mature Yellow Cedar  Amabilus Fir Mountain Hemlock Zone Biogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classification System
  •  New seedlings of Mountain Hemlock Mountain Hemlock trees and forest floor Mountain Hemlock Zone Biogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classification System
  •  MHmm-08/09 Wetter site types in the Mountain Hemlock (MH) Zone. Almost everything in the MH that is flat is wet with a fluctuating water table. This giant ‘sponge’ holds water year round, slowly releasing it to the forests below. Mountain Hemlock Zone Biogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classification System
  • Edatopic Grids | Biogeoclimatic Ecosystems  Grid No. 16 CWHxm  Grid No.  Grid No.  Grid No.  Grid No.  Grid No.  Grid No.
  • Homathco Bute Southgate Bishop West Bute East Toba Brem Quatam Powell Daniels Skwawka Cortes Powell Lake Brittain Bunster Jervis Lois Salmon Sechelt Howe ChapmanLandscape Units in the SCFDPriority Biodiversity Planning
  •  Photo taken from the Lois Landscape Unit showing the ferry approaching Saltery Bay Haslam Landscape Unit Lois Landscape Unit Landscape Units in the SCFD Coastal Western Hemlock Forest Zone
  •  View from Tin Hat Mountain on the Sunshine Coast Trail Mount Troubridge Lois Lake Horseshoe Lake Nanton Lake Haslam Lake Lewis Lake Haslam Landscape Unit is on the right Lois Landscape Unit is in on the left Georgia Strait is in the background Landscape Units in the SCFD Coastal Western Hemlock Forest Zone
  •  the picture is taken from within the Homathko Landscape Unit (LU) the lands and mountains on the right side are the Bute West LU the lands and mountains on the left are primarily the Bute East LU the near valley on the lower left side is the Southgate River valley and is in the Southgate LU. Homathko River Landscape Units in the SCFD Coastal Western Hemlock Forest Zone
  •  Tetrahedron Peak as seen from Mt. Steel in the Chapman Landscape Unit Howe Landscape Unit is behind the peak and in the right hand side of the photo Salmon Landscape Unit is in the left hand side of the photo Landscape Units in the SCFD Coastal Western Hemlock Forest Zone
  •  Tzoonie Watershed and the head of Narrows Inlet Landscape Units in the SCFD Coastal Western Hemlock Forest Zone
  •  Mouth of Jervis Inlet with the Jervis Landscape Unit on the right hand side Landscape Units in the SCFD Coastal Western Hemlock Forest Zone
  • Homathco Bute Southgate Bishop West Bute East Toba Brem Quatam Powell Daniels Skwawka Cortes Powell Lake Brittain Bunster Jervis Lois Salmon Sechelt Howe ChapmanBEC Subzones by Landscape UnitPriority Biodiversity Planning
  • Priority Landscape Units Landscape Units  Sechelt LU  Chapman LU Toba  Toba LU Classifications  BEC Subzones Sechelt  Forestry Age Class Chapman
  • BEC SubzonesChapman Landscape Unit
  • BEC SubzonesSechelt Landscape Unit
  • BEC SubzonesToba Landscape Unit
  • Forestry Age ClassesSunshine Coast Forest District
  • Forestry Age ClassesSechelt Landscape Unit
  • Forestry Age ClassesChapman Landscape Unit
  • Forestry Age ClassesToba Landscape Unit
  • Old Growth Management AreasOGMA Old GrowthAreas which contain, or  All Coast region forests more thanare managed to replace, 250 years old.specific structural old-growth attributes and that  A forest that contains live andare identified and treated dead trees of various sizes,as special management species, composition and ageareas. class structure.  A slowly changing but dynamic ecosystem, includes climax forests but not sub-climax or mid-seral forests.
