“Say cheese....”                                  High-Speed Single-Photon Camera                                         ...
“Say cheese....”                   What am I going to talk about?   MOTIVATIONS          THE MAKING OF            FROM THE...
MOTIVATIONS          Demanding imaging applications require     Extreme sensitivity     AND high-speed
MOTIVATIONS                Demanding imaging applications require           Extreme sensitivity      AND high-speed       ...
IMAGER SPECIFICATIONS   REQUIREMENT                 PROPOSED SOLUTION                     RISKSingle-Photon sensitivity   ...
SPAD ARRAYSHIGH PERFORMANCE ARRAY• Large pixel diameter• Moderate number of pixels• Limited by the ext. Electronics       ...
ACTIVE QUENCHING CIRCUIT Group’s State-of-the-Art   VLQC
ARRAY ARCHITECTURE      INTEGRATED                     QUENCHING CIRCUIT    CMOS SPAD     (20µm)                          ...
ARRAY OPERATIONS
ARRAY OPERATIONS
ARRAY OPERATIONS
ARRAY OPERATIONS
PIXEL LAYOUT 20 μm                        100 μm               100 μm
SPAD ARRAYSVLQC   SMART PIXEL                      LINEAR 32x1 ARRAY                32x32 SPAD IMAGER                32 co...
SPAD IMAGER• 1024 parallel channels   • Programmable to read-out any pixel sub-• Global shutter             portion to inc...
SPAD IMAGERExperimental measurements                 Up to 45% Single-Photon Det. Efficiency                 75% DCR < 4 kcp...
IMAGER SPECIFICATIONS     REQUIREMENT                IMPLEMENTED SOLUTION  Single-Photon sensitivity          CMOS SPAD de...
SPAD CAMERA
SPAD CAMERA              • FPGA-based high-speed electronics              • Requires only USB cable to work: Plug’n’Play  ...
SPAD CAMERA                            770 μs• Easy to use• 40 kframe/s• Low light level at such  a high speed
SUB-RAYLEIGH IMAGING @ MITConventional imaging with non-diffraction limited optics
SUB-RAYLEIGH IMAGING @ MITConventional imaging with diffraction limited optics                                         Rayl...
SUB-RAYLEIGH IMAGING @ MIT    Setup modi cations to apply the Sub-Rayleight technique                                     ...
SUB-RAYLEIGH IMAGING @ MIT Sub-Rayleigh imaging with diffraction limited optics   Movable                                  ...
SUB-RAYLEIGH IMAGING @ MIT     Good optics                  Bad optics                  Bad optics          +             ...
HIGH THROUGHPUT FCS @ UCLA                       Fluorescent analyte ows or diffuses                       through a small ...
HIGH THROUGHPUT FCS @ UCLA To work well only     PROBLEM!                       SOLUTION!                                 ...
HIGH THROUGHPUT FCS @ UCLA To work well only       PROBLEM!                            SOLUTION!                          ...
HIGH THROUGHPUT FCS @ UCLALCOS-SLM and SPAD array  enabling technologies
HIGH THROUGHPUT FCS @ UCLA         8x8 ACF with rescaling          100 nm beads in H2O Curves overlap and can be tted
3D IMAGING    Indirect-ToF    •Modulated light illuminates    the scene    •A very sensitive detector    measure the re ec...
3D IMAGING                       How did a 2D camera become “3D capable”?Light source + driver + waveform generator + new ...
3D IMAGING             Depth resolution:             3 – 9 mm             Scene depth:             30 cm             Measu...
CONCLUSIONS                                     Group SoA                                 My workVLQC                     ...
CONCLUSIONS          Novel SPAD quenching circuit          •Small footprint          •Small parasitic capacitance         ...
CONCLUSIONS          Smart pixel architecture          •20-μm CMOS SPAD detector          •Front-end electronics (VLQC)   ...
CONCLUSIONS          32x32 CMOS SPAD imager          •1,024 indipendent photon counting channels          •Single-photon s...
CONCLUSIONS          SPAD camera          •High-speed digital FPGA-based system electronics          •Plug’n’play device. ...
CONCLUSIONS          Sub-Rayleigh imaging @          •Experimentally demonstrated and developed novel imaging technique   ...
CONCLUSIONS          Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy @          •Proof of concept for high-troughput FCS on 1,024 pa...
CONCLUSIONS          3D imaging @ Polimi          •Developed and conceived technique to use SPAD camera in 3D imaging     ...
PHD FACTSAchievements/Awards                                             PhD doctoral school• Physical Review Letters as r...
