Aquatic BiodiversityHumpbacks and Shearwaters Feeding on Krill in Alaska Male and Female Humpbacks
What Accounts forAquatic Biodiversity?• Phytoplankton: diatoms (producers)• Zooplankton: copepods (consumers)• Nekton: ﬁsh, turtles, marine mammals,etc.• Benthos: mollusks, worms, etc.
Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems• Freshwater Ecosystems • Cover 1% of Earth• Marine Ecosystems Cormorant • Cover 70% of Earth • Oceans, estuaries, salt marshes, mangrove forests, coral reefs Cardinal Flower
Nutrients: Freshwater vs. Marine Ecosystems• Marine Ecosystems • NO and PO 3 4 sometimes limiting, except along coast (estuary) and upwelling zones• Freshwater ecosystems • NO and PO 3 4 Benguela Current generally abundant
Coastal Zoneand Estuaries • Delaware and Chesapeake Estuaries • where rivers meet the ocean • mix of fresh and saltwater: tides • shallow water, high light penetration • high: nutrients, photosynthesis, NPP!
• High species Estuaries, Salt Marshes, diversity and Barrier Islands: Nurseries of the Oceans• Migratory stopover sites • birds, marine Salt Marsh mammals• Nursery areas • ﬁsh, invertebrates, birds, turtles
Barrier IslandsPony-Penning Chincoteague, VA Outer Banks, NC Cape Henlopen, DE
Rocky Intertidal Ecosystem Otter Point, ME Coralline AlgaeBreadcrumb sponge Rockweed