  • Old Growth Management Areas  Structural FeaturesOGMA  large trees for the species and siteAreas which contain, or  wide variation in tree sizes andare managed to replace, spacingspecific structural old-  accumulations of large deadgrowth attributes and that standing and fallen treesare identified and treated  multiple canopy layersas special management  canopy gaps and understoryareas. patchiness  elements of decay - broken or deformed tops or trunks and root decay  the presence of species characteristic of old growth
  • Powell Daniels Skwawka Powell Lake Bunster Lois Sechelt ChapmanOld Growth Management AreasSunshine Coast Forest District
  • Fisheries Significant Watersheds  Large Watersheds  Smaller, Regional Watersheds 1. Anderson Creek 1. Brem River 2. Brittain River 2. Angus Creek 3. Chapman Creek 3. Carlson Creek 4. Deserted River 5. Homathko 4. Chaster Creek 6. Hunaechin Creek 5. Dakota Creek 7. Lang River 6. Daniels Creek 8. Lois River 9. Orford River 7. Myrtle Creek 10. Potato Creek 8. Ouillet Creek 11. Sakinaw Lake 9. Potato Creek 12. Skwawka River 13. Southgate 10. Twin Creeks 14. Theodosia River 11. Whitail Creek 15. Toba River 12. Wilson Creek 16. Tzoonie River 17. Vancouver River
  • 1. Brem River 2. Brittain River 3. Chapman Creek 4. Deserted River 5. Homathko 6. Hunaechin Creek 7. Lang River 8. Lois River 9. Orford River 10. Potato Creek 11. Sakinaw Lake 12. Skwawka River 13. Southgate 14. Theodosia River 15. Toba River 16. Tzoonie River 17. Vancouver RiverLarge Fisheries Significant WatershedsSunshine Coast Forest District
  • BREM RIVER SUMMARY The Brem River historically had peak annual escapements of 10,000 Coho (1970), 35,000 Pinks, 7,500 Chum, 2,000 Chinook (1970) and 3,500 Steelhead. It was described as a very stable river and an excellent producer of Coho, Pinks and Steelhead in 1959. Within a few years, the effects of logging were noted: in 1965, half the redds were lost due to unstable discharge; in 1979, a 20’ change between summer and winter flows was distinguished and, in 1984, most of the lower river was scarred and eroded. A Watershed Restoration Program proposal in 1994 indicated that the river still supported an important and uncommon summer run Steelhead as well as a winter run Steelhead, Cutthroat and Rainbow Trout and Dolly Varden in addition to the salmon species. It recommended road deactivation, slope stabilization and erosion control. The Klahoose First Nation has lands located at the mouth of the Brem River and, in their Statement of Intent with the BC Treaty Commission (1994), claims traditional rights to the river. Fish stock assessments and escapement estimates were conducted in the 1990’s. In 2001, a Fish and Fish Habitat Inventory was released after it was identified by the Klahoose and the BC Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks as a priority watershed for fisheries inventory/management. The most recent maximum annual escapements available for Pink (1989- 98) is 2,500; 361 Chum (1989-98); 02 Chinook (1989-98) and zero Coho (1985-94). The Brem is still considered (2009) a major system both for the production of Pink and Chum in the Inner South Coast with operational management escapement goals of 35,000 and 15,000 respectively.Large Fisheries Significant WatershedsSunshine Coast Forest District
  • Large Fisheries Significant WatershedsBREM RIVER WATERSHED
  • BRITTAIN RIVER SUMMARY This watershed was logged extensively in the 1930’s and suffered a severe forest fire in 1951. Much of the spawning gravel was lost; the water was considered unstable and a bad run-off was noted in 1961. Peak escapements occurred in 1937 with 7,500 each of Chum and Pink and 1,500 Coho. Recent records (1983-2000) show that the maximum annual escapement for Coho was 1,100; the Pink maximum (1989-1998) was 2,500 and the Chum 1,500 (1990-2000). In 1994, the terrain was mapped with evaluations of slope stability and hazard potential to aid in the development of forestry in the upper reaches of the watershed. Another report that year noted the logging related impacts to fish habitat and the requirement for remedial wildlife estuarine works and grizzly bear oriented riparian improvements. According to the Sechelt Land Use Plan (Draft 2007), all of the Brittain River watershed is