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  • CLIMATE CHANGE PERSPECTIVES ÓÓÐ ÀÌÜÑÃÀËÛÍ ªªÐ×˪ËÒÈÉÍ ÒªËªÂ U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE / BUREAU OF INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION PROGRAMS 1 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓÀÍÓ-ÛÍ ÒªÐÈÉÍ ÄÅÏÀÐÒÀÌÅÍÒ Journal USAÓËÑÛÍ ÌÝÄÝÝËËÈÉÍ ÕªÒªËÁªÐÈÉÍ ÒÎÂ×ÎÎ e / ÎËÎÍ
  • All copyrights obtained through the Bureau of International Information Programs (IIP), U.S.Department of State.ªã¿¿ëýã¿¿äèéí çîõèîã÷èéí ýðõèéã ÀÍÓ-ûí Òºðèéí Äåïàðòìåíòèéí Îëîí ÓëñûíÌýäýýëëèéí Õºòºëáºðèéí Òîâ÷îîãîîð (ÎÓÌÒ) äàìæóóëàí àâñàí áîëíî.
  • U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE/SEPTEMBER 2009 VOLUME 14 / NUMBER 9 http://www.america.gov/publications/ejournalusa.htmlInternational Information Programs:Coordinator Jeremy F. Curtin Copy Editor Rosalie TargonskiExecutive Editor Jonathan Margolis Photo Editor Ann Monroe Jacobs Maggie Johnson Sliker Cover Design Min YaoEditor-in-Chief Richard W. Huckaby Reference Specialist Anita N. GreenManaging Editor Lea TerhuneAssociate Editor Joshua K. HandellProduction Manager/Web Producer Janine PerryAssistant Production Manager Chloe D. Ellis Cover: Images from PhotoSpin, Inc. ÀÍÓ-ÛÍ ÒªÐÈÉÍ ÄÅÏÀÐÒÀÌÅÍÒ 2009 ÎÍÛ ÅÑįÃÝÝÐ ÑÀÐ/14 ÄÝÕ ÄÝÂÒÝÐ/ÄÓÃÀÀÐ 9 http://www.america.gov/publications/ejournalusa.htmlÎëîí óëñûí ìýäýýëëèéí õºòºëáºðèéí:Çîõèöóóëàã÷ Æåðåìè Ô. Êýðòèí Äóãààðûí ýðõëýã÷ Ðîñàëè Òîðãàíñêèÿéöýòãýõ ýðõëýã÷ Æîíàòàí Ìàðãîëèñ Çóðãèéí ýðõëýã÷ Àíí Ìîíðîå Æàêîáñ Õàâòàñíû çàãâàðûã Ìèí ßîÅðºíõèé ýðõëýã÷ Ðè÷àðä Ì. Õàêàáè Ëàâëàãààíû ìýðãýæèëòýí Àíèòà Í. ÃðèíÕýâëýëèéí ìåíåæåð Ëåà ÒåðõóíåÒóñëàõ ìåíåæåð Æîøóà Ê. Õàíäåë¯éëäâýðëýëèéíìåíåæåð/Âåá çîõèîã÷ Æàíèí Ïåððè¯éëäâýðëýëèéí Õàâòàñ: PhotoSpin, Inc.-ýýñ àâñàí çóðàãòóñëàõ ìåíåæåð ×ëîå Ä. Ýëëèñ
  • The Bureau of International Information States unless they carry explicit copyrightPrograms of the U.S. Department of State restrictions, in which case permission must bepublishes a monthly electronic journal under sought from the copyright holders noted in thethe eJournal USA logo. These journals examine journal.major issues facing the United States and theinternational community, as well as U.S. society, The Bureau of International Informationvalues, thought, and institutions. Programs maintains current and back issues in several electronic formats, as well as a listOne new journal is published monthly in of upcoming journals, at http://www.america.English and is followed by versions in French, gov/publications/ejournals.html. Comments arePortuguese, Russian, and Spanish. Selected welcome at your local U.S. Embassy or at theeditions also appear in Arabic, Chinese, and editorial offices:Persian. Each journal is catalogued by volumeand number. Editor, eJournal USA IIP/PUBJThe opinions expressed in the journals do not U.S. Department of State 2200 C Street, NWnecessarily reflect the views or policies of the Washington, DC 20522-0501U.S. government. The U.S. Department of State USAassumes no responsibility for the content andcontinued accessibility of Internet sites to which E-mail: eJournalUSA@state.govthe journals link; such responsibility residessolely with the publishers of those sites. Journalarticles, photographs, and illustrations may bereproduced and translated outside the UnitedÀÍÓ-ûí Òºðèéí äåïàðòàìåíòèéí Îëîí Îëîí óëñûí ìýäýýëëèéí õºòºëáºðèéí òîâ÷îîóëñûí ìýäýýëëèéí òîâ÷îîíîîñ ejournal USA íü ñýòã¿¿ëèéí õàìãèéí ñ¿¿ëèéí áîëîí ò¿¿íèéëîãîòîéãîîð ñàð òóòàì öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë íèéòëýí ºìíºõ äóãààðûã http:llwww.america.gov.ãàðãàäàã. Ýäãýýð ñýòã¿¿ëä Àìåðèêèéí Íýãäñýí publicationslejournals.html. õóóäñàí äýýð õýäÓëñ áîëîí îëîí óëñûí õàìòûí íèéãýìëýãò, õýäýí öàõèì õýìæýýãýýð õàäãàëíà. Òà ñàíàëò¿¿í÷ëýí Àìåðèêèéí íèéãýì, ýðõýìëýäýã ç¿éëñ, áîäëîî òàíàé óëñ äàõü ÀÍÓ-ûí Ýë÷èí ñàéäûíñýòãýëãýý, èíñòèòóöèä í¿¿ðëýæ áóé òîìîîõîí ÿàì áóþó ñýòã¿¿ëèéí çºâëºëä äîîðõ õàÿãààðàñóóäëóóäûã àâ÷ ¿çäýã þì. èð¿¿ëæ áîëíî:Ñàð òóòàì àíãëè õýëýýð øèíý ñýòã¿¿ë íèéòýëäýã Editor, eJournal USAáºãººä àðààñ íü ôðàíö, ïîðòóãàëè, îðîñ, èñïàíè IIP/PUBJõýëýýðõ õóâèëáàðûã ãàðãàäàã. Çàðèì ñîíãîñîí U.S. Department of State 2200 C Street, NWäóãààðûã àðàá, õÿòàä, ïåðñ õýëýýð áàñ ãàðãàíà. Washington, DC 20522-0501Ñýòã¿¿ë á¿ðèéã äýâòýð, äóãààðààð íü êàòîëîãèä USAîðóóëíà. E-mail: eJournalUSA@state.govÑýòã¿¿ëä èëýðõèéëñýí ¿çýë áîäîë ÀÍÓ-ûíçàñãèéí ãàçðûí áîäëîãî áóþó áàéð ñóóðèéíòóñãàë áàéõ àëáàã¿é. ÀÍÓ-ûí Òºðèéíäåïàðòàìåíò íü ñýòã¿¿ë äýõ õîëáîîñ á¿õèéèíòåðíåò ñàéòóóäûí àãóóëãà, òýäãýýðò áàéíãàíýâòðýõ áîëîìæòîé ýñýõ àñóóäëààð õàðèóöëàãàõ¿ëýýõã¿é, òèéì õàðèóöëàãûã çºâõºí òóõàéíõóóäàñíû çîõèîã÷ íàð õ¿ëýýíý. Ñýòã¿¿ëèéííèéòëýë, ãýðýë áîëîí çóðìàë çóðãóóä íüçîõèîã÷èéí ýðõèéí èëýðõèé õÿçãààðëàëòòàéáàéâàë òýäãýýðèéã ÀÍÓ-ààñ ãàäíà îð÷óóëàíáóþó õóóëàí íèéòëýõ òîõèîëäîëä ñýòã¿¿ëääóðäñàí çîõèîã÷èéí ýðõ ýçýìøèã÷ýýñçºâøººðëèéã íü àâàõ øààðäëàãàòàé.
