Parra - Ultrashort Pulse (USP) Laser Matter Interactions - Spring Review 2012

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Dr. Riq Parra presents an overview of his program - Ultrashort Pulse (USP) Laser Matter Interactions - at the AFOSR 2012 Spring Review.

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  • Attochron, LLC was the first to demonstrate free-space laser communications with ultrashort pulse lasers -- in fact we invented it in 1997 with other Attochron principals. The related concepts to telecoms including ionization of the media to achieve such are controlled exclusively by Attochron, LLC. Come to us for licensing.
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Parra - Ultrashort Pulse (USP) Laser Matter Interactions - Spring Review 2012

  1. 1. Ultrashort Pulse (USP) Laser-Matter Interactions 08 MAR 2012 Riq Parra Program Manager AFOSR/RSE Integrity  Service  Excellence Air Force Research Laboratory15 February 2012 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 1
  2. 2. USP Laser Matter Interactions DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 2
  3. 3. Characteristics of short pulse lasers Peak Power Pulsewidth Bandwidth• The program aims to understand and control light sources exhibiting extreme bandwidth, peak power and temporal characteristics.• Portfolio sub-areas: optical frequency combs, high-field science, attosecond physics. DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 3
  4. 4. Applications of USP LasersParticle Acceleration Metrologyultrahigh electric field gradients USP stabilized, ultra-wide bandwidth• Table-top GeV electron Lasers • Ultra-stable freq sources accelerators • Arb waveform generation• MeV ion sources for • High precision spectroscopy imaging • Frequency/time transfer• Isotope production • Ultra-wideband comms• Hadron tumor therapy • Coherent LIDAR• Proton-based fast • Optical clocks ignition • Calibration Secondary Radiation Sources Propagation in media Material Science generation of particle & photons self-channeling ultrashort, high peak power • High power THz generation • Remote sensing • Surgery • Extreme ultraviolet • Remote tagging • Chemical analysis (LIBS) lithography • Directed energy • Surface property • Biological soft x-ray • Electronic warfare modification microscopy • Countermeasures • Non-equilibrium ablation • Non-destructive evaluation • Advanced sonar • Micromachining • Medical imaging/therapy • Ultrafast photochemistry • Attochemistry DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 4
  5. 5. Modelocked femtosecond lasers ThorlabsSource: Diddams, JOSA B (2010) DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 5
  6. 6. Mode-locked lasers as broadband phase- coherent optical sources (optical frequency combs) DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 6
  7. 7. Advancing Ultrafast Lasers for High- Bandwidth 4D MetrologyPratt & Whitney F119 PI: James Gord, AFRL/RZ • Ultrashort pulses for propulsion measurements • Ultrafast laser–based spectroscopic techniques for investigating the physics and chemistry of reacting flows. • Generate top-quality data for • advanced concept development and model validation (R&D) • propulsion-system performance assessment (T&E) • weapon-system active combustion control (ACC) • Measure everything, everywhere, all the time… DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 7
  8. 8. Spectrally Resolved Femtosecond CARS 1D Line ImagingSingle-shot, one-dimensional thermometry in flames PI: James Gord, AFRL/RZ 16-shot avg. Single-shot Key fs-CARS advantages • >3 OOM faster data acquisition • 1D line vs. point measurements • Free from collisional broadening • Nonresonant-background control • Strong coherences • Improved accuracy, precision • Species-selective [n] and T • Multiple-species excitation DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 8
  9. 9. An optical frequency combfo measured via theheterodyne betweenthe second harmonicof the IR & VIS combcomponents. Repetition rate phase-locked to a microwave reference.Source: Diddams, JOSA B (2010) DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 9
  10. 10. Metrological applications of optical frequency combsSource: Newbury, Nature Photonics (2011) DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 10
  11. 11. Microresonator frequency combs CaF2 SiN rings Silica toroids FY2012 Basic Research Initiative (BAA-AFOSR-2012-02)Source: Kippenberg et al., Science (2011) DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 11
  12. 12. Mode-locked lasers as high peak power sources (high field science) DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 12
  13. 13. Progress in peak intensity• Over the last two decades, a 6 order of magnitude increase in achieved focused intensities in table-top systems. Source: CUOS website Phenomena Relevance Thomson scattering Gamma rays source Laser wakefield Compact e- acceleration accelerators 2x1022 Particle and x-ray Proton & x-ray emission from solids sources High harmonic Coherent EUV generation sources Propagation of Filamentation EM pulses Laser ablation Laser machining of solids & patterning DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13
  14. 14. High intensity lasers are reducing from national lab to university scale systems Commercial product! Attributes LLNL Petawatt (1998) Thales Alpha 10 (2012)Power per pulse 660 J 40 JPulse width 440 fs 25 fsFocused intensity 7 x 1020 (W/cm2) n/aPeak power 1.5 PW 1.3 PWSize Building 14 x 19 ft2Rep rate few shots/day 1 HzGain material Nd:glass Ti:Sapphire Thales SIZE Alpha 10 brochure Thales Alpha 10 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 14
  15. 15. Laser micromachining & patterning PI: Chunlei Guo, U of Rochester• Ultrashort laser pulses open up novel possibilities and mechanisms for laser-solid Colorizing metals using femtosecond lasers interactions.• Demonstrated femtosecond laser processing and surface texturing techniques to engineer surface structures & properties (e.g. darkened & colored metals, super wicking surfaces).• Studied nanostructure-covered laser-induced periodic surface structures (NC-LIPSS) & nanostructure-covered large scale waves (NC- LSW). NC-LIPSS NC-LSW Super wicking surfaces: Array of parallel microgrooves generates strong capillary force. DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 15