considered have an extremely high cultural and spiritual value; and the key management issue is rehabilitation of fisheries values. A Preliminary Anadromous Salmonid Assessment (2008) conducted in the lower two reaches assessed those habitats as poor with opportunities for remedial work. In 2009, the river was nonetheless considered to be one of the major systems for Pinks and one of 36 Chum spawning streams identified within the Jervis Inlet Management Area, Statistical Area 16. In addition, there are observations recorded for Dolly Varden, Rainbow Trout, Cutthroat Trout and Steelhead. Steelhead were observed in the river in 1976 -77, and in 1979. As of 2004, this winter run was evaluated as an extreme conservation concern suggesting that it was at 10% or less of habitat capacity and likely to become extinct.Large Fisheries Significant WatershedsSunshine Coast Forest District
  • CHAPMAN CREEK SUMMARY Chapman Creek is known as one of the largest salmon producing streams on the Sunshine Coast with spiritual and cultural significance for the Sechelt Indian Band. Historically peak escapements for Coho, Pink and Steelhead numbered in the hundreds and 3500 for Chum. It is probable that the numbers for the Pink and Chum were higher before the secondary creek mouth was cut off in 1936. A considerable amount of environmental degradation was caused by extensive logging leading eventually to an Integrated Watershed Management Plan (1998). Utilized as the major community water, salmonids have also been negatively impacted by water withdrawals during low flows. In 1999, a fish habitat and riparian assessment was conducted for the BC Ministry of Environment in conjunction with the Watershed Restoration Project. A Coastal Watershed Assessment Procedure was completed in 2000 to again assess the effects of past forest practices and to provide recommendations for forestry development. Also that year, Chapman Creek was one of only 15 streams designated as sensitive under the BC Fisheries Protection Act. Rainbow trout and Dolly Varden were introduced before records were kept; Coho and Cutthroat were stocked in the late 1980’s. Beginning in the early 1990’s the Sunshine Coast Salmon Enhancement Society stocked Pinks, Chums, Coho, Cutthroat, Steelhead and introduced Chinook. The stocking of Cutthroats was discontinued to ensure the survival of the wild population. The Greater Georgia Basin Steelhead Recovery Action Plan of 2002 identified the stock status of both winter and summer Steelhead runs as special concern. In 2004, during an enumeration of the Steelhead a total of 2 adult Cutthroat were observed.Large Fisheries Significant WatershedsSunshine Coast Forest District
  • DESERTED RIVER SUMMARY Deserted River historically hosted peak annual salmon escapements of 100,000+ Pinks, 38,500 Chum and 6,000 Coho. The most recent maximum annual escapement was 2,000 for Pinks (1989-98); 60,000 for Chum (1989-2000); and 667 for Coho (1988-2000). In 2004, the Steelhead run was identified as an extreme conservation concern with stocks believed to be at 10% or less of habitat capacity and likely subject to extinction. Logging began in the late 1930’s and continued until at least the mid 1980’s. During this time, flooding, scouring, silting and the river changing its course in the lower section have been identified. In 19977, a report, outlining the importance of the river in Pink and Chum production in the Jervis –Sechelt Inlets and their severe decline, recommended a spawning channel be created for the Pinks which could be used by the Chum in the off years. Between the years 1981-85, 10,400 juvenile Coho and 27,600 juvenile Chum were released. In 1996, a detailed map of terrain stability and erosion potential for forest management was produced for the Ministry of Forests. The Strategic Land Use Plan for the shishalh Nation (Draft 2007) identifies the extremely high cultural and spiritual values of this area and the main town site of Tsonai ; there are very high associated fisheries values and current rehabilitative efforts.Large Fisheries Significant WatershedsSunshine Coast Forest District