  • About This Issue Even as a new study, published by the journal Science, indicates that human activity-generated emissions have reversed an Arctic cooling trend, leading to global warmingunmatched for 2,000 years, world leaders are negotiating an action framework to succeedthe Kyoto Protocol. This international agreement, aimed at stabilizing the greenhouse gasemissions that accelerate global warming, will expire in 2012. “We have reached a pivotal moment in the climate challenge, and what we decide to do nowwill have a profound and lasting impact on our nation and our planet,” writes U.S. SpecialEnvoy for Climate Change Todd Stern in his introductory article. In this eJournalUSA, experts from key nations around the world ponder the conditionsthat climate change and global warming present in their regions. They discuss what is beingdone within their countries to address climate change mitigation and adaptation and howthey envision mutually beneficial international partnerships. These issues will be consideredin-depth at the December 2009 meeting in Copenhagen, Denmark, of the United NationsFramework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 15th Conference of Parties (COP15).The goal is a viable agreement that satisfies the nearly 200 countries concerned. All of the countries profiled in this publication — Brazil, Canada, China, Germany, India,Indonesia, Jamaica, Kenya, Russia, and the United States — already feel the impact ofglobal warming. India is vulnerable to rising sea levels and extreme weather events, writesIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Chairman R. K. Pachauri, who discussesIndia’s national action plan. IPCC adviser Jiahua Pan describes the ambitious measures China Óà ÀÑÓÓÄËÛÍ ÒÓÕÀÉÄ Õ¿íèé ¿éë àæèëëàãààíààñ ¿¿äñýí ýëäýâ óðøèã Àðêòèêèéí ñýð¿¿ö¿¿ëýõ íºëººãñóëðóóëæ, 2000 æèëä áàéãààã¿é äýëõèéí äóëààðëû㠺人æ áàéãààã Science ñýòã¿¿ëäíèéòëýãäñýí øèíý ñóäàëãàà õàðóóëæ áàéãàà áºãººä äýëõèéí òýðã¿¿ëýõ óäèðäàã÷ íàðÊèîòîãèéí Ïðîòîêîëûã îðëîõ ¿éë àæèëëàãààíû õ¿ðýýíèé òóõàé õýëýëöýæ áàéíà. Äýëõèéíäóëààðëûã ò¿ðãýòãýæ áàéãàà õ¿ëýìæèéí õèéí õàÿãäëûã ñààðìàãæóóëàõ çîðèëãî á¿õèéîëîí óëñûí ýíýõ¿¿ õýëýëöýýðèéí õóãàöàà 2012 îíä äóóñàõ ó÷èðòàé. Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäàë õàðèóöñàí ÀÍÓ-ûí Òóñãàé ýë÷ Òîää Ñòåðí óäèðòãàëºã¿¿ëýëäýý: “Áèä óóð àìüñãàëûí ñîðèëòûí íýãýí ìàø ÷óõàë ìº÷èä òóëæ èðýýä áàéãààó÷ðààñ îäîî áèäíèé ýíý òóõàéä þó õèéõ òàëààð ãàðãàõ øèéäâýð íü ìàíàé ¿íäýñòýí õèéãýýäìàíàé ãàðèãèéí õóâüä óðò óäààí õóãàöààíä ¿éë÷ëýõ ã¿í ã¿íçãèé íºëººòýé áàéõ áîëíî”ãýæ áè÷ñýí áàéíà. Ýíý öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ëä äýëõèéí ãîë ãîë îðíû ìýðãýæèëòí¿¿ä òýäíèé á¿ñ íóòàãò óóðàìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëò, äýëõèé äàõèíû äóëààðëààñ ¿¿äýæ áóé íºõöºë áàéäëûã öýãíýí ¿çýæáàéãàà áîëíî. Òýä íàð óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéã ñààðìàãæóóëàõ, ò¿¿íä äàñàí çîõèöîõòàëààð óëñ îðîíä íü þó õèéæ áàéãàà, ýíý ÷èãëýëèéí õàðèëöàí àøèãòàé îëîí óëñûíõàìòûí àæèëëàãààã òýä õýðõýí òºñººëæ áàéãàà òàëààðàà ÿðüæ áàéíà. Ýäãýýð àñóóäëûãÄàíè óëñûí Êîïåíãàãåí õîòíîî 2009 îíû àðâàí õî¸ðäóãààð ñàðä áîëîõ Óóð àìüñãàëûíººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëààðõ îðîëöîã÷ òàëóóäûí 15 äóãààð Áàãà õóðëûí Íýãäñýí ¯íäýñòíèéÁàéãóóëëàãûí Õ¿ðýý òîãòîîõ ×óóëãàí íàðèéí òîäîðõîé àâ÷ ¿çíý. Òóñ ×óóëãàí õîëáîãäîõáàðàã 200-ààä îðíû ñàíààíä íèéöýõ õýðýãæèõ¿éö õýëýëöýýð áîëîâñðóóëàõ çîðèëãîòîé. Ýíý äóãààðò Áðàçèëü, Êàíàä, Õÿòàä, Ãåðìàí, Ýíýòõýã, Èíäîíåç, ßìàéê, Êåíè,Îðîñ, Àìåðèêèéí Íýãäñýí Óëñûí òóõàé ºã¿¿ëæ áàéãàà áºãººä ýäãýýð íü á¿ãäýýðýýäýëõèéí äóëààðëûí íºëººã íýãýíò ìýäýð÷ áàéãàà îðíóóä þì. Ýíýòõýãèéí ¿íäýñíèé¿éë àæèëëàãààíû òºëºâëºãººíèé òàëààð ÿðüæ áàéãàà Ð. Ê. Ïà÷àóðè (Óóð àìüñãàëûíººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëààðõ çàñãèéí ãàçàð õîîðîíäûí Ǻâëºëèéí äàðãà) Ýíýòõýãò äàëàéí
