2www.studyMarketing.orgContents1. Creativity and Types of Innovation2. Conceptual Blocks : Constancy, Compression andComplacency3. Three Components of Creativity4. The Paradoxical Characteristics of Creative Groups5. Tools for Defining Problems and Creating New Ideas6. Creating a Creative ClimateIf you find this presentation useful, please consider tellingothers about our site (www.studyMarketing.org)
3www.studyMarketing.orgCreativity and Types of Innovation
4www.studyMarketing.orgWhat is Creativity?CreativityBringing into existence an idea that isnew to youInnovationThe practical application of creativeideasCreativeThinkingAn innate talent that you were born withand a set of skills that can belearned, developed, and utilized in dailyproblem solving
5www.studyMarketing.orgWhat is Creativity?Creative solutions are more than ideas - they must work in thereal world. A creative solution has three attributes:• It is new (otherwise it would not be creative).• It is useful, in that it solves the problem (otherwise itwould not be a solution).• It is feasible, given the messy real world constraints likemoney and time.
6www.studyMarketing.orgTypes of Innovation• Business Model Innovation involves changing the waybusiness is done in terms of capturing value e.g. HP vs.Dell, hub and spoke airlines vs. Southwest• Process Innovation involves the implementation of a newor significantly improved production or delivery method.
7www.studyMarketing.orgTypes of Innovation• Product Innovation, involves the introduction of a newgood or service that is new or substantially improved. Thismight include improvements in functionalcharacteristics, technical abilities, ease of use, or anyother dimension.• Service Innovation, is similar to product innovationexcept that the innovation relates to services rather thanto products
8www.studyMarketing.orgDon’t Believe the Experts !“That’s an amazing invention, but who would ever wantto use one of them?” (US President Rutherford B. Hayes, afterparticipating in a trial telephone conversation between Washington andPhiladelphia in 1876).“Television won’t be able to hold onto any market itcaptures after the first six months. People will soon gettired of staring into a box every night (Darryl F. Zanuck, Headof 20th Century Fox, 1946)
9www.studyMarketing.orgDon’t Believe the Experts !“The horse is here to stay, but the automobile is only anovelty, a fad” (President of Michigan Savings Bank, 1903, advisingHenry Ford’s lawyer not to invest in the Ford Motor Company –disregarding the advice, he invested $ 5,000 in stock, which he soldseveral years later for $ 12,5 million).“I think there is a world market for about five computers(Thomas J. Watson Sr., Chairman of IBM, 1943)
10www.studyMarketing.orgConceptual Blocks to Creativity
11www.studyMarketing.orgBlocks and Blockbusters to CreativityFollowing the rules Breaking the rulesMaking assumptionsCheckingassumptions
12www.studyMarketing.orgBlocks and Blockbusters to CreativityFear of failure Risk-taking cultureOver-reliance on logicUse imaginationand intuition
13www.studyMarketing.orgConceptual BlocksConceptualblocksMental obstacles that constrainthe way the problem is definedand limit the number ofalternative solutions thought tobe relevant
14www.studyMarketing.orgConceptual BlocksThe more formaleducationindividuals haveThe moreexperience theyhave in a jobThe less ablethey are to solveproblem increative ways…
15www.studyMarketing.orgConceptual BlocksFormal educationoften produces…“rightanswers”, analyticalrules, or thinkingboundariesExperience in jobteaches…..proper ways of doingthings, specializedknowledge, and rigidexpectation ofappropriate actionsIndividualslose the abilitytoexperiment, improvise, andtake mentaldetours
16www.studyMarketing.orgTypes of Conceptual BlocksConstancyVertical thinkingOne thinking languageCompressionDistinguishing figurefrom groundArtificial constraint
17www.studyMarketing.orgTypes of Conceptual BlocksComplacencyNon-inquisitivenessNon-thinking
18www.studyMarketing.orgConstancyVerticalthinkingOnethinkinglanguage• Defining problem in only one way withoutconsidering alternative views• Lateral thinkers, on the other hand, generatealternative ways of viewing a problem andproduce multiple definitions• Using only one language (e.g., words) todefine and assess the problem• Disregarding other language such asnonverbal or symbolic languages(e.g., mathematics), sensory imagery(smelling), feelings and emotions(fear, happiness) and visual imagery (mental
19www.studyMarketing.orgCompressionDistinguishingfigure fromgroundArtificialconstraints• Not filtering out irrelevant information orfinding needed information• The inability to separate the important fromthe unimportant, and to appropriatelycompress problems.• Defining the boundaries of a problem toonarrowly• People assume that some problem definitionsor alternative solutions are off-limits, so theyignore them.
