Water monitoring presentation


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Water monitoring presentation

  1. 1. Water Monitoring & Testing
  2. 2. Why test our natural waters? <ul><li>Monitor the health of our rivers, streams and ponds </li></ul><ul><li>Gives us a better way to understand the natural world and how we impact it. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides real-world data to scientist and land managers </li></ul><ul><li>Four ways to survey: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual Survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological Inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Quality tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow rate (not included) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Visual Survey <ul><li>LOCATION OF SITE. </li></ul><ul><li>DATE and TIME </li></ul><ul><li>WEATHER </li></ul><ul><li>LAND USE </li></ul><ul><li>STREAM BANK CONDITIONS </li></ul><ul><li>BOTTOM DEPOSITS/ COVER </li></ul><ul><li>WATER COLOR </li></ul><ul><li>WATER ODOR </li></ul><ul><li>SIGNS OF HUMAN USE </li></ul><ul><li>OTHER COMMENTS </li></ul>
  4. 4. Biological Inventory <ul><li>Benthic Macro-invertebrate: Bottom-dwelling aquatic larval form of insects. </li></ul><ul><li>Benthic macro-invertebrates can help us test for polluted waters, either by their: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abundance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Healthy water body: HIGH DIVERSITY of organisms, presence of indicator species. </li></ul><ul><li>Unhealthy water: HIGH ABUNDANCE of pollution-tolerant species. Absence of indicator species. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Macro-invertebrates <ul><li>Pollution Intolerant (INDICATOR) species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stonefly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mayfly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caddisfly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Penny </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dobsonfly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crayfish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dragonly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damselfly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pollution Tolerant species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aquatic Worm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Midge Fly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lunged Snail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black Fly </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Equipment <ul><li>Trays </li></ul><ul><li>Nets </li></ul><ul><li>Magnifying glasses </li></ul><ul><li>ID cards </li></ul><ul><li>Observation sheets </li></ul>
  7. 7. Water Quality Tests (chemical) <ul><li>pH </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrates </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphates </li></ul><ul><li>Turbidity </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolved Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Fecal Coliform </li></ul>
  8. 8. pH <ul><li>Measures the acidity of water in ponds and streams </li></ul><ul><li>Most organisms are sensitive to pH changes and prefer water near neutral conditions (pH 7) </li></ul><ul><li>pH is measured on a scale of 0 to 14. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water above 7 is Alkaline (or Basic). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water below 7 is Acidic. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>pH in Healthy ponds range from 6.5 to 8.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Serious problems occur in lakes with a pH lower than 5 or higher than 9.5. </li></ul>
  9. 9. pH Scale
  10. 10. Human impact on pH <ul><li>Acid Rain (Coal & Automobile Ind. Plants) </li></ul><ul><li>Can cause chemicals and metals in soil to become more toxic than normal. </li></ul><ul><li>Can cause the release of heavy metals (ex. Copper & Aluminum) into bodies of water, effecting or even killing aquatic life. </li></ul><ul><li>Immature organisms most affected by low pH. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Temperature <ul><li>A change in temperature can change the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of water bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms in ponds are sensitive to temperature change </li></ul><ul><li>Most organisms can not tolerate extreme temperatures. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Affects of Temperature <ul><li>Cold water holds more oxygen than warm water and can support more life. </li></ul><ul><li>Warmer water leads to increased plant growth, which leads to faster plant death, which leads to higher demand of oxygen by decomposers. </li></ul><ul><li>Warmer water increases the metabolic rate in organisms, leading to higher consumption and the release of more waste . </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria and disease-causing organisms grow faster in warm water. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Human impact on Temperature <ul><li>Thermal Pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Releasing heated water used in Industrial Plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Run-off from warm urban surfaces (streets, sidewalks). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clearing banks (Cutting trees & vegetation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Un-shaded water can be 20°F warmer than shaded water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspended solids from run-off (increased turbidity) absorbs more sun’s rays. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Nitrates <ul><li>Essential nutrient in ponds & aquatic environments. </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrates are a building block for animals and plants, helping them grow and reproduce </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrates are found in human and animal waste. </li></ul><ul><li>Also a major ingredient in fertilizers </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive amounts of nitrates can be harmful to both humans and fish. In humans, affect the ability for cells to carry oxygen to the blood. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Human impact on Nitrate levels <ul><li>Water contaminated by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Run-off from agriculture fields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed lots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sewage and septic systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ponds overpopulated of geese and ducks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infants consuming high loads of nitrates in water can suffer from Methemoglobinemia or &quot;blue baby&quot; disease. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Phosphates <ul><li>Essential nutrient for plant and animal growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals use phosphate for bone growth and metabolic processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Low levels of phosphate found naturally in the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphates also found in human and animal waste, detergents, industrial waste and run-off. </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive phosphate leads to increase plant growth, especially algae blooms </li></ul>
  17. 17. Algae Blooms <ul><li>Thick layer of green slime covering water surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Rapidly leads to decrease in Dissolved Oxygen levels by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing plant death rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreasing surface to air contact. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing metabolic rate. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Algae blooms can lead to fish kills & death of many organisms. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Human impact on Phosphate levels <ul><li>Increased phosphate levels can be caused by run-off from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture fields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Golf courses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lawns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sewage & Septic tanks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detergents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recently disturbed ground </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Turbidity <ul><li>Refers to the clarity of water. The murkier the water, the greater turbidity </li></ul><ul><li>Turbidity increase when suspended solids are added into the water, such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plankton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sewage waste </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Human impact on Turbidity <ul><li>High turbidity may be caused by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil erosion & runoff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste discharge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flooding & increased flow rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dredging & channelization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Algae growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Turbid water leads to increased temperatures & decreased oxygen levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Can also clog gills and suffocate hatchlings. </li></ul><ul><li>Turbid water does not support a wide variety of life. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Dissolved Oxygen <ul><li>Amount of life-sustaining oxygen dissolved in water </li></ul><ul><li>Most aquatic animals need oxygen to survive. </li></ul><ul><li>Mixes in from the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ripples & Rapids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also added in from plants & algae </li></ul><ul><li>Higher levels of DO in cooler water. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Human impact on DO levels <ul><li>Build up of organic waste causes drop in DO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves, grass clippings, sewage, dead plants & animals. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increase in temperature can decrease DO levels </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased flow rates can decrease DO levels </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of 3 or lower can lead to a fish kill . Levels of 2 or lower will not support most aquatic life. </li></ul><ul><li>Most fish prefer DO levels of 5 or more. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Fecal Coliform <ul><li>Found in human and animal waste </li></ul><ul><li>Indicator of presence of pathogenic bacteria that can cause sickness or disease, such as: typhoid fever, hepatitis, gastroenteritis, dysentery, and ear infections. </li></ul><ul><li>Can enter rivers & streams through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>direct discharge of waste from mammals and birds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from agricultural and storm runoff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from untreated human sewage. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Healthy Pond or River <ul><li>In a healthy pond everything is in balance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DO levels of 5 or greater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pH levels between 6.5 and 8.5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low nitrate levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low phosphate levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low turbidity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average Temperature (for the season, area) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Fecal Coliform rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of organisms </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Un-healthy Pond or River <ul><li>In an un-healthy pond everything is out of balance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DO levels of 3 or lower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pH levels below 5 or above 9.5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High nitrate levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High phosphate levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High turbidity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Above-Average Temperatures (for the season, area) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Fecal Coliform rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Algae Blooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few organisms. High abundance of blood worms and other pollution-tolerant species. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Ready?