  • is taking to ameliorate the serious effects of climate change there. Rainforest conservation is critical to the health of the planet, since forest degradation is a major source of damaging “greenhouse gas” emissions, as biologist Liana Anderson explains in her assessment of climate change impact in Brazil. IPCC Vice Chair Richard Odingo examines the situation in Kenya. Harry Surjadi is concerned with the plight of the Indonesian poor. Scientist A. Anthony Chen addresses problems specific to Caribbean island nations. Alexey Kokorin writes that the imminent danger of climate change has yet to be fully understood in Russia, yet the government has taken important steps to meet the challenge. Young people will inherit a world that climate change increasingly compromises. Some of them have organized to demand more aggressive action. “Climate change is among the issues that galvanize young© AP Images/Charlie Reidel people simply because our government’s actions don’t make sense to us,” writes Canadian environmental activist Zoë Caron. American Richard Graves says, “Young people in the United States have made clear that they want bold environmental leadership.” Will the United Nations be able to cope with climate change pressures? That is the question considered by Swedish diplomat Bo Kjellén. One thing our contributors agree upon is summed up by Todd Stern: “The status quo is unsustainable.” — The Editors ò¿âøèí äýýøëýõ áîëîí öàã àãààðûí òóéëûí íîöòîé ¿çýãäë¿¿ä ýìçýã òóñ÷ áàéãàà òóõàé áè÷èæ áàéíà. Óã Ǻâëºëèéí çºâëºõ Æèàõóà Ïàí óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí íîöòîé ¿ð äàãàâàðûã çàñàõûí òóëä Õÿòàä óëñûí õýðýãæ¿¿ëæ áóé òîìîîõîí àðãà õýìæýýã òîäîðõîéëîí ÿðüæ áàéíà. Îé ìîäíû ñ¿éðýë “õ¿ëýìæèéí õèéí” óðøèãò ¿ð äàãàâàðûí íýã áàéäàã ó÷ðààñ õàëóóí îðíû øèðýíãèéã õàäãàëàí õàìãààëàõ ÿâäàë ìàíàé ãàðèãèéí ýð¿¿ë ìýíäýä àìèí ÷óõàë à÷ õîëáîãäîëòîéã Áðàçèëüä óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëò õýðõýí íºëººëæ áàéãààä ¿íýëãýý õèéñýí Ëèàíà Àíäåðñîí áèîëîã÷èéíõîî õóâüä òàéëáàðëàæ áàéíà. Óóð àìüñãàëûí àñóóäëààðõ çàñãèéí ãàçàð õîîðîíäûí Ǻâëºëèéí äýä äàðãà Ðè÷àðä Îäèíãî Êåíèéí íºõöºë áàéäëûã àâ÷ ¿çýæ áàéíà. Õàððè Ñóðæàäè Èíäîíåçèéí ÿäóó ç¿ä¿¿ãèéí çîâëîí ñàíàà çîâîîæ áàéãàà òóõàé áè÷èæ áàéíà. Ýðäýìòýí À. Àíòîíè ×õåí Êàðèáèéí òýíãèñèéí àðëûí îðíóóäàä òîõèîæ áóé ºâºðìºö àñóóäëóóäûã øèéäýõýä àíõààðàë õàíäóóëæ áàéíà. Îðîñûí Õîëáîîíû Óëñàä óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí íºìðºí áóé àþóëûã á¿ðýí îéëãîîã¿é, çàñãèéí ãàçàð ýíýõ¿¿ ñîðèëòûã òóóëàõ ÷óõàë àðãà õýìæýýí¿¿äèéã õàðààõàí àâààã¿é áàéãàà òóõàé áè÷èæ áàéíà. Çàëóó õ¿ì¿¿ñ óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëò óëàì á¿ð äîðîéòóóëæ áàéãàà äýëõèé åðòºíöèéã ºâëºí àâíà. Òýäãýýðèéí çàðèì íü èë¿¿ äàâøèíãóé àðãà õýìæýý àâàõûã øààðäàõààð çîõèîí áàéãóóëàëòàä îðæ áàéíà. Êàíàäûí áàéãàëü îð÷íû èäýâõòýí Çî¸ Êàðîí “Ìàíàé çàñãèéí ãàçðûí ¿éëäýë áèäýíä åð人 îéëãîìæã¿é áàéãàà ó÷ðààñ ë óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäàë çàëóó õ¿ì¿¿ñèéã öî÷èðäóóëæ áàéãàà àñóóäëûí äîòîð îðæ áàéãàà þì” ãýæ áè÷èæ áàéíà. Àìåðèêèéí Ðè÷àðä Ãðåéâñ “Àìåðèêèéí Íýãäñýí Óëñàä çàëóó õ¿ì¿¿ñ áàéãàëü îð÷íû çîðèãòîé óäèðäëàãûã õ¿ñ÷ áàéãààãàà òîâ òîäîðõîé áîëãîñîí” ãýæ áàéíà. Íýãäñýí ¯íäýñòíèé Áàéãóóëëàãà óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí äàðàìòûí ó÷ðûã îëæ ÷àäàõ óó? Ýíý àñóóëòûã Øâåäèéí äèïëîìàò÷ Áî Êæåëëåí àâ÷ ¿çýæ áàéíà. Ìàíàé áè÷èã÷äèéí ñàíàë íèéëæ áàéãàà íýã àñóóäàë áîë Òîää Ñòåðíèé “Ñòàòóñ êâî òîãòâîðã¿é áàéíà” ãýñýí ä¿ãíýëò þì. —Íèéòëýã÷èä
  • U.S. Department of State / September 2009 / Volume 14 / Number 9 http://www.america.gov/publications/ejournalusa.html Climate Change Perspectives Overview remedies from the perspective of the Obama administration.11 A Pivotal Opportunity Todd Stern 16 The 21st-Century Challenge The U.S. State Department’s Michael Specter special envoy for climate change Climate change will define our outlines challenges and possible future, and it is critical that effective ÀÍÓ-ÛÍ ÒªÐÈÉÍ ÄÅÏÀÐÒÀÌÅÍÒ/2009, ÅCįÃÝÝÐ ÑÀÐlÄÝÂÒÝÐ 14/ÄÓÃÀÀÐ 9 http://www.america.gov/publications/ejournalusa.html Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí òºëºâ Òîéì 16 21 ä¿ãýýð çóóíû ñîðèëò Ìàéêë Ñïåêòåð11 Ìàø ÷óõàë áîëîìæ Òîää Ñòåðí Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëò áèäíèé èðýýä¿éã òîäîðõîéëîõ ó÷ðààñ ÀÍÓ-ûí Òºðèéí äåïàðòàìåíòèéí ýíýõ¿¿ ººð÷ëºëòººñ ¿¿äýæ áàéãàà óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí íîöòîé ñîðèëòîä ä¿éñýí ¿ð àñóóäàë õàðèóöñàí òóñãàé ýë÷ íºëººòýé îëîí óëñûí áîäëîãûã ñîðèëò äóóäëàãà áîëîí øèéäýõ áàòëàæ ãàðãàõ íü íýí ÷óõàë þì. àðãûã Îáàìàãèéí çàñàã çàõèðãààíû ¿¿äíýýñ òîéìëîí òîäîðõîéëæ áàéíà.
