Lasers and Optics                                                                                                       07...
2012 AFOSR SPRING REVIEW           2301A PORTFOLIO OVERVIEWNAME: Dr. Howard SchlossbergBRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PORTFOLIO:RESE...
Anthony E. Siegman    1931 - 2011                                                                           3 DISTRIBUTION...
Anthony E. Siegman    1931 - 2011                                                                           4 DISTRIBUTION...
Anthony E. Siegman    1931 - 2011                            •Invention of Unstable Resonator – 1965                      ...
LASERS                                                                          6DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public relea...
Portfolio Summary (Detail)• High Average Power Solid-State Lasers     •   Ceramic Laser Solid-State Materials     •   Fibe...
AFOSR Study of 6.1 Opportunities in High          Energy and High Power Lasers• Ceramic Solid-State Laser Materials   • Sp...
AGENDA• Ceramic Solid-State Lasers• X-Pals, Three Level Lasers• Photonic Bandgap Gas Lasers• Ultraviolet Harmonic Lasers• ...
AGENDA• Ceramic Solid-State Lasers• X-Pals, Three Level Lasers• Photonic Bandgap Gas Lasers• Ultraviolet Harmonic Lasers• ...
Ceramic laser gain media offer a number of important             advantages over single crystals and glasses              ...
Ceramic Solid-State Laser Materials                   Program Examples• Ikesue (JTO, Dr. Caster)    – Processing, diagnost...
AFOSR Sponsored Ceramic Research Meeting in Nagoya                                                                        ...
AGENDA• Ceramic Solid-State Lasers• X-Pals, Three Level Lasers• Photonic Bandgap Gas Lasers• Ultraviolet Harmonic Lasers• ...
DPALS (Cesium)                                       There is no requirement that the                                    p...
XPALS SYSTEM: Cs-Ar                  14                                                         Cs-Ar                     ...
XPALS SUMMARY• The extracted decay constants from laser excitation spectra yield transition region slope of -3/2 kT• ~0.7 ...
AGENDA• Ceramic Solid-State Lasers• X-Pals, Three Level Lasers• Photonic Bandgap Gas Lasers• Ultraviolet Harmonic Lasers• ...
PHOTONIC BANDGAP GAS LASERS•Diode-pumped gas laser•Long interaction length allows small absorption•Enhanced efficiency pos...
C2H2 Laser Spectrum and Transitions       Energy states      Potential Lasing States                                    v1...
AGENDA• Ceramic Solid-State Lasers• X-Pals, Three Level Lasers• Photonic Bandgap Gas Lasers• Ultraviolet Harmonic Lasers• ...
T. Carmon, Univ. Michigan                 Objective: Continuous-in-Time Micro-Emitter at the Extreme UVConcept:1) Nonlinea...
Tal Carmon, Univ. Michigan                           Accomplishments: continuous 4th-Harmonic Generation                  ...
AGENDA• Ceramic Solid-State Lasers• X-Pals, Three Level Lasers• Photonic Bandgap Gas Lasers• Ultraviolet Harmonic Lasers• ...
Laser Locking for Short Pulse Generation• Pulse synthesis with wavelength and coherent beam combining integrated   into si...
Laser Locking                                  This work     Individual phase          Single metric     measurement      ...
AGENDA• Ceramic Solid-State Lasers• X-Pals, Three Level Lasers• Photonic Bandgap Gas Lasers• Ultraviolet Harmonic Lasers• ...
Dual-comb FT spectroscopy     GaSe                                                                          31DISTRIBUTION...
AGENDA• Ceramic Solid-State Lasers• X-Pals, Three Level Lasers• Photonic Bandgap Gas Lasers• Ultraviolet Harmonic Lasers• ...
Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)• Invented with AFOSR funding• Very broad-based optical    diagnostic technique.•   Expa...
Problem: High mortality from smoke                      Inhalation Injury          • 27% of Army burn admissions suffer in...
Artery Wall                                                                            Lipid Intracoronary OCT            ...