20www.studyMarketing.orgComplacencyNon-inquisitivenessNon-thinking• Not asking questions• Sometimes the inability to solve problemsresults from a reticence to ask questions, toobtain information, or to search for data.• An inclination to avoid doing mental work.
21www.studyMarketing.orgThree Components of Creativity
22www.studyMarketing.orgThree Components of CreativityExpertiseMotivationCreativeThinkingSkillsCreativity
23www.studyMarketing.orgThree Components of CreativityExpertiseMotivationExpertise is, in a word, knowledge –technical, procedural, andintellectualNot all motivation is created equal. Aninner passion to solve the problem athand leads to solutions far morecreative than do externalrewards, such as money.
24www.studyMarketing.orgThree Components of CreativityCreativeThinkingSkillsCreative thinking skills determinehow flexible and imaginativelypeople approach problems.
26www.studyMarketing.orgMyths about Creativity1. The smarter you are, the more creative youare2. The young are more creative than the old3. Creativity is reserved for the few – theflamboyant risk takers4. Creativity is a solitary act5. You can’t manage creativity
27www.studyMarketing.orgTools for Defining Problems
28www.studyMarketing.orgTools for Defining ProblemsKipling MethodProblem StatementChallenge MethodTools forDefiningProblems
29www.studyMarketing.orgKipling MethodKiplingMethod• Rudyard Kipling used a set of questions (5W +1H) to help trigger ideas and solve problems• One approach with this is to use the questionsin a particular order to help guide you througha sequence of thought towards a completeanswer, such as: What is the problem? Where is ithappening? When is it happening? Why is ithappening? How can you overcome this problem?Who do you need to get involved? When will youknow you have solved the problem?
30www.studyMarketing.orgKiplingMethod• Any questions work because we areconditioned to answer questions that we areasked. They challenge us and social rules sayit is impolite not to reply.• The Kipling questions work because they areshort and direct. They are also largelygeneral, and What can be applied to manydifferent situations, making them a flexibleresource.Kipling Method
31www.studyMarketing.orgProblem StatementProblemStatement• When starting to solve a creative problem it isa good idea to define the problem you aretrying to solve.• Start by discussing the overall context andsituation in which the creative activity isaimed.
32www.studyMarketing.orgProblemStatement• Write down more than one draft of theproblem statement. Remember that definingthe problem is almost a complete project initself and you may benefit from going throughiterative stages of convergence anddivergence.• Listen and write down everybodys opinion ofwhat the problem really is. Find the points ofagreement and then discuss the differences.Problem Statement
33www.studyMarketing.orgProblemStatement• Stating the problem may seem obvious, yetmany creative efforts fail because theproblem is either unclear or it is focused inthe wrong place.• The way you state a problem is half theproblem and half the solution. Once you haveidentified a good problemstatement, sometimes the solution is soobvious that you need little, if any, creativethought afterwards.Problem Statement
34www.studyMarketing.orgChallenge Method• Use it to force yourself or other people out ofa thinking rut.• Use it to test out ideas for validity.• Use it to challenge the problem or situationyou are considering when initially defining theproblem.ChallengeMethod
35www.studyMarketing.org• Select all or part of the problem domain thatyou are going to challenge. Perhaps it issomething that has been particularly difficult tobe creative around.• Find something to challenge and question itdeeply. You can challenge manythings, including:• Concepts - and broad ideas• Assumptions - and beliefs that are notquestionedChallengeMethodChallenge Method
36www.studyMarketing.orgChallengeMethod• Boundaries - across which you do not yetcross• Impossible - things that are assumedcannot happen• Cant be done - things that are assumedcannot be done• Essentials - things that you assume cannotbe disposed of• Sacred cows - that cannot be challengedChallenge Method
37www.studyMarketing.orgChallengeMethod• One way in which we deal with the complexityof the world is to make assumptions aboutmany things. Our pattern-matching ability is agreat help in allowing us to take short-cuts butit often ends up in us not noticing many things.• If we do not take deliberate and consciousaction, our subconscious will let manyassumptions pass by unnoticed.Challenge Method
38www.studyMarketing.orgTools for Creating New Ideas
39www.studyMarketing.orgTools for Creating New IdeasAttribute ListingBrainstormingVisioningTools forCreating NewIdeas
40www.studyMarketing.orgAttribute ListingAttributeListing• Use Attribute Listing when you have asituation that can be decomposed intoattributes - which itself can be a usefullycreative activity.• Particularly useful with physical objects.You can use it elsewhere, too.• Highly rational style. Suitable for peoplewho prefer analytic approaches. Good forengineering-type situations.
41www.studyMarketing.orgAttributeListing• For the object or thing in question, list asmany attributes as you can.• It can also be useful to first break the objectdown into constituent parts and look at theattributes of each part in question.Attribute Listing
42www.studyMarketing.orgAttributeListing• For each attribute, ask what does this give?Seek the real value of each attribute. It isalso possible that attributes have negativevalue -- i.e.. they detract from the overallvalue of the object.• Finally look for ways in which you canmodify the attributes in some way. Thus youcan increase value, decrease negativevalue or create new value.Attribute Listing
43www.studyMarketing.orgAttributeListing• Attribute Listing works as a decompositionalapproach, breaking the problem down intosmaller parts that can be examinedindividually.• All things have attributes which aresometimes overlooked. By deliberatelyfocusing on these, you can find new ways tobe creative.Attribute Listing
44www.studyMarketing.orgBrainstormingBrain-storming• Brainstorming is probably the best-knowncreative tool.• It can be used in most groups, althoughyou will probably have to remind them ofthe rules.• It is best done using an independentfacilitator who manages the process (sothe group can focus on the creative task).• Typically takes around 30 minutes to anhour.
45www.studyMarketing.orgBrain-storming• Brainstorming Rules :• No criticism or debate• Quantity over quality• Freewheel• Combine and improveBrainstorming
46www.studyMarketing.orgBrain-storming• Brainstorming works when people useeach others ideas to trigger their ownthinking. Our minds are highlyassociative, and one thought easilytriggers another.• If we use the thoughts of others, thenthese will stop us getting trapped by ourown thinking structures.Brainstorming
47www.studyMarketing.orgVisioningVisioning• A vision is a motivating view of the future.It creates pull. It gives direction.• Imagine brilliant and innovative future.Think about what you are trying toachieve.• Go out into the future. Look around andsee what is there.
48www.studyMarketing.orgVisioningVisioning• Use dynamic and emotive words to paintmotivating pictures. Use words likesharp, now and value.• Phrase it in the present tense to make itmore immediate. Use is rather than will.• Use active verbs that talk about what ishappening.• Test it with others to ensure it works forthem too.
49www.studyMarketing.orgVisioningVisioning• Visioning works because we are animaginative species and are motivated bywhat we perceive as a possible or desiredfuture.
50www.studyMarketing.orgCreating a Creative Climate
52www.studyMarketing.orgCreating a Creative ClimateMotivation ChallengeEmpowermentFunFreedom TimeSupport
53www.studyMarketing.orgCreating a Creative ClimateDynamism EnergyOpennessDebateand DialogExperimentation TrustRisk
54www.studyMarketing.orgRecommended Further Readings:1. David A. Whetten and Kim S. Cameron, Developing ManagementSkills, Harpers Collins Publisher2. Floyd Hurt, Rousing Creativity, Crisp Publication3. Carol K. Goman, Creativity in Business, Crisp Publication4. www.creatingminds.org