  • HOMATHKO RIVER SUMMARY The peak historical escapements were 15,000 Coho, 7,500 Pink, 75,000 Chum, 15,000 Chinook and 7,500 Steelhead. Logging began in the early 1900’s and continues today. In 1983, fish sampling was undertaken as part of BC Hydro’s interest in building a dam upstream of Waddington Canyon. A Watershed Restoration Program proposal (1994) noted the very high fish and wildlife values and identified some of the damage resulting from the logging; this resulted (1997-98) in an overview assessment and preliminary fish assessment on the lower Homathko. Homathko Estuary Provincial Park and the Homathko River- Tatlayoko Protected Area were created in the same years. A Level 2 Watershed Assessment (1999) was conducted within the Chilcotin region of the watershed where Rainbow Trout and Dolly Varden are present. These species, as well as Cutthroat Trout, are also present in the lower section of the river; the presence of Bull Trout was confirmed in 2001. The most recent readily available maximum escapement (1988-97) is 100 Pink and 2,000 Chinook, 6,000 Coho (1986-2000) and 18,000 Chum (1989- 99). The river continues to be a major Chum and Pink producer (2009). Nine Grizzly Bear Wildlife Habitat Areas were proposed in 2008. In 2009, a report noted the world class nature of the Cutthroat and Bull Trout recreational fishery and identified concern with the proposed hydroelectric projects in the area. In their Statement of Intent, filed with the BC Treaty Commission, the Homalco First Nation Wxemalhkwu) has identified Bute Inlet as part of their traditional territory; there are three reserves near the estuary. A confidential Impact Benefit Agreement, which establishes a framework under which both the Homalco and an independent power producer work together to advance projects within the territory was reached in 2011.Large Fisheries Significant WatershedsSunshine Coast Forest District
  • LANG RIVER SUMMARY The Lang Creek watershed once supported runs of Pink, Chum, Coho, Chinook and Steelhead in addition to Kokanee, Cutthroat and Rainbow Trout. Before the historic run of Chinook was seemingly lost in 1952, 15,000 Chinook had returned in a single year. Pinks, Coho and Steelhead had peak historical escapements of 3,500 each; Chums peaked at 7,500. In 1983, a major Salmon Enhancement Program hatchery was established. From 1984-90, approximately 400,000 Chinook juveniles were released along with ~1.2 million Chum, ~ 1.1 million Coho, and ~851,00 Pinks. By 1990, the Lang system was providing ~ 60% of the Coho for Sub district 15 (Powell River). In 1994, the province noted that the area had seen extensive past harvesting and that harvesting was ongoing. Rehabilitation of the estuary was required due to log dumping activities. In 1997, Lang Creek was one of 15 rivers in B.C. to receive a Sensitive Stream Designation under the Fisheries Protection Act. A Coastal Watershed Assessment for Haslam Lake – Lang Creek Community Watershed was conducted as part of the 1998 Integrated Watershed Management Plan. The most recent data has maximum peak escapements of 3,984 for Coho (1991-2000); 1,897 for Pinks (1990-99); 28,000 for Chums (1992-2000); and 1,354 for Chinooks (1988-2000). Lang Creek still has (2009) active hatchery enhancement for Chum and is one of two major Chum spawning sites along with Sliammon Creek in Area 15. It is also an important system for Pinks. Between 1989-92, 9,000 juvenile Steelhead were released. Nonetheless reports in 2002 and again in 2004 identified an extreme conservation concern for the winter run of Steelhead.Large Fisheries Significant WatershedsSunshine Coast Forest District
  • LOIS RIVER SUMMARY Scanlon Dam was constructed in 1924 without a fish way and has resulted in flow fluctuations of 2-4m on Lois Lake. However, the series of impassable rock falls located 300m upstream of the mouth of the river is considered to have restricted anadromous salmonid migration. Records dating back to 1947 show that the largest escapement for Chum in Lois River was approximately 800. Coho, and to even a lesser extent Pinks, have infrequently and in much less numbers, spawned in the area. The peak maximum escapement of Chum for 1989-98 was 484. A private hatchery was established in Lois Lake in 1987 raising Chinook and Coho of which some have escaped. In 1993, a biophysical survey of the lake and others in the drainage system was conducted noting the presence not only of Rainbow and Cutthroat Trout but also of Kokanee. The latter apparently the remnants of a Sockeye run. This report also noted the changes to fish habitat caused by the artificially maintained water levels and the surrounding industrial (logging) activity. Dolly Varden has also been reported. Stream Classification surveys on numerous proposed logging cut blocks in other parts of the watershed during 2004-2006 succeeded in capturing Cutthroat trout. Coastal Watershed Assessments were conducted on My and on Scanlon Creeks in 1997.Large Fisheries Significant WatershedsSunshine Coast Forest District