Thank you            36
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Schlossberg - Lasers and Optics - Spring Review 2012

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Dr. Howard Schlossberg presents and overview of his program - Lasers and Optics - at the AFOSR Spring Review 2012.

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Schlossberg - Lasers and Optics - Spring Review 2012

  1. 1. Lasers and Optics 07 MAR 2012 Howard Schlossberg Program Manager AFOSR/RSE Integrity  Service  Excellence Air Force Research Laboratory9 March 2012 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 1
  2. 2. 2012 AFOSR SPRING REVIEW 2301A PORTFOLIO OVERVIEWNAME: Dr. Howard SchlossbergBRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PORTFOLIO:RESEARCH IN LASERS, OPTICS, AND THEIR APPLICATIONSLIST SUB-AREAS IN PORTFOLIO:- LASERS- NON-LINEAR OPTICS- LASER-MATTER INTERACTIONS- MICRO-SYSTEMS 2 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  3. 3. Anthony E. Siegman 1931 - 2011 3 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  4. 4. Anthony E. Siegman 1931 - 2011 4 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  5. 5. Anthony E. Siegman 1931 - 2011 •Invention of Unstable Resonator – 1965 •Keeper of the Modes •Invention of M2 - 1990 •Ultrashort Pulse Measurements Tony Wrote the Book on Lasers 5 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  6. 6. LASERS 6DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  7. 7. Portfolio Summary (Detail)• High Average Power Solid-State Lasers • Ceramic Laser Solid-State Materials • Fiber Lasers • Thin Disk Semiconductor Lasers • X-PALS• Modest Power Lasers • Mid-Infrared Semiconductor Lasers • Mid-Infrared Fiber Lasers• Nonlinear Optics • Nonlinear Frequency Conversion • Ultrashort Pulses • Extreme Light • High Harmonic Generation • Mid-and Long Wave Frequency Combs To Dr. Parra • X-Ray Imaging • Micromachining• Microplasma Arrays • Specialized Lighting • Plasma chemistry • Plasma transistor • RF modulation, protection (DARPA) 7 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  8. 8. AFOSR Study of 6.1 Opportunities in High Energy and High Power Lasers• Ceramic Solid-State Laser Materials • Spatially Varying Index and Doping Concentration • Non-Isotropic hosts• Fiber Lasers• Ultra-short, Ultra-Intense Pulses • Matter Interactions, Propagation, X-Ray Beams• Integrate with HPL JTO ProgramsHigh Energy Solid-State, and Some Gas, Lasers Today are an Exercise in Mode Conversion 8 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  9. 9. AGENDA• Ceramic Solid-State Lasers• X-Pals, Three Level Lasers• Photonic Bandgap Gas Lasers• Ultraviolet Harmonic Lasers• Multiple Line Pulsed LasersTechnology Transfer Examples• Infrared Short Pulse FTIR• Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) 9 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  10. 10. AGENDA• Ceramic Solid-State Lasers• X-Pals, Three Level Lasers• Photonic Bandgap Gas Lasers• Ultraviolet Harmonic Lasers• Multiple Line Pulsed LasersTechnology Transfer Examples• Infrared Short Pulse FTIR• Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) 10 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  11. 11. Ceramic laser gain media offer a number of important advantages over single crystals and glasses :• Ceramic media can be fabricated with arbitrary shapes and size.• Ceramics are well suited to produce composite gain media, consisting e.g. of parts with different doping levels, or even different dopants• Spatially varying doping profiles are relatively easily possible. These aspects give additional freedom in laser design.• Significantly higher doping concentration can be achieved without quenching effects degrading the laser efficiency.• Some materials, e.g. sesquioxides are very difficult to grow into single crystals, and much easier to obtain in ceramic form. 11 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  12. 