  • international policies be adopted to 32 The View from an meet the urgent challenges it presents. Island: Jamaica Critical Issues: An A. Anthony Chen International Tour Islands are threatened by increasingly severe storms, rising sea levels,21 Overview on a Range of Threats and drought, according to this Liana Anderson Jamaica-based climate scientist. Deforestation and the impact of Addressing Climate Change global warming and climate extremes 39 on public health and agriculture are Through Sustainable explored by this Brazilian biologist. Development Jiahua Pan27 O Canada: How Good Chinese economist Jiahua Pan It Could Be stresses the urgency of implementing Zoë Caron sustainable development A young Canadian environmental programs in China and discusses activist surveys the climate measures taken to date. change challenges in her country and how Canadian provincial 46 Security Through Energy Policy: governments are acting to reduce Germany at the Crossroads greenhouse gas emissions. R. Andreas Kraemer Although Germany is not as vulnerable to the impact of climate Íîöòîé àñóóäëóóä: ò¿âøèí, ãàí ãà÷èã çýðýã íü àðëóóäàä Îëîí óëñûí àÿëàë àþóë çàíàë ó÷ðóóëæ áàéíà.21 Àþóëûí öàð õ¿ðýýã òîéìëîõ íü 39 Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòºä Ëèàíà Àíäåðñåí òîãòâîðòîé õºãæëèéã Îéã¿éæèëò, äýëõèéí äóëààðàë áîëîí ñºðã¿¿ëýí òàâèõ íü öàã óóðûí íîöòîé ¿çýãäë¿¿äèéí Æèàõóà Ïàí õ¿í àìûí ýð¿¿ë ìýíä, õºäºº Õÿòàäûí ýäèéí çàñàã÷ Æèàõóà àæ àõóéä ¿ç¿¿ëæ áóé íºëººã Ïàí Õÿòàäàä òîãòâîðòîé õºãæëèéí Áðàçèëèéí ýíý áèîëîã÷ ñóäàëæýý. õºòºëáºðèéã õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõ òóëãàìäñàí øààðäëàãûã îíöëîí27 Êàíàä ìèíü äýý: Èíãýâýë öîõîæ, ºíºº õ¿ðòýë àâ÷ áàéãàà àðãà õè÷íýýí ñàéõàí áàéõ ñàí áèëýý õýìæýýíèé òàëààð ºã¿¿ëæ áàéíà. Çî¸ Êàðîí Êàíàäûí áàéãàëü îð÷íû çàëóó 46 Ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé áîäëîãîîð èäýâõòýí óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòººñ àþóëã¿é áàéäëûã õàíãàõ íü: òóñ îðîíä í¿¿ðëýæ áóé ñîðèëò áîëîí ÕÁÍÃÓ ñàëàà çàìûí áèë÷èðò Êàíàäûí ìóæèéí çàñãèéí ãàçàð Ð. Àíäðåàñ Êðàèìåð õ¿ëýìæèéí õèéí ¿ð äàãàâàðûã Ãåðìàí õýäèéãýýð áóñàä îëîí îðîí áàãàñãàõ òàëààð õýðõýí àæèëëàæ øèã óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòºä áàéãààã àâ÷ ¿çýæ áàéíà. àìàðõàí ºðòºìõèé áèø ÷ ãýñýí ñýðãýýãäýõ ýð÷èì õ¿÷èéã ñóäëàõ,32 Íýãýí àðëààñ õàðàãäàõ õºãæ¿¿ëýõ áîëîí í¿¿ðñòºðºã÷èéí áàéäàë: ßìàéê äýãäýõ õàÿãäëûã áàãàñãàõ À. Àíòîíè ×õåí áîäëîãûã èäýâõòýé ÿâóóëäàã ãýæ ßìàéêò ñóóðüøñàí ýíý óóð Áåðëèíèé Ýêîëîãèéí õ¿ðýýëýíãèéí àìüñãàëûí ýðäýìòíèé ¿çëýýð áîë çàõèðàë áè÷èæ áàéíà. óëàì á¿ð äîãøèð÷ áóé äàëàéí øóóðãà, äýýøèëæ áóé äàëàéí
  • change as many countries, it poor, as extreme weather upsets has actively pursued renewable agriculture and drives up food prices. energy research and development and carbon emissions reduction, 63 Strategies to Counter writes the director of the Climate-Related Threats Ecologic Institute, Berlin. to Kenya’s Economy Richard Odingo53 India’s Global Position Kenyan climate science expert and on Climate Change IPCC Vice Chair Odingo examines R. K. Pachauri climate-linked environmental IPCC Chairman R. K. Pachauri conditions in Africa, which range focuses on his home country, India, from severe drought to flooding. and the impacts of climate change He says political will is an essential that are already being felt there step toward effective remedies. because of rising sea levels and severe storms, and suggests what may be 68 Good Domestic Efforts, done to address the situation. Underestimated Threat Alexey Kokorin58 Reducing Poverty While Russian climate expert Kokorin Cutting Carbon Emissions evaluates the climate change impact Harry Surjadi sustained by Russia, the likely This Indonesian environmental future, and the steps the government journalist’s chief concern is the is taking to adapt and mitigate the impact of climate change on the53 Óóð àìüñãàëûí 63 Êåíèéí ýäèéí çàñàãò ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëààðõ ¿ç¿¿ëæ áóé óóð àìüñãàëûí Ýíýòõýãèéí áàéð ñóóðü õîëáîãäîë á¿õèé àþóë Ð. Ê. Ïà÷óðè çàíàëûã áàãàñãàõ ñòðàòåãè Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí Ðè÷àðä Îäèíãî àñóóäëààðõ çàñãèéí ãàçàð õîîðîíäûí Êåíèéí óóð àìüñãàëûí øèíæëýõ Ǻâëºëèéí äàðãà Ð. Ê. Ïà÷óðè óõààíû øèíæýý÷ áºãººä Óó𠺺ðèéí ýõ îðîí Ýíýòõýãèéã àâ÷ àìüñãàëûí àñóóäëààðõ çàñãèéí ¿çýõäýý äàëàéí ò¿âøèí äýýøèëæ ãàçàð õîîðîíäûí Ǻâëºëèéí äýä áóé ¿çýãäýë, äîãøèí øèð¿¿í äàëàéí äàðãà Îäèíãî Àôðèêèéí óóð øóóðãà çýðãýýð íýãýíò ìýäðýãäýýä àìüñãàëòàé õîëáîãäîë á¿õèé, óëààí áàéãàà óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí ãàíãààñ èõ ¿åð õ¿ðòýë õýëáýëçäýã íºëººíä àíõààðëàà òºâëºð¿¿ëýõèéí ýêîëîãèéí íºõöºë áàéäëûã àâ÷ õàìò íºõöºë áàéäëûã ãýòëýí ¿çýæ áàéíà. Òýðýýð ¿ð íºëººòýé äàâàõûí òóëä þó õèéæ áîëîõ àðãà õýìæýý àâàõ çàìä óëñ òºðèéí òàëààð ñàíàë äýâø¿¿ëæ áàéíà. õ¿ñýë çîðèã íýí ÷óõàë àëõàì áàéõ ¸ñòîé ãýæ õýëæ áàéíà.58 Í¿¿ðñòºðºã÷èéí õèéã áàãàñãàõûí õàìò ÿäóóðëûã 68 Äîòîîäûí ñàéí õ¿÷èí áóóðóóëàõ íü ÷àðìàéëò, äóòóó Õàððè Ñóðæàäè ¿íýëýãäñýí àþóë çàíàë Áàéãàëü îð÷íû àñóóäëààð áè÷äýã Àëåêñåé Êîêîðèí Èíäîíåçèéí ýíý ñýòã¿¿ë÷èéí Îðîñûí óóð àìüñãàëûí ñàíààã çîâîîæ áàéãàà ãîë þì íü ìýðãýæèëòýí Êîêîðèí óóð äîãøèí øèð¿¿í öàã óóð õºäºº àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòººñ Îðîñò àæ àõóéã áóñíèóëæ, õ¿íñíèé òóñ÷ áóé íºëºº, ò¿¿íèé èðýýä¿éí ¿íý ºñºõºä õ¿ðãýäýã ó÷ðààñ óóð ìàãàä òºëºâ, ò¿¿í÷ëýí óã íºëººíä àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëò íü ÿäóó ç¿ä¿¿ äàñàí çîõèöîõ, ñààðìàãæóóëàõ áàéäàëä ¿ç¿¿ëæ áóé íºëºº àæýý. òàëààð çàñãèéí ãàçðààñ äîòîîääîî