  •  Estuary of the Eagle (Lois) River watershed A dam built in the 1920’s reduced salmon runs from 10’s of thousands to a few hundred fish •Western Wandering Garder Snakes on a sandy bar of the Eagle river estuary. •This is a common but seldom seen that prefers estuaries. Large Fisheries Significant Watersheds LOIS RIVER WATERSHED
  • ORFORD RIVER SUMMARY The Orford River had peak historical escapements of 3,500 Coho, 7,500 Chinook, 100,000 Pink, 137,000 Chum and 750 Steelhead. In addition there were Dolly Varden, Cutthroat and Rainbow Trout. Initial logging occurred in the watershed from 1973-90. A fish habitat assessment procedure was conducted on the main stem and major tributaries in 1988 on behalf of industry. A spawning channel was created in 1989-90 and it was during the enumeration of the spawners that the presence of both a summer and a fall run of Chum were identified. A Watershed Restoration Program proposal (1994) noted that the system required Grizzly Bear oriented riparian improvements; in 1999, fish presence, channel and riparian assessments were conducted. The Homalco First Nation (Wxemalhkwu Indian Band), according to the Statement of Intent listed with the BC Treaty Commission (1994), includes the Bute Inlet watershed as part of their traditional territory; they have a major reserve in the lower section of the river and operate the Taggares- Homalco Hatchery. In 2002 the summer run of Steelhead was identified as a special concern. Another (2004) report noted an extreme conservation concern for the summer run and the presence of possible small winter run. Channel instability, bank erosion and sediment transport were challenges facing these runs. The most recent readily available maximum escapements are 50 Chinook, 3,700 Pink and 600 Coho (1989-98); and 27,000 Chum (1995- 2000). The Orford is still considered a major system for both Chum (summer run only) and Pink production. Homalco Wildlife Tours began Grizzly Bear viewing programs in the lower section of the river in 2011.Large Fisheries Significant WatershedsSunshine Coast Forest District
  • Large Fisheries Significant WatershedsORFORD RIVER WATERSHED
  • SAKINAW LAKE SUMMARY Sakinaw Lake is noteworthy for its unique Sockeye and therefore one of the most important areas of concern to the Sechelt First Nation. Prior to the mid 1930’s the annual catch by commercial fishing was estimated to be 25,000 fish. Recorded historic escapements peaked at 16,000 though the average was 5,000. In addition the lake supported 7,500 Coho and 3,500 Chum. The Sockeye in particular has declined precipitously. The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada designated it as threatened with extinction in a 2002 emergency assessment; the exact cause of the decline is still not known. The federal government however chose not to list it under the Species at Risk Act. In spite of a 2005 National Recovery Strategy only two Sockeye returned between 2006-2009. Optimistically, there have been increasing returns for 2009-11. Loss of critical habitat can result from the development and encroachment of the lake foreshore. In addition, urban and industrial development within the watershed may negatively influence the surface and groundwater quality and quantity entering the lake. Kokanee and Cutthroat have also been historically present. Nonetheless, the latter of American origin, were stocked 1965-1969; and from Vancouver Island during 1984-1989. Coho were stocked in 1988. That year also noted that the trout had better weight to length ratios than those in nearby lakes due to either lower fish densities and/or better lake productivity.Large Fisheries Significant WatershedsSunshine Coast Forest District