12. Ceramic Solid-State Laser Materials Program Examples• Ikesue (JTO, Dr. Caster) – Processing, diagnostics – Navy does characterization, lasing (Shori)• Ballato - Clemson (JTO, Dr Sayir) – Sesquioxides• Byer – Stanford (JTO, AFOSR) – Nd, Yb, Tm doped ceramics, Tm fibers – Works with U. Central Florida (Gaume)• Wu – Alfred University (AFOSR YIP) – Yb doped Sr5(PO4)3F (Yb:S-FAP) • Excellent properties as laser host • Prototype uniaxial material 12 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  13. 13. AFOSR Sponsored Ceramic Research Meeting in Nagoya 13 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  14. 14. AGENDA• Ceramic Solid-State Lasers• X-Pals, Three Level Lasers• Photonic Bandgap Gas Lasers• Ultraviolet Harmonic Lasers• Multiple Line Pulsed LasersTechnology Transfer Examples• Infrared Short Pulse FTIR• Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) 14 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  15. 15. DPALS (Cesium) There is no requirement that the pumping frequency be much higher than the frequency emitted as long as the difference in frequency is much greater than kT/h, which can assure the possibility of negative temperatures. Schawlow and Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958). 15DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  16. 16. XPALS SYSTEM: Cs-Ar 14 Cs-Ar 2  B  Δε 12Energy (10 cm )-1 2 6 P 103 ~837 nm 852.1 nm 1 2 2  6 S 0 X  4 5 6 6 7 Interatomic Distance (Å) Continuous tunability between 4, 3, and 2 level systems 16 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  17. 17. XPALS SUMMARY• The extracted decay constants from laser excitation spectra yield transition region slope of -3/2 kT• ~0.7 kT is a critical value of the energy separation between adjacent laser levels• 4 level laser system collapses in a kT interval of ~ 2 meV 18 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  18. 18. AGENDA• Ceramic Solid-State Lasers• X-Pals, Three Level Lasers• Photonic Bandgap Gas Lasers• Ultraviolet Harmonic Lasers• Multiple Line Pulsed LasersTechnology Transfer Examples• Infrared Short Pulse FTIR• Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) 19 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  19. 19. PHOTONIC BANDGAP GAS LASERS•Diode-pumped gas laser•Long interaction length allows small absorption•Enhanced efficiency possible through V-V collisions•Large mode area or coherent coupling possible •Corwin - Kansas State U • U. New Mexico •University of Bath 20 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  20. 20. C2H2 Laser Spectrum and Transitions Energy states Potential Lasing States v1+v3 600 ~ 3.1 m Spectral Intensity (arb. units) C2H2 Pressure = 111 torr 1.7 m 500 Actual Wavelengths:~1.5 m v1 400 v3 3114.6 nm, R(11) ~ 3.8 m 3172.4 nm, P(13) ~ 3.8 m 300 Herman, J. Chem. Ref. Data 32, (2003). v2 8 m v5 200 13 m v4 Vibrational ground state 00000 100 ν1 H C C H 0 3.113 3.114 3.115 3.171 3.172 3.173 ν3 H C C H Wavelength (m) 21 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  21. 21. AGENDA• Ceramic Solid-State Lasers• X-Pals, Three Level Lasers• Photonic Bandgap Gas Lasers• Ultraviolet Harmonic Lasers• Multiple Line Pulsed LasersTechnology Transfer Examples• Infrared Short Pulse FTIR• Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) 23 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  22. 22. T. Carmon, Univ. Michigan Objective: Continuous-in-Time Micro-Emitter at the Extreme UVConcept:1) Nonlinear medium Xenon gas2) Optical Enhancement by IR recirculating in a micro-resonator Local enhancement by metal (Orange) Compact cw telecom source, no meter-scaled pulsed lasers3) Indications for High Harmonics UV detection with an optical spectrum analyzer Free Electron detection via current monitoring between electrodes Compact CW IR -e XUV Laser pump UV Xe + 24 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  23. 23. Tal Carmon, Univ. Michigan Accomplishments: continuous 4th-Harmonic Generation UV Extreme UV results Past 3rd Harmonics & 3rd-order sum-frequency generation (separately measured duringExperimentally Demonstrated: different experiments, Nature Phys. 2007)–UV 4th-harmonic generation [Opt. Exp. 2011]– Laser emission with incoherent pumping [Adv.Mater. 