  • effects domestically and in cooperation how it needs to adapt to become with international partners. an effective instrument for global climate policy collaboration.74 International Youth: Fired Up About Climate Change 84 Additional Resources Richard Graves An American entrepreneur and activist writes that the generations that will inherit the impacts of climate change want environmental leadership, responsible climate policies, and green jobs. Multilateral Cooperation79 Is the United Nations Up to the Challenge? Bo Kjellén An international environmental policy expert and diplomat considers the role of the United Nations and áîëîí îëîí óëñûí ò¿íø¿¿äòýé áîëîõûí òóëä ÿàæ çîõèöîõ õýðýãòýé õàìòðàí õýðýãæ¿¿ëæ áóé àðãà áàéãàà òàëààð àâ÷ ¿çýæ áàéíà. õýìæýýã ¿íýëýæ ä¿ãíýæ áàéíà. 84 Íýìýëò ýõ ñóðâàëæóóä74 Äýëõèéí çàëóó ¿åèéíõýí: Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí òàëààð Ðè÷àðä Ãðåéâñ Àìåðèêèéí áèçíåñìåí áºãººä èäýâõòýí óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí íºëººã ºâëºæ àâàõ õîé÷ ¿åèéíõýí áàéãàëü îð÷íû óäèðäëàãà, óóð àìüñãàëûí õàðèóöëàãàòàé áîäëîãî, íîãîîíòíû ¿¿ðýãò àæëûã õ¿ñ÷ áàéíà. Îëîí òàëò õàìòûí àæèëëàãàà79 Íýãäñýí ¯íäýñòíèé Áàéãóóëëàãà ñîðèëòîä õàðèó ºã÷ ÷àäàõ óó? Áî Êæåëëåí Îëîí óëñûí ýêîëîãèéí áîäëîãûí øèíæýý÷ áºãººä äèïëîìàò÷ ͯÁ-ûí ýíý ÷èãëýëèéí ¿¿ðýã áîëîí äýëõèéí óóð àìüñãàëûí áîäëîãîîð õàìòðàí àæèëëàõ ¿ð íºëººòýé õºø¿¿ðýã
  • Overview A Pivotal Opportunity Todd Stern WT odd Stern, special envoy for climate change e have reached a pivotal momentat the U.S. State Department, is instrumental in the climate challenge, and whatin developing U.S. international policy on we decide to do now will have aclimate and is the administration’s chief profound and lasting impact on our nationclimate negotiator, representing the United and our planet.States internationally at the ministerial level The science is clear. Arctic sea ice isin all bilateral and multilateral negotiations. disappearing faster than expected. TheHe has extensive experience in the public and Greenland Ice Sheet is steadily shrinking.private sectors, in environmental and other The melting of permafrost in the tundraglobal issues. raises the risk of a huge methane release.Here Stern lays out the main challenges Sea levels now threaten to rise much higherand important remedies relating to climate than previously anticipated. And waterchange from the perspective of the Obama supplies are increasingly at risk with theadministration. melting of glaciers in Asia and the Western Hemisphere.Òîéì Ìàø ÷óõàë áîëîìæ Òîää Ñòåðí ÁÀÍÓ-ûí Òºðèéí Äåïàðòàìåíòèéí óóð èä óóð àìüñãàëûí ñîðèëòûí ìàøàìüñãàëûí àñóóäàë õàðèóöñàí òóñãàé ÷óõàë ìº÷èä òóëæ èðýýä áàéãààýë÷ Òîää Ñòåðí áîë óóð àìüñãàëûí ó÷ðààñ îäîî áèäíèé ýíý òóõàéä þóàñóóäëààð ÀÍÓ-ûí îëîí óëñûí áîäëîãûã õèéõ òàëààð ãàðãàõ øèéäâýð íü ìàíàéáîëîâñðóóëàõàä òýðã¿¿ëýõ ¿¿ðýãòýé, óã ¿íäýñòýí õèéãýýä ìàíàé ãàðèãèéí õóâüäàñóóäëààð ÿðèà õýëýëöýý õèéäýã çàñãèéí óðò óäààí õóãàöààíä ¿éë÷ëýõ ã¿í ã¿íçãèéãàçðûí ãîë õ¿í áºãººä õî¸ð áîëîí îëîí íºëººòýé áàéõ áîëíî.òàëûí ñàéäûí ò¿âøèíãèéí á¿õ ÿðèà Ìýäýæ áàéãàà ç¿éë ìààíü òîäîðõîéõýëýëöýýíä ÀÍÓ-ûã òºëººëºí îðîëöäîã õ¿í. áàéíà. Õîéä ìºñºí äàëàéí ìºñ ñàíàñíààñÒýðýýð òºðèéí áîëîí õóâèéí õýâøëèéí ò¿ðãýí àëãà áîëæ áàéíà. Ãðèéíëàíäûíñàëáàðò, ìºí áàéãàëü îð÷èí áîëîí áóñàä ìºñºí õó÷ëàãà õýëáýðýëòã¿é áàãàñ÷ áàéíà.äýëõèéí ÷àíàðòàé àñóóäëóóäààð ìàø Ò¿íäðèéí ìºíõ öýâäýã õàéëæ áàéãàà íüáàÿëàã òóðøëàãàòàé. èõýýõýí õýìæýýíèé íàìãèéí õèé ãàðàõÑòåðí ýíä óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí ýðñäëèéã áèé áîëãîæ áàéíà. Äàëàéíõîëáîãäîëòîé ñîðèëòûí òàëààð, øèéäýõ ò¿âøèí óðüä÷èëàí òààìàãëàæ áàéñíààñãîë àðãà çàìûí òàëààð Îáàìàãèéí çàñàã õàâüã¿é èõ äýýøëýõ àþóëòàé áàéíà. Àçèçàõèðãààíû áàéð ñóóðèíààñ òàéëáàð õèéæ òèâ áîëîí áºìáºðöãèéí áàðóóí õýñýãò ìºñºíáàéíà. ãîëóóä õàéëàõûí õèðýýð óñíû õàíãàìæ óëàì á¿ð ýðñäýëòýé áîëæ áàéíà. e Journal USA 11 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • These are the facts. They send a simple Clinton, the United States is working with and stark message: The status quo is our partners around the world to find unsustainable. common ground and stem the tide of future The health of our planet is in our hands and the irreversible damages. time for action is now. We recognize that the United States must The upcoming United Nations Framework be a leader in the global effort to combat Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) climate change. We have a responsibility in Copenhagen offers a chance to mobilize as the world’s largest historic emitter of international collective action to meet this greenhouse gases. We know that without global challenge. Under the leadership of U.S. emissions reductions, no solution to President Obama and Secretary of State climate change is possible. And we are© AP Images/Gerald Herbert. Vice Chair of China’s National Development and Reform Commission Xie Zhenhua (left) shakes hands with U.S. Climate Change Special Envoy Todd Stern in Washington, D.C., July 2009. Õÿòàäûí ¯íäýñíèé õºãæèë, øèíý÷ëýëèéí êîìèññûí äýä äàðãà Öè Æåíõóà (ç¿¿í ãàð òàëä) ÀÍÓ-ûí Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäàë õàðèóöñàí òóñãàé ýë÷ Òîää Ñòåðíòýé Âàøèíãòîí õîòíîî ãàð áàðüæ áàéíà. 