Aquatic Biodiversity


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Aquatic Biodiversity

  1. 1. Aquatic BiodiversityHumpbacks and Shearwaters Feeding on Krill in Alaska Male and Female Humpbacks
  2. 2. What Accounts forAquatic Biodiversity?• Phytoplankton: diatoms (producers)• Zooplankton: copepods (consumers)• Nekton: fish, turtles, marine mammals,etc.• Benthos: mollusks, worms, etc.
  3. 3. Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems• Freshwater Ecosystems • Cover 1% of Earth• Marine Ecosystems Cormorant • Cover 70% of Earth • Oceans, estuaries, salt marshes, mangrove forests, coral reefs Cardinal Flower
  4. 4. Nutrients: Freshwater vs. Marine Ecosystems• Marine Ecosystems • NO and PO 3 4 sometimes limiting, except along coast (estuary) and upwelling zones• Freshwater ecosystems • NO and PO 3 4 Benguela Current generally abundant
  5. 5. Productivity and Zones of Light Penetration
  6. 6. Coastal Zoneand Estuaries • Delaware and Chesapeake Estuaries • where rivers meet the ocean • mix of fresh and saltwater: tides • shallow water, high light penetration • high: nutrients, photosynthesis, NPP!
  7. 7. • High species Estuaries, Salt Marshes, diversity and Barrier Islands: Nurseries of the Oceans• Migratory stopover sites • birds, marine Salt Marsh mammals• Nursery areas • fish, invertebrates, birds, turtles
  8. 8. Barrier IslandsPony-Penning Chincoteague, VA Outer Banks, NC Cape Henlopen, DE
  9. 9. Rocky Intertidal Ecosystem Otter Point, ME Coralline AlgaeBreadcrumb sponge Rockweed
  10. 10. The Philippines
  11. 11. The Philippines
  12. 12. Marine Ecosystems in the Tropics Mabini Reef, PhilippinesMangrove Forest, Bangladesh
  13. 13. Mangrove Forests• Tropical equivalent to salt marshes• Found in Florida, too• Essential buffers/ filters • absorb nutrient • protect the coast Complex Root System of A Mangrove Tree
  14. 14. Coral Reef Ecology Polyp • Symbiosis: Coral polyp and Zooanthellae • Among oldest ecosystems on Earth • Reefs made of CaCO3Zooanthellae
  15. 15. Coral Reefs...• Protect coastlines• Support fisheries• Provide ecotourism (diving)• One of the most diverse, productive ecosystems on Thallasia beds Earth
  16. 16. Threats to Coral Reefs• Overfishing and illegal collecting of coral• Blast fishing• Coral Bleaching • Global warming • Siltation Blast Fishing
  17. 17. Freshwater Ecosystems• Lakes and Ponds• Inland Wetlands (Bogs, Swamps, and Marshes)• Rivers Rangeley Lakes Nerpa Great Heath
  18. 18. Freshwater Ecosystems• Lakes and Ponds• Inland Wetlands (Bogs, Swamps, and Marshes)• Rivers Rangeley Lakes Nerpa Great Heath
  19. 19. Wetlands and Rivers BogAndroscoggin River
  20. 20. A Few Lake Facts... • Autochthonous Limnetic Zone • Spring and Fall Overturn • Littoral and Limnetic Zones Littoral Zone
  21. 21. LakesLake Baikal Spring and Fall OverturnLake Baikal
  22. 22. Inland Wetland Facts• Essential for water exchange• Buffers and filter areas• Terminal successional stage Bull Frog• High biodiversity • amphibians!
  23. 23. River Facts• Allochthonous• Among the most threatened ecosystems • history of human impact (overuse, etc.) Amazon River