  • SKWAWKA RIVER SUMMARY The Skwawka River, once hosted an astounding 235,000 Pink, 35,000 Chum and 15,000 Coho peak annual escapements. The most recent data (1989-98) has maximum annual peak escapements of 6,000 Pink, 25,000 Chum, and 554 Coho. In addition, a historic light run of Chinook, occasional Sockeye, a winter run of Steelhead, Cutthroat Trout, Rainbow Trout and Dolly Varden have been enumerated. Logging began in 1969-70 with heavy damage to salmonid habitat documented almost immediately as a result of road construction leading to slides along the river and some tributaries. In 1975, extreme silting from logging was described as well as flash flooding. Silting occurred from 1970-1982 in the lower reaches. In 1983, a report, based on 1977 field studies, examined the decline of Chums and Pinks in the Jervis-Sechelt Inlets, it recommended a spawning channel be created that could be used by Pinks and by Chum in the off years. In 1985, the Salmon Enhancement Program, planted 27,000 juvenile Chum . Funding from the Watershed Restoration Program identified the requirement for remedial work on the estuary and grizzly bear oriented riparian improvements in 1994. Five years later, extensive fish channel and riparian assessments were carried out on the main reaches of the river. The Strategic Land Use Plan for the shishalh Nation (2007 Draft) identifies the entire watershed as having extremely high cultural and spiritual values including the Xenichen town site. In spite of extensive logging the area is still considered to have high fish and fish habitat values. The plan noted that there are now Wildlife Habitat Areas dedicated to Grizzly Bears.Large Fisheries Significant WatershedsSunshine Coast Forest District
  • Large Fisheries Significant WatershedsSKWAWKA RIVER WATERSHED
  • SOUTHGATE RIVER SUMMARY The Southgate River had peak historical escapements of 7,500 Coho, 7,500 Pink, 250,000 Chum, 15,000 Chinook and 1,500 Steelhead. Accurate counts are difficult due to glacial conditions. Logging occurred from at least the late ‘60s to late ‘70s.The commercial gill net Chum fishery in Bute Inlet ended in the late ‘80’s as that population declined. A Watershed Restoration Program proposal (1994) indicated that the river required remedial works to the estuary and riparian improvements for Grizzly Bears. A fish and fish habitat inventory (1998) confirmed the presence of the blue-listed Bull Trout, Dolly Varden, Bull Trout/Dolly Varden hybrids, and Cutthroat Trout. A 2001 report noted good spawning and rearing habitat for salmon, char and trout species throughout much of the accessible 74km main stem and lower reaches of the tributaries. The most recent readily available peak escapements are (1989-98) 850 Coho, 60,000 Pink and 175,000 Chum (1990-2000). In 2004, the winter run of Steelhead was described as an extreme conservation concern. The Southgate is still (2009) considered one of the three major Chum productions systems in the Loughbourough to Bute Inlet Management Area. In 2009, a report noted the world class nature of the Cutthroat and Bull Trout recreational fishery and identified concern with the proposed hydroelectric projects in the area. In their Statement of Intent, filed with the BC Treaty Commission, the Homalco First Nation ((Wxemalhkwu) has identified Bute Inlet and its watershed as part of their traditional territory. A confidential Impact Benefit Agreement, which establishes a framework under which both the Homalco and an independent power producer work together to advance hydroelectric opportunities within the territory was reached in 2011.Large Fisheries Significant WatershedsSunshine Coast Forest District
  • Large Fisheries Significant WatershedsSOUTHGATE RIVER WATERSHED