2009 îíû äîëäóãààð ñàð. Ýíý áîë áîäèò áàðèìòóóä. Ýäãýýð íü Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí ýñðýã “Ñòàòóñ êâî òîãòâîðã¿é áàéíà” ãýñýí ýíãèéí òýìöýëä äýëõèé íèéòèéí ãàðãàõ õ¿÷èí áºãººä èëýðõèé ç¿éëèéã õýëýýä áàéíà. ÷àðìàéëòûã Àìåðèêèéí Íýãäñýí Óëñ Ìàíàé ãàðèãèéí ýð¿¿ë ìýíä áèäíèé ãàðò òýðã¿¿ëýõ ¸ñòîé ãýäãèéã áèä îéëãîæ áàéãàà áàéãàà áºãººä àæèëëàõ öàã îäîî èð÷èõýýä þì. Áèä äýëõèéä õàìãèéí èõ õ¿ëýìæèéí áàéíà. õèé ÿëãàðóóëàã÷èéí õóâüä õàðèóöëàãà õ¿ëýýõ ¸ñòîé. ÀÍÓ-ûí ÿëãàðóóëæ áàéãàà Êîïåíãàãåíä óäàõã¿é áîëîõ ãýæ áàéãàà õèéã áàãàñãàõã¿éãýýð óóð àìüñãàëûí ͯÁ-ûí Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí ººð÷ëºëòèéã øèéäýõ ÿìàð ÷ áîëîìæã¿éã àñóóäëààð õ¿ðýý òîãòîîõ ÷óóëãàí áèä ìýäýæ áàéíà. 21 ä¿ãýýð çóóíû öýâýð (ͯÁÓÀªÀÕÒ×) ýíýõ¿¿ äýëõèé äàõèíû ýð÷èì õ¿÷òýé ýäèéí çàñãèéã öîãöëîîí ñîðèëòîä õàðèó áîëîõóéö îëîí óëñûí áàéãóóëàõ ¿éëñèéã Àìåðèêèéí Íýãäñýí õàìòàðñàí ¿éë àæèëëàãààã äàé÷ëàõ áîëîìæ Óëñ õîøóó÷èëæ ÷àäàõ ¸ñòîé, ÷àäàõ ÷ áîëíî îëãîæ áàéíà. Åðºíõèéëºã÷ Îáàìà, Òºðèéí ãýäýãò áàñ èòãýæ áàéãàà áîëíî. íàðèéí áè÷ãèéí äàðãà Êëèíòîí íàðûí óäèðäëàãààð Àìåðèêèéí Íýãäñýí Óëñ äàÿí Íàéìõàí ñàðûí äîòîð Îáàìàãèéí çàñàã äýëõèéí ò¿íø¿¿äèéíõýý õàìò íèéòëýã çàõèðãàà óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí ç¿éë îëîõûí òóëä, èðýýä¿éí çàñ÷ áîëîõã¿é òàëààðõ áîäëîãîî ýðñ ººð÷èëæ, äîòîîääîî ñ¿éòãýëèéí ò¿ðýëòèéã çîãñîîõûí òóëä òóóøòàé òîäîðõîé àðãà õýìæýý àæèëëàæ áàéíà. õýðýãæ¿¿ëýí õîøóó÷èëæ ÿâíà. Àìåðèêèéí e Journal USA 12 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • confident that the United States can and will But action by the United States and othertake the lead in building the 21st-century developed nations is not enough. More thanclean energy economy. 80 percent of the future growth in emissions In just eight months, the Obama will be from developing nations. There isadministration has dramatically shifted U.S. simply no way to preserve a safe and livablepolicy on climate change and is leading by planet unless developing countries play aexample through robust action at home. The key role in the climate negotiations andAmerican Recovery and Reinvestment Act join us in taking collective action to meetincluded more than $80 billion for clean this common challenge. It is not a matter ofenergy investment. President Obama set politics or morality or right or wrong, buta new policy to increase fuel economy and simply the unforgiving math of accumulatingreduce greenhouse gas emissions.pollution for all new cars Addressing climateand trucks. And thereis a bill making its way Addressing climate change is an economic opportunity, not a burden.through Congress, the change is an economic The link between clean,American Clean Energy sustainable energy andand Security Act of 2009, opportunity, not a robust economic growth isthat would cut U.S. burden. the hallmark of the 21st-carbon emissions from century global economy.2005 levels by 17 percent With the right support,in 2020 and 83 percent in developing countries can2050. Óóð àìüñãàëûí leapfrog the dirtier phases ººð÷ëºëòèéí õàðèóä of development and seize àâàõ àðãà õýìæýý áîë äàðàìò áèø õàðèíñýðãýýëò, øèíý÷èëñýí ýäèéí çàñãèéí íýãýí àðãà åð人 áàéõã¿é. Ýíýõºðºí㺠îðóóëàëòûí áîëîìæ þì. áîë óëñ òºðèéí þì óó,Òºëºâëºãººíä öýâýð ýñâýë ¸ñ ñóðòàõóóíû, ýñâýëýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé áóðóó çºâèéí ÷ þì óóõºðºí㺠îðóóëàëòàä 80 òýðáóì ãàðóé òóõàé àñóóäàë áèø, åð人 ë õóðèìòàëæäîëëàð çîðèóëàõààð òóñãàñàí áàéãàà. áàéãàà õèéí õàÿãäëûí òóõàé ºðøººëã¿éÅðºíõèéëºã÷ Îáàìà á¿õ òºðëèéí øèíý òîî áàðèìò þì.ñóóäëûí áîëîí à÷ààíû ìàøèíä ò¿ëø Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí õàðèóäõýìíýëòèéã íýìýãä¿¿ëýõ, õ¿ëýìæèéí àâàõ àðãà õýìæýý áîë äàðàìò áèø õàðèíõèéãýýð áîõèðäóóëàõûã áàãàñãàõ áîäëîãî ýäèéí çàñãèéí íýãýí áîëîìæ þì. Öýâýð,ãàðãàñàí áîëíî. Ò¿¿í÷ëýí 2009 îíû òîãòâîðòîé ýð÷èì õ¿÷, ýäèéí çàñãèéíÀìåðèêèéí Öýâýð ýð÷èì õ¿÷ áà Àþóëã¿éí òóóøòàé ºñºëò õî¸ðûí õîëáîî íü 21 ä¿ãýýðõóóëü ãýäýã òºñºë Êîíãðåññîîð óðàãøòàé çóóíû äýëõèé äàõèíû ýäèéí çàñãèéíÿâæ áàéíà. Ýíý õóóëèéí äàãóó ÀÍÓ-ûí îíöëîõ øèíæ ìºí. Ǻâ äýìæëýãòýé áîëí¿¿ðñòºðºã÷èéí õèéí õàÿãäëûí 2005 îíû õºãæèæ áàéãàà îðíóóä õºãæëèéíõººò¿âøèí 2020 îíä 17 õóâèàð, 2050 îíä 83 õàìãèéí áîõèð ¿å øàòûã äàâàí ãàð÷ ÷àäàõõóâèàð òóñ òóñ áóóðíà. áºãººä øèíý, öýâýð ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé ýõ Ãýâ÷ ÀÍÓ áîëîí áóñàä ºíäºð õºãæèëòýé ¿¿ñâýðèéí ÷àäàìæààñ áàðüæ àâ÷ ÷àäíà. Ýíýîðíóóäûí àâàõ àðãà õýìæýý àñóóäëûã áîë æèíõýíý èðýýä¿é.