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High-Speed Single-Photon SPAD Camera

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My PhD thesis at Politecnico di Milano

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  • Light and its nature have caused a lot of ink to flow during these last decades. Its dual behavior is partly explained by (1)Double-slit experiment of Thomas Young - who represents the photon’s motion as a wave - and also by (2)the Photoelectric effect in which the photon is considered as a particle. A Revolution: SALEH THEORY solves this ambiguity and this difficulty presenting a three-dimensional trajectory for the photon's motion and a new formula to calculate its energy. More information on https://youtu.be/mLtpARXuMbM
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High-Speed Single-Photon SPAD Camera

  1. 1. “Say cheese....” High-Speed Single-Photon Camera Fabrizio Guerrieri Advisor: Prof. Franco Zappa Co-advisor: Dr. Simone Tisa Tutor: Prof. Angelo Geraci
  2. 2. “Say cheese....” What am I going to talk about? MOTIVATIONS THE MAKING OF FROM THE DEVICE... & IDEAS THE SPAD CAMERA ... TO THE APPLICATIONS (3)
  3. 3. MOTIVATIONS Demanding imaging applications require Extreme sensitivity AND high-speed
  4. 4. MOTIVATIONS Demanding imaging applications require Extreme sensitivity AND high-speed HIGH-SENSITIVITY HIGH-SPEED EM-CCD EB-CCD I-CCD RR AYS PA DA S CMOS APSStandardCCD
  5. 5. IMAGER SPECIFICATIONS REQUIREMENT PROPOSED SOLUTION RISKSingle-Photon sensitivity SPAD detector High-speed Completely independent pixels ( > 10 kframe/s ) High pixel number > 100 Compactness Use of HV-CMOS compatible tech Additional features Global shutter, programmability... Increasing risk:
  6. 6. SPAD ARRAYSHIGH PERFORMANCE ARRAY• Large pixel diameter• Moderate number of pixels• Limited by the ext. Electronics CUSTOM TECHDENSE ARRAY• Small pixel diameter• Large number of pixels• Possibility of smart pixels STANDARD CMOS TECH
  7. 7. ACTIVE QUENCHING CIRCUIT Group’s State-of-the-Art VLQC
  8. 8. ARRAY ARCHITECTURE INTEGRATED QUENCHING CIRCUIT CMOS SPAD (20µm) 8 BIT COUNTER GLOBAL SIGNALS INTERNAL BUFFER MEMORY
  9. 9. ARRAY OPERATIONS
  10. 10. ARRAY OPERATIONS
  11. 11. ARRAY OPERATIONS
  12. 12. ARRAY OPERATIONS
  13. 13. PIXEL LAYOUT 20 μm 100 μm 100 μm
  14. 14. SPAD ARRAYSVLQC SMART PIXEL LINEAR 32x1 ARRAY 32x32 SPAD IMAGER 32 counting and timing channels 1,024 parallel counting channels Single-photon sensitivity Single-photon sensitivity Up to 312.5 kframe/s Up to 100 kframe/s
  15. 15. SPAD IMAGER• 1024 parallel channels • Programmable to read-out any pixel sub-• Global shutter portion to increase max frame-rate• Up to 100 kframe/s
  16. 16. SPAD IMAGERExperimental measurements Up to 45% Single-Photon Det. Efficiency 75% DCR < 4 kcps at room temperature Negligible crosstalk probability
  17. 17. IMAGER SPECIFICATIONS REQUIREMENT IMPLEMENTED SOLUTION Single-Photon sensitivity CMOS SPAD detector ✔ High-speed “Smart” pixel comprising everything ( > 10 kframe/s ) necessary to count photons ✔ High pixel number 32x32 CMOS imager ✔ Compactness 100x100 μm pixel dimension ✔ Additional features Global shutter, programmability... ✔
  18. 18. SPAD CAMERA
  19. 19. SPAD CAMERA • FPGA-based high-speed electronics • Requires only USB cable to work: Plug’n’Play • Developed cross-platform software
  20. 20. SPAD CAMERA 770 μs• Easy to use• 40 kframe/s• Low light level at such a high speed
  21. 21. SUB-RAYLEIGH IMAGING @ MITConventional imaging with non-diffraction limited optics
  22. 22. SUB-RAYLEIGH IMAGING @ MITConventional imaging with diffraction limited optics Rayleigh bound Stripe size
  23. 23. SUB-RAYLEIGH IMAGING @ MIT Setup modi cations to apply the Sub-Rayleight technique 21 Movable N-Photon focused Detectionlaser beam ? Rayleigh bound Stripe size
  24. 24. SUB-RAYLEIGH IMAGING @ MIT Sub-Rayleigh imaging with diffraction limited optics Movable N-Photon focused Detectionlaser beam Rayleigh bound Stripe size Sub-Rayleigh bound
  25. 25. SUB-RAYLEIGH IMAGING @ MIT Good optics Bad optics Bad optics + + + Conventional imaging Conventional imaging Sub-Rayleigh imaging Imaging beyond the Rayleigh limit is possible by •Scanning the object by a focused light spot •Employing N-Photon detection strategy Improvement goes as about the square root of N
  26. 26. HIGH THROUGHPUT FCS @ UCLA Fluorescent analyte ows or diffuses through a small excitation volume emitting uorescence bursts Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) analyses the uorescence intensity uctuations using temporal autocorrelation
  27. 27. HIGH THROUGHPUT FCS @ UCLA To work well only PROBLEM! SOLUTION! Need fasterone particle at time Long Multi-spot parallel acquisition should enter the acquisition FCS acquisitions of FCS data excitation volume times!