  • THEODOSIA RIVER SUMMARY Historic DFO annual peak escapement data for Theodosia shows were 35,000 Chum, 7,500 Coho and 3,500 Pink. Other sources indicate that runs were as high as 100,000 Pinks, 50,000 Chums and 10,000 Coho prior to the diversion of 80% of the river flow. Water was diverted for hydro- electric power to a pulp mill in 1956. Although the company was required to maintain minimum flows, the low flows and adjacent logging resulted in drastic water level changes following weather events, silting, erosion, scouring, and frequent changes in the lower channel bed. A report to the Sliammon First Nation, who have lands at the mouth of the river, in 1997, identified the instability of the river and the degradation of the spawning habitat and suggested that off channel habitat, be created in the lower reaches for Chum and Coho . In 2000, the provincial government pledged to decommission the dam; six years later the issue of compensation to the power company stalled the work. A Community Economic Development Program was initiated between Fisheries & Oceans Canada and the Sliammon First Nations in 1977; current efforts on the Theodosia involve stock assessment, and enhancement activities. Coho and Chum sperm have been cryopreserved by the World Fisheries Trust. This watershed is considered a major Inner South Coast Chum system within the Toba Inlet Management Area; the operational management escapement goal is 21,000 (2009). The most recent available maximum escapement data for Chum (1990-99) is 2,742, Coho (1990-99) 213, and Pinks (1985-93) zero.Large Fisheries Significant WatershedsSunshine Coast Forest District
  • TOBA RIVER SUMMARY The Toba River had historical peak escapements of 35,000 Coho, 75,000 Pink, 75,000 Chum and 12,000 Chinook. The numbers do not include escapements from major tributaries such as the Klite, Filer and Little Toba Rivers. The most recent available data for the Toba River is 1,000 Coho (1983-92); zero Pink (1984-92); 32 Chinook and 600 Chum (1989-98). Initial logging occurred in the 60’s and 70’s; in 1975, 1500 cubic yards of gravel was removed from the high river bars. The following year, a salmonid reconnaissance was undertaken. A 1994 Watershed Restoration Program proposal noted that the Klite and Little Toba Rivers needed work and that the Toba itself required wildlife estuarine damage remedial works as well as Grizzly Bear oriented riparian improvements. The Klahoose First Nation, according to the Statement of Intent listed with the BC Treaty Commission (1994), are claiming the entire Toba River watershed as part of their traditional territory. As a result of their and Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks interests, fish and fish habitat inventories were conducted in 1998. BC’s largest run-of-the river hydroelectric project (East Toba/Montrose Creek) was successfully commissioned in 2010. Further fish sampling was conducted in the upper reaches of the Toba River as well as for Dalgleish and Jimmie Creeks in 2007-08 for those proposed hydro-electric projects. The watershed is also known to host Dolly Varden, Rainbow and Cutthroat Trout. The winter run of Steelhead is listed as an extreme conservation concern in the Klite, Little Toba and Toba River (2005). Within the Toba Inlet Management Area, the Little Toba is considered a major system for Chum production.Large Fisheries Significant WatershedsSunshine Coast Forest District
  • TZOONIE RIVER SUMMARY The Sechelt Strategic Land Use Plan (Draft 2007) notes that the lower portion of Tzoonie River and all of Narrows Inlet form the largest cultural emphasis area within their territory; the Sechelts consider the river to be the largest salmon and anadromous Cutthroat Trout producing creek in Sechelt Inlet. It once supported five species of salmon and the Steelhead. By 1970 the Sockeye, Chinook and Steelhead runs were all but lost. A set of falls 5km from the mouth was blasted in 1975; however the remaining stocks continued to decline. In 1947, 75,000 Pinks were estimated to have arrived to spawn; that number was not repeated and the 10 year maximum escapement from 1986-1994 was 1500. The maximum return for Coho (1989-98) was 250. Within the Jervis Inlet Management Area, specifically Statistical Area 16, the Tzoonie is still considered to be one of the three major systems for Chum and one of 11 for Pinks. Logged since the early 60’s, a Fish Habitat Assessment Procedure was conducted in 1998 focusing on the main stem and main tributaries to evaluate the damage to fish habitat. This was followed in1999 with detailed reach assessments, prescriptions and an examination of barriers to fish passage at culvert-bearing road crossings. That report noted that the watershed was home to all 5 species of salmon, Steelhead, Bull Trout, Cutthroat Trout, Rainbow Trout and Dolly Varden. Cutthroat trout were noted to still exist in the river and lake in 2005. In 2002, the summer run of Steelhead, in this priority watershed, was identified as a special concern. At that time logging was identified has having a high impact on the species.Large Fisheries Significant WatershedsSunshine Coast Forest District