øèéäýõýä á¿õýëäýý ÷àìëàãäàíà. Õàÿãäàë Àìåðèêèéí Íýãäñýí Óëñ îëîí óëñûíõèéí èðýýä¿éí ºñºëòèéí 80 ãàðóé õóâü íü õàìòûí íèéãýìëýãèéã òàòàí îðîëöóóëàõûíõºãæèæ áàéãàà îðíóóäàä îíîãäîíî. Óóð òóëä, õºãæèæ áàéãàà îðíóóäûãàìüñãàëûí àñóóäëààðõ ÿðèà õýëýëöýýíä öààøäûí ¿éë àæèëëàãàà ÿâóóëàõàä íüõºãæèæ áàéãàà îðíóóä íýí ÷óõàë ¿¿ðýã çîðèãæóóëàõûí òóëä îëîí ÷èãëýëòýéã¿éöýòãýýã¿é öàãò, ýíý íèéòýýðýíä ìààíü ñòðàòåãèéã áàðèìòàëæ áàéãàà þì.í¿¿ðëýýä áàéãàà ñîðèëòîä õàðèó áîëîõõàìòûí àæèëëàãààíä òýä áèäýíòýé Íýãä¿ãýýðò, áèä Õ¿ðýý òîãòîîõ ÷óóëãàíûíýãäýýã¿é áàéãàà öàãò àþóëã¿é, ñàéõàí ÿðèà õýëýëöýýíä á¿õ òàëûí ¿¿ðýãòýéàìüäðàõ äýëõèé åðòºíöºº õàäãàëæ ¿ëäýõ îðîëöîæ áàéíà. Ìàíàé õýëýëöýýíèé e Journal USA 13 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • the potential of new, clean energy sources. including mitigation, adaptation, technology,This is the future. and finance, which will be a central focus in The United States is pursuing a Copenhagen.multipronged strategy to engage the Third, we are focusing on key bilateralinternational community and encourage relationships. The administration hasdeveloping countries to take further action. expanded efforts to strengthen the U.S.- First, we are fully committed to the China relationship, and climate change isFramework Convention negotiating process. an essential component of that dialogue.Our negotiating team recently returned from I joined Secretary Clinton in Februaryits third trip to Bonn, and we will continue during her first trip to China, where sheto take part in the negotiating sessions elevated the climate change challenge to aleading up to Copenhagen in December 2009. top priority. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu and Secretary of Commerce Gary Locke Second, we have established an invigorated delivered similar messages during subsequentdialogue among 17 of the largest economies visits. Moreover, the State Department, in— including China, India, Brazil, Mexico, conjunction with the Treasury Department,South Korea, South Africa, and Indonesia recently hosted meetings of the Strategic— through our Major Economies Forum and Economic Dialogue with China, whereon Energy and Climate, which met in July the two countries signed a memorandum ofat the leaders level in Italy immediately understanding on clean energy and climate.following the G8 meeting. The forum Simply put, no global solution will bepresents a unique opportunity to hold possible if we don’t find a way forward withcandid discussions among the world’s major China. In addition, I traveled with Secretaryeconomies on a number of complex issues, Clinton to India and later alone to Brazil toáàã ñàÿõàí Áîííä ãóðàâäàõü óäààãàà óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäàëî÷îîä èðëýý. 2009 îíû àðâàí õî¸ðäóãààð òóñ õî¸ð îðíû õîîðîíä ÿâæ áàéãàà ÿðèàñàðä Êîïåíãàãåíä õ¿ðãýõ á¿õèé ë ÿðèà õýëýëöýýíèé íýãýýõýí ÷óõàë ñýäýâ áîëæõýëýëöýýíä áèä ¿ðãýëæëýí îðîëöîõ áîëíî. áàéãàà áîëíî. Òºðèéí íàðèéí áè÷ãèéí Õî¸ðäóãààðò, áèä ìàíàé Ýð÷èì õ¿÷, äàðãà Êëèíòîí Õÿòàäàä õî¸ðäóãààð ñàðäÓóð àìüñãàëûí àñóóäëààðõ Òîì ýäèéí àíõ óäàà àéë÷ëàõäàà óóð àìüñãàëûíçàñàãò îðíóóäûí ÷óóëãàíààðàà äàìæóóëàí, ººð÷ëºëòººñ ¿¿äýæ áóé ñîðèëòîä òýðã¿¿ëýõòóõàéëáàë Õÿòàä, Ýíýòõýã, Áðàçèëü, çýðãèéí à÷ õîëáîãäîë ºãñºí, ýíý àéë÷ëàëäÌåêñèê, ªìíºä Ñîëîíãîñ, ªìíºä Àôðèê, áè áàñ îðîëöñîí þì. Äàðàà íü ÕÿòàäàäÈíäîíåçè çýðýã 17 õàìãèéí òîì ýäèéí àéë÷èëñàí Ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé íàðèéí áè÷ãèéíçàñàãòàé îðíóóäûí õîîðîíä óðàì òºðºõººð äàðãà Ñòåâåí ×ó, Õóäàëäààíû íàðèéíÿðèà õýëýëöýý ºðí¿¿ëýýä áàéíà. ×óóëãàíû áè÷ãèéí äàðãà Ãàðè Ëîêå íàð ìºí òèéìàíõíû óóëçàëò äîëäóãààð ñàðä G8-ûí áàéäëààð àñóóäëûã òàâüñàí. Ò¿¿ãýýð ÷óóëçàëòûí ÿã äàðàà Èòàëèä áîëñîí þì. áàðàõã¿é Òºðèéí äåïàðòàìåíò ÑàíãèéíÓóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí óðøãèéí äåïàðòàìåíòòýé õàìòðàí ñàÿõàí Õÿòàäòàéñààðìàãæóóëàëò, äàñàí çîõèöîëò, õèéõ Ñòðàòåãèéí áîëîí ýäèéí çàñãèéíòåõíîëîãè, ñàíõ¿¿ çýðýã àñóóäëûã ÿðèà ñýäâýýð óóëçàëò çîõèîí áàéãóóëñàí.îðîëöóóëàí íýëýýä òîîíû òºâºãòýé Òýð óóëçàëòûí ¿åýð õî¸ð òàë öýâýð ýð÷èìàñóóäëààð äýëõèéí õàìãèéí òîì ýäèéí õ¿÷, óóð àìüñãàëûí àñóóäëààð õàðèëöàíçàñàãòàé îðíóóäûí õîîðîíä èëýí äàëàíã¿é îéëãîõ ìåìîðàíäóìä ãàðûí ¿ñýã çóðñàí.ÿðèà õýëýëöýý ÿâóóëàõ õîñã¿é ñàéõàí Òîâ÷äîî, áèä Õÿòàäòàé õàìòðàõ àðãà çàìààáîëîìæèéã äóðäñàí ÷óóëãàí îëãîæ áàéãàà îëîõã¿é áîë äýëõèéí õýìæýýíèé ÿìàðþì. Êîïåíãàãåíä ýäãýýð àñóóäàë äýýð ãîë ÷ øèéäýëä õ¿ðýõ áîëîìæã¿é þì. Íýìæàíõààðàë òºâëºðíº. õýëýõýä, áè õî¸ð ÷óõàë îðîíòîé çºâëºëäºõ, ÿðèà õýëýëöýýãýý ã¿íçãèéð¿¿ëýõèéí Ãóðàâäóãààðò, áèä õî¸ð òàëûí ãîë ãîë òóëä, ò¿¿í÷ëýí Êîïåíãàãåíä ºðíºõ ÿðèàõàðèëöààíäàà àíõààðëàà òºâëºð¿¿ëæ õýëýëöýýã ñàéí ¿ð ä¿íòýé áîëãîõ ÷èãëýëýýðáàéíà. Îáàìàãèéí çàñàã çàõèðãàà ÀÍÓ, àõèö äýâøèë ãàðãàõ ¿¿äíýýñ ìàíàéÕÿòàäûí õàðèëöààã áýõæ¿¿ëýõýä ÷èãëýñýí îðíóóäûí áîëîìæèéã ñóäëàõûí òóëäõ¿÷ ÷àðìàéëòàà íýìýãä¿¿ëæ áàéãàà áºãººä e Journal USA 14 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • consult and deepen our dialogue with twoimportant partners and explore opportunitiesfor our countries to make progress towarda successful outcome at the UNFCCCnegotiations in Copenhagen. Rarely are we presented with as clear anopportunity to shape our future and enhanceour way of life for generations to come. TheUnited States is clear in its intent to securea strong international agreement, and I amconfident that together we can meet theglobal climate change challenge. Òºðèéí íàðèéí áè÷ãèéí äàðãà Êëèíòîíûõàìò Ýíýòõýãò àéë÷èëñàí, äàðàà íü ººðººÁðàçèëüä î÷ñîí áîëíî. Áèäýíä ìàíàé èðýýä¿éã ä¿ðñëýíòîìú¸îëîõ, ìàíàé àæ òºðºõ àðãà çàìûãõîé÷ ¿åèéíõýíäýý çîðèóëàí ñàéæðóóëàõàñóóäëûã àâ÷ ¿çýõ òîäîðõîé áîëîìæ îëäîõíü õîâîð áàéäàã. Îëîí óëñûí íàðèéí ÷àíäõýëýëöýýð áàòàëãààòàé áàéãóóëàõ òóõàéÀìåðèêèéí Íýãäñýí Óëñûí ñàíàà çîðèëãîòîâ òîäîðõîé áàéãàà áºãººä ìèíèé õóâüäáèä õàìòäàà äýëõèéí óóð àìüñãàëûíººð÷ëºëòºä õàðèó ºã÷ ÷àäíà ãýäýãò èòãýëòýéáàéíà.  