  16. 16. Propagation of high-intensity USPL pulses PI: William P Roach, AFRL/RD• Propagation of localized high-intensity laser pulses is of interest for remote sensing, imaging, communications and remote interactions.• Such propagation in air leads to self-channeling (i.e. filaments) and plasma formation.• AFRL/RDLA Filamentation Team is engaged in an experimental, theoretical and computational effort to: • Develop computational models for long-distance fs propagation as an extended free space waveguide. • Study filament propagation for long distances (2, 5 & 7 km test sites available). • Characterize fs-laser filament physics necessary for coupling/confining external EM-Fields. • Understand filamentation induced electrical shorting. High-performance GPU computing enclave 9-inch filament bundle propagation through kV-level E-Field Range DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 16
  17. 17. Optical breakdown of air triggered by femtosecond laser filaments PI: Pavel Polynkin, Arizona• Generation and 200x enhancement of dense plasma channels at range via dual-pulse femtosecond-nanosecond laser excitation.• Control of femtosecond laser filamentation through laser beam engineering. Extended bottle- like plasma-channel distributions using vortex beams and high order Bessel beams. 100 laser shots fs pulse only Single shot fs + ns pulses Bottle-like filament patterns produced by vortex beams in water DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 17
  18. 18. High Harmonic Generation (HHG) Microscopic single- atom physics of HHG Macroscopic phase-matched harmonic emission WATER WINDOW 2mm 0.8mm lLASER=3.9 mm B C N O Fe Co Ni CuSource: Popmintchev et al., Nat Photonics (2010),Popmintchev et al., CLEO postdeadline (2011) DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 18
  19. 19. Direct Frequency Comb Spectroscopy in the Extreme Ultraviolet PI: Jun Ye, U of Colorado• Generating frequency combs in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) via high harmonic generation (HHG) in a femtosecond enhancement cavity.• Demonstrated generation of >200 µW per harmonic down to 50 nm.• Ultrahigh precision spectroscopy below the 100 nm spectral region:• Direct frequency comb spectroscopy of Argon transition at 82 nm with resolved 10 MHz linewidth (atomic thermal motion limited). 47 nm 71 nm 82 nm 97 nm 119 nm 10 MHz Ar @ 82 nm DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 19
  20. 20. Diocles 100 TW laser system PI: Donald Umstadter, U of Nebraska• Nd:YAG pumped Ti:Sapphire• 3.5 J in < 30 fs, 100 TW @ 10 Hz Focal spot Spot size (FWHM) = 16 microns Enclosed energy > 75-80 % DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 20
  21. 21. Laser-driven x-rays generation (0.1 – 10 MeV) PI: Donald Umstadter, U of Nebraska• Scattering from a 300 MeV electron beam can Doppler shift a 1-eV energy laser photon to 1.5 MeV energy.• Demonstrated > 710 MeV electron beams with no detectable low-energy background. Scattering Laser Pulse Experimental geometry Energy tunability from 0.1 – 0.8 GeV. for generating x-rays via Monoenergetic: ΔE/E ~ 10 % Low angular divergence: 1-5 mrad Thomson scattering E-Beam > 710 MeV electrons Super Sonic Nozzle• Proof-of-principle experiments are underway. DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 21
  22. 22. Repetitive petawatt-class laser PI: Donald Umstadter, U of Nebraska• Completed upgrade to 0.7 PW @ 0.1 Hz. 10-cm Ti:Sapphire power amplifier PW Specifications Wavelength 805 nm 25-J Nd:glass pump lasers Pulse duration < 30 fs Rep rate 0.1 Hz Pulse energy 20 J Peak power 0.7 PW Strehl ratio 0.95 Max intensity (f/2) 1x1023 W cm-2 New gratings for pulse compressor DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 22
  23. 23. Mode-locked lasers as sources ofultrashort EM pulses (attosecond physics) DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 23
  24. 24. Generation of single attosecond photon pulses Streaking spectrogram Retrieved intensity profile www.attoworld.deSource: Corkum, Nature Physics (2007),Goulielmakis, Science (2008) DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 24
  25. 25. Attosecond pulses provide a new set of metrology toolsSource: Krausz, RMP (2009) DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 25
  26. 26. Sub-cycle optical pulses for isolated attosecond pulse generation PI: Franz Kaertner, MIT• Coherent wavelength multiplexing of high High-energy optical energy pulses, spanning two octaves, into waveform synthesizer a non-sinusoidal waveform with sub-cycle features.• Shortest high-field transient lasts 0.8 cycles of the carrier frequency.• Unique, scalable approach to higher energies and rep rates for high average power sources of isolated attosecond pulses. Synthesized waveform Computed isolated attosecond pulse 0.8 cycles Waveform supports directly isolated soft X-ray pulse with 150 as duration (with no gating). DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 26
  27. 27. Summary and outlook The program aims to understand and control light sources exhibiting extreme temporal, bandwidth and peak power characteristics.Optical frequency combs High-field laser physics Attosecond scienceultra-wide bandwidths high peak powers ultrashort pulsewidths• Spectral coverage to exceed an • Laser-solid interactions. • Efficient, high-flux generation. octave with high power/comb. • Fs propagation in media. • Pump-probe methods.• Coherence across EUV-LWIR. • Sources of secondary photons. • Probe atoms/molecules &• Novel resonator designs (e.g. • Compact particle accelerators. condensed matter systems. micro-resonator based). • High peak power laser • Attosecond pulse propagation.• Ultra-broadband pulse shaping. architectures. • Novel attosecond experiments.• … • High repetition rates. • Fundamental interpretations of • New wavelengths of operation. attosecond measurements. • … • … DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 27

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