  • VANCOUVER RIVER SUMMARY Railroad logging began in the Vancouver River area in the early 1900’s and a small town was eventually established. The counting of salmonids did not begin until 1947, when the peak annual escapement of 15,000 Pinks was recorded. Steelhead peaked at 400, Chum at 8,000 and Coho at 5,000 once patrols were conducted above the obstacle at 8.8km. The diking and channelization to protect the now abandoned town site along with the increased run-off from logging resulted not only in the reduction of spawning channels available to Pinks and Chums, but an increase in the water flow in the remaining channel that resulted in scouring. A report released in 1983 suggested that controlled flow structures to reconnect the old channels and the rehabilitation of the main stem channelized section would be appropriate to rebuilding the Pink run. A hatchery funded by DFO began in 1981. From 1980-89, nearly 2 million chum, ~290,000 Coho, ~141, 000 Chinook and ~ 59,000 Steelhead were released. Extensive channel rehabilitation occurred in 1998-2001. A 1:20,000 Reconnaissance Fish and Fish Habitat Inventory was conducted in 1999 to meet Forest Practice Code requirements. In 2002, a report noted that the Steelhead stock was not well documented but believed to be very low and therefore of special concern. The Strategic Land Use Plan for the shishalh Nation (2007 Draft) identifies the area as having extremely high cultural, fisheries and wildlife values; efforts continue on the rehabilitation of salmonid habitat.Large Fisheries Significant WatershedsSunshine Coast Forest District
  • 1. Anderson Creek 2. Angus Creek 3. Carlson Creek 4. Chaster Creek 5. Dakota Creek 6. Daniels Creek 7. Myrtle Creek 8. Ouillet Creek 9. Potato Creek 10. Twin Creeks 11. Whitail Creek 12. Wilson CreekRegional Fisheries Significant Watersheds Sunshine Coast Forest District
  • Dakota Creek Chapman Creek Angus Creek Whittal Creek Wilson CreekRegional Fisheries Significant Watersheds Sunshine Coast Forest District
  • DAKOTA CREEK SUMMARY Although Dakota Creek was known historically to support salmon, escapements were not counted until 1971; these Chum and Coho escapements were quite small. A 2000 Coastal Watershed Assessment Procedure (CWAP) indicated 10 pairs of Coho. The annual mean for Chum between 1997- 1988, was 110. In 1973, sampling identified Rainbow and Cutthroat trout; the latter were stocked twice in 1998-89. In 1979, Dakota Creek was identified as one of the 5 key streams accounting for 61% of cutthroat production in the Lower Mainland region. The Steel head population present in 1980 was still surviving in 1996 when 468 were counted. Industrial activity began early in the last century. By the 1930’s a series of dams and flumes were used to move cedar cants and a mill had been established. In 1971 Canadian Forest Products Ltd acquired the drainage as part of their tenure. There are 4 unused water licenses held by the SCRD and as a result the drainage is identified as a community watershed. The first CWAP was conducted in 1995; the second CWAP identified much of the terrain as naturally unstable and over the past 40 years human caused failures had been an important part of the sediment loading of the creek. An abandoned gravel pit was identified as draining an estimated 300 tonnes of sediments annually. The estuary and lower reaches were nonetheless considered to have high fisheries values.Regional Fisheries Significant Watersheds Sunshine Coast Forest District
  • Regional Fisheries Significant Watersheds Sunshine Coast Forest District
  • Regional Fisheries Significant Watersheds Sunshine Coast Forest District
  • Mountain Goat Winter RangeSunshine Coast Forest District
  • Marbled Murrelet Nesting HabitatSunshine Coast Forest District
  • Conservation Priorities Protecting Biological Diversity  Summary item 1  Summary item 2  Summary item 3  Summary item 4  Summary item 5  Summary item 6  Summary item 7