e Journal USA 15 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • Overview The 21st-Century Challenge Michael SpecterAward-winning writer Michael Specter before it is too late, Specter writes in thishas been a staff writer at The New Yorker overview of the issue.magazine since 1998. His awards include theGlobal Health Council’s Annual Excellence Pin Media Award (2002 and 2004) and the eople who refuse to accept the truthAmerican Association for the Advancement — that AIDS is caused by a virus, forof Science 2002 Science Journalism Award. example, or that global warming isHis new book, Denialism: How Irrational genuine and the result of human activity —Thinking Hinders Scientific Progress, Harms will always be with us. But as the profoundlythe Planet, and Threatens Our Lives, will disturbing facts about the pace of warmingbe published in October 2009 (The Penguin become increasingly evident, the cries ofPress). climate change denialists seem finally to have been overcome by the mounting seriesThe reality of global warming must supersede of grim realities. Those realities are bothdebate about it, and urgent steps must be obvious and subtle: Between 1961 andtaken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 1997, the world’s glaciers lost nearly 4,000Òîéì 21 ä¿ãýýð çóóíû ñîðèëò Ìàéêë ÑïåêòåðØàãíàë õ¿ðòñýí çîõèîë÷ Ìàéêë Ñïåêòåð Ñïåêòåð ýíý àñóóäëààðõ òîéì ºã¿¿ëýëäýýáîë 1998 îíîîñ õîéø The New Yorker áè÷èæ áàéíà.ñýòã¿¿ëèéí îðîí òîîíû çîõèîë÷ õèéæáàéãàà þì. Ò¿¿íèé àâñàí øàãíàëûí Æäîòîð Äýëõèéí ýð¿¿ë ìýíäèéí çºâëºëèéí èøýý íü, ÄÎÕ íýãýí âèðóñýýñÌýäýýëëèéí õýðýãñëèéí æèë á¿ðèéí ãàðàëòàé, ýñâýë äýëõèéí äóëààðàëãàðàìãàé á¿òýýëèéí øàãíàë (2002, 2004 áîäèòîé áàéãàà, áàñ õ¿íèé ¿éëîíû), Øèíæëýõ óõààíû îëîëò àìæèëòûí àæèëëàãààíààñ ¿¿äñýí ç¿éë ãýõ ìýòòºëºº Àìåðèêèéí íèéãýìëýãèéí 2002 îíû ¿íýíèéã õ¿ëýýæ àâàõààñ òàòãàëçäàãØèíæëýõ óõààíû ñýòã¿¿ëç¿éí øàãíàë õ¿ì¿¿ñ áèäíèé äóíä õýçýýä áàéõ áîëíî.òóñ òóñ áèé. Ò¿¿íèé: Denialism: How Ãýâ÷ äóëààðëûí õóðäöûí òóõàé èõýýõýíIrrational Thinking Hinders Scientific ò¿ãøýýñýí áàðèìòóóä óëàì á¿ð èëýðõèéProgress, Harms the Planet, and Threatens áîëæ, óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéãOur Lives ãýäýã íîì 2009 îíû àðàâäóãààð ¿ã¿éñãýã÷äèéí îðü äóó íü ºñºí íýìýãäñýýðñàðä õýâëýãäýíý. (The Penguin Press). áóé óäàà äàðààãèéí òààã¿é áîäèò ÿâäëààð ýöñèéí á¿ëýãò äàðàãäàæ áàéõ øèã áàéíà.Äýëõèéí äóëààðëûí áîäèò áàéäàë ýíý Ýäãýýð áîäèò ç¿éëä èëýðõèé ÷ þì áàéíà,òóõàéí ìýòãýëöýýíèéã çîãñîîõ ¸ñòîé íàðèéí øèðèéí þì ÷ áàéíà: 1961–1997áºãººä íýãýíò îðîéòîõîîñ íü ºìíº îíû õîîðîíä äýëõèéí ìºñºí ãîëóóä 4õ¿ëýìæèéí õèéí õàÿãäëûã áàãàñãàõ 000 îð÷èì êóáìåòð ìºñºº àëäñàí áàéíà;ÿàðàëòàé àðãà õýìæýý àâàõ ¸ñòîé ãýæ Àðêòèêèéí äóëààðàë äýëõèéí äóíäæààñ e Journal USA 16 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • cubic kilometers of ice; since the Arctic is For the first time in memory, mosquitoes, warming at nearly three times the global carrying viruses as grave as malaria, now average, Greenland’s ice sheet may already appear on Mt. Kilimanjaro and other African have passed the point of saving. highlands — places that for centuries had Greenland is hardly the only place in served as cool reservoirs of safety from some acute danger of massive forced change. One of the developing world’s most devastating projection, by no means the most alarmist, diseases. has estimated that the homes of 13 to 88 Although specific estimates vary, scientists million people around the world would be and policy officials increasingly agree that flooded by the sea each year in the 2080s. As allowing emissions to continue at the current always, poorer countries will suffer the most. rate would induce dramatic changes in the global climate system. Some scientists liken climate change to a tidal wave that can noPhoto by Alex Remnick longer be held at bay. These are not issues that can be easily solved — but it’s not too late to prevent the worst effects of warming, despite what many people say. Still, to avoid the most catastrophic effects of those changes, we will have to hold emissions steady in the next decade, then reduce them by at least 60 to 80 percent by the middle of the century. ªâºðìºö ¿íýëãýýí¿¿ä ÿíç á¿ð áàéãàà õýäèé ÷, àãààðò äýãäýæ áàéãàà ýëäýâ õîðò õèéã îäîîãèéí ò¿âøèíä íü áàéëãààä áàéõ þì áîë äýëõèéí óóð àìüñãàëûí ñèñòåìä íîöòîé ººð÷ëºëò àâ÷èðíà ãýäýãòýé ýðäýìòýä, áîäëîãûí àëáàíû õ¿ì¿¿ñ óëàì á¿ð ñàíàë íèéëýõ áîëæ áàéíà