2011] This year–HyperRaman emission (two-photon-excitedanalog of Raman) [Appl. Phys. Lett. 2012,accepted]•Theoretically analyzed: Continuous-in-time pump, 2nd-, 3rd-, & 4th-–An atom-plasmon-resonator system [New J. harmonics emission. Opt. Exp. 2011Phys., To be submitted] 25 Papers are in collaboration with Cohen, Bartal (Technion), Jarrahi (U of M), Rotschild & Baldo (MIT) DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  24. 24. AGENDA• Ceramic Solid-State Lasers• X-Pals, Three Level Lasers• Photonic Bandgap Gas Lasers• Ultraviolet Harmonic Lasers• Multiple Line Pulsed LasersTechnology Transfer Examples• Infrared Short Pulse FTIR• Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) 27 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  25. 25. Laser Locking for Short Pulse Generation• Pulse synthesis with wavelength and coherent beam combining integrated into single setup – Wavelength beam combining controls frequencies – Coherent beam combining is implemented with feedback from single-phase sensitive metric• Advantages – Scalability – Reconfigurability – Large pulse energies, high repetition rates, short optical pulses – Pulse generation in laser systems, or spectral regions where difficult 28 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  26. 26. Laser Locking This work Individual phase Single metric measurement measurement f 1, f c f 1, f c f 2, f c f 2, f c fn, fc fn, fc f 1 f 2f n J(f1 f2…fn) Feedback Feedback• Feedback is based on single phase sensitive metric – Allows control of large arrays!• Stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm is used for feedback – Determine performance metric and apply random changes to all inputs – Update parameters with stochastic gradient u n1  u n   n J n u n j j j j – Vary current to laser arrays to cause phase shift from thermally induced index of refraction change 29 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  27. 27. AGENDA• Ceramic Solid-State Lasers• X-Pals, Three Level Lasers• Photonic Bandgap Gas Lasers• Ultraviolet Harmonic Lasers• Multiple Line Pulsed LasersTechnology Transfer Examples• Infrared Short Pulse FTIR• Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) 30 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  28. 28. Dual-comb FT spectroscopy GaSe 31DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  29. 29. AGENDA• Ceramic Solid-State Lasers• X-Pals, Three Level Lasers• Photonic Bandgap Gas Lasers• Ultraviolet Harmonic Lasers• Multiple Line Pulsed LasersTechnology Transfer Examples• Infrared Short Pulse FTIR• Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) 32 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  30. 30. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)• Invented with AFOSR funding• Very broad-based optical diagnostic technique.• Expanded under program to include Doppler and polarization- sensitive OCT.• Recent breakthroughs in speed – spectral and swept source OCT – and resolution.• Military examples: – Burn depth measurement. – Blood flow. – Airway damage.• Civilian spin-off examples: – Eye problems. – Coronary artery disease – Barrett’s Esophagus.• Over 16 million eye diagnostics in 2010• Over 50 thousand coronary artery 33 procedures to date DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  31. 31. Problem: High mortality from smoke Inhalation Injury • 27% of Army burn admissions suffer inhalation injuries • 10 times greater mortality than other burn patients • No technology for early diagnosis Solution: OCT imaging enables early detectionAirway - normalInflammation following smokeinhalation Advances in speed of OCT imaging and unique optical probe design enables high resolution 3D airway imagingStatus: Clinical trials proposed for USAISR & BAMC 34 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  32. 32. Artery Wall Lipid Intracoronary OCT Calcium Macrophages Stent3D OCT of Human Coronary Artery in vivo • Next major intracoronary imaging modality • Identifies plaques before heart attack • Guide stent intervention • 3 major companies • Over 50,000 patients imaged
  33. 33. Thank you 36

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