  28. 28. HIGH THROUGHPUT FCS @ UCLA To work well only PROBLEM! SOLUTION! Need fasterone particle at time Long Multi-spot parallel acquisition should enter the acquisition FCS acquisitions of FCS data excitation volume times! A very sensitive and high-speed device is required! SPAD arrays as enabling technology
  29. 29. HIGH THROUGHPUT FCS @ UCLALCOS-SLM and SPAD array enabling technologies
  30. 30. HIGH THROUGHPUT FCS @ UCLA 8x8 ACF with rescaling 100 nm beads in H2O Curves overlap and can be tted
  31. 31. 3D IMAGING Indirect-ToF •Modulated light illuminates the scene •A very sensitive detector measure the re ected light •Depth information can be extracted calculating the waveform phase shift: Δt L= c 2€
  32. 32. 3D IMAGING How did a 2D camera become “3D capable”?Light source + driver + waveform generator + new FPGA rmware
  33. 33. 3D IMAGING Depth resolution: 3 – 9 mm Scene depth: 30 cm Measurement time: 10 s Good results but need to speed the acquisition up to get movie-like 3D imaging
  34. 34. CONCLUSIONS Group SoA My workVLQC 3D Pixel Imaging FCS 32x32 SPAD Sub-Rayleigh Array Camera Imaging
  35. 35. CONCLUSIONS Novel SPAD quenching circuit •Small footprint •Small parasitic capacitance •Compatible with CMOS SPAD technology •Reduced afterpulsing and good timingVLQC 3D Pixel Imaging FCS 32x32 SPAD Sub-Rayleigh Array Camera Imaging
  36. 36. CONCLUSIONS Smart pixel architecture •20-μm CMOS SPAD detector •Front-end electronics (VLQC) •Counting and buffer digital logicVLQC 3D Pixel Imaging FCS 32x32 SPAD Sub-Rayleigh Array Camera Imaging
  37. 37. CONCLUSIONS 32x32 CMOS SPAD imager •1,024 indipendent photon counting channels •Single-photon sensitivity •Up to 100 kframe/sVLQC 3D Pixel Imaging FCS 32x32 SPAD Sub-Rayleigh Array Camera Imaging
  38. 38. CONCLUSIONS SPAD camera •High-speed digital FPGA-based system electronics •Plug’n’play device. Power supplies from USB •Cross-platform user-friendly user interface •OpticsVLQC 3D Pixel Imaging FCS 32x32 SPAD Sub-Rayleigh Array Camera Imaging
  39. 39. CONCLUSIONS Sub-Rayleigh imaging @ •Experimentally demonstrated and developed novel imaging technique •Full project responsability •SPAD camera as enabling technologyVLQC 3D Pixel Imaging FCS 32x32 SPAD Sub-Rayleigh Array Camera Imaging
  40. 40. CONCLUSIONS Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy @ •Proof of concept for high-troughput FCS on 1,024 parallel channels •Customization of SPAD camera for FCS •Promising preliminary experimental resultsVLQC 3D Pixel Imaging FCS 32x32 SPAD Sub-Rayleigh Array Camera Imaging
  41. 41. CONCLUSIONS 3D imaging @ Polimi •Developed and conceived technique to use SPAD camera in 3D imaging •Very good preliminary experimentsVLQC 3D Pixel Imaging FCS 32x32 SPAD Sub-Rayleigh Array Camera Imaging
  42. 42. PHD FACTSAchievements/Awards PhD doctoral school• Physical Review Letters as rst author Courses’ grade: all A (8 courses) (IF=7.33) Attended extra non-mandatory courses• Progetto Rocca fellowship Publications• My research helped the group to submit and win an European grant. Total papers: 29 Conference talks: 6• Laser Focus World Award “Commendation for excellence in Other technical communications” Magazine• Co-author of 2 invited conference papers Conf. co-author• ESSDERC08: special congratulation by Conf. 1st author conference committee Journal• PhDay 2008 1° year student award 0 3 5 8 10

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