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sources of water pollution


describe few sources of water pollution

describe few sources of water pollution

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  • 1.  8.1: Oil pollution  8.2: Water pollution  8.3: Environmental metals and metalloids  8.4: Lead (Pb)  8.5: Cadmium (Cd)  8.6: Mercury (Hg)  8.7: Nickel (Ni)  8.8: Arsenic (As)
  • 2.  Oil and petroleum are ever-present pollutants in the modern environment  Sources: accidental spills from ships, pipelines, leaks in storage tanks and used oil of private motorists.  In oil pollution, there is oil-in-water and water-in-oil
  • 3.  Oil-in-water not only at surface but throughout the body of water as well. It can sink to the bottom  Water-in-oil is a spread on the surface and what is commonly seen lying on the surface of the water.  Oil slicks are the main cause of birds deaths.
  • 4.  Exxon Valdez is the most popular case of oil pollution
  • 5.  Occurs when some substance degrades a body of water to such a degree that water cannot be used for a specific purpose.
  • 6. Types of water pollutants:  Point source- discharge of pollutants from single point (factories, industrial outfall, power plants)  Non-point source- sources of pollution that are scattered/diffuse (e.g. rainfall, fertilizer runoffs, soil erosion, surface runoff, farm field)
  • 7.  Disease causing agents (pathogens)- bacteria, viruses, protozoa  Among the major waterborne diseases are cholera, typhoid, polio  Oxygen demanding waste- organic wastes decomposed by aerobic bacteria. Oxygen (dissolved oxygen) levels in water decline with activity. Low levels of oxygen causes death to fish, plants and other organisms.
  • 8.  Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)-measure the amount of oxygen consumed in water by aerobic decomposers.  Heavy metals- Dangerous pollutants and often are deposited in sediment in the bottom of streams and may be incorporated in plants, food crops and animals (persistent pollutant)
  • 9.  Environmental metals are often known as heavy metal which are environmental concern.  There are three types of environmental metals a. Metals that are suspected carcinogen b. Metals that move readily in the soil c. Metals that move through food chain
  • 10.  Carcinogen are the agent that can cause cancer in human  Cancer is usually cause by the genetic substances changed by mutagen. Carcinogen is one example of mutagen.
  • 11.  This type of environmental metal enters the soil and water system through soil deposition  Through this deposition, the metals will enter water system and vegetation as well as forest. This will end up being move through food chain.
  • 12.  This type of metal is the most concern in environmental as it bring long-term effect to human health and ecosystem.  The metals enters the food chain through water, air and soil pollution and eventually accumulate in organisms tissue e.g. fish, paddy, etc.
  • 13.  Metalloid is known as an element that having both metal and nonmetal properties or semi-metal  Example of metalloids are silicon, arsenic and antimony
  • 14.  Heavy metal that bring acute health effect to human  Sources of lead are lead pipes, lead join soil contaminated from fallout leaded gasoline, leakage of lead from hazardous-waste sites  Impact of lead consuming: Affect central nervous system
  • 15.  Lead poisoning occur commonly in children, particularly in older house as children may consumed chips of lead contaminated paint.  Toxic effects of lead includes fatigue, sleep disturbance, anemia, colic and neuritis (mild exposure)  Severe exposure- encephalopathy, mental retardation, impaired vision (rosak penglihatan).
  • 16.  This metal can accumulate in tissues of aquatic organism, thus leading in increased concentration of cadmium in food chain.  Cadmium tend to accumulate in kidney and liver.  Sources: industrial, mining
  • 17.  Cadmium is also known as a carcinogen as it can cause cancer or tumors in lung, kidney, and prostate (for men)  Cadmium poisoning is more likely to affect battery workers and shelters  The famous case of cadmium poisoning is the itai-itai case in Japan
  • 18.  Itai-itai disease is a combination of severe kidney damage, and painful bone and joint.  Itai-itai also known as painfulpainful  This disease has been caused by rice contaminated with high level of cadmium  This is resulting from the soil irrigation with water containing cadmium released from industrial sources.
  • 19.  Mercury is widely used in scientific and electrical apparatus  Most mercury poisoning is caused mainly by eating fishes that are contaminated with mercury.  Sources- industrial waste, mining  The most popular case of mercury poisoning is the Minamata disease in Japan.
  • 20.  In 1950s and 1960s, Minamata Bay in Japan had been contaminated with mercury discharge from wastes of chemical and plastics plant.  These discharge absorbed and accumulate in fish and shellfish. These contaminated organisms are consumed by local population and leads to mercury poisoning.
  • 21.  There are 107 deaths reported and 800 over cases regarding the Minamata disease.  Pregnant mother which have consumed those contaminated fish and shellfish appeared to be healthy, however their infants developed celebral palsy-like symptom, ane mental deficiency
  • 22.  The symptom of mercury poisoning are: a. Inflammation of the mouth b. Muscular tremor (shake) c. Physic irritation d. Nephritis syndrome (kidney related disease)
  • 23.  Exposure to mercury may result in severe damage to the nervous and reproductive systems and may ultimately be fatal  Common symptoms of mercury poisoning are poor coordination and altered sensory perception  Pregnant women and children are especially vulnerable to mercury exposure  The most common cause of mercury poisoning is the consumption of fish contaminated with methymercury.
  • 24.  Sources of Nickel: a. Combustion of coal and fossil fuels b. Steel production c. Mining and refinery production d. Municipal sewage treatment plant  a. b. c. d. Health effects Skin allergic Lung cancer Chronic bronchitis Asthma
  • 25.  Sources: pesticide sprays, combustion of arsenic containing fossil fuels, leaching of mine tailings and smelter runoff.  High level of exposure: abnormal skin pigmentation, hyperkeratosis, nasal congestion, abdominal pain.
  • 26.  Low level of exposure: cancers of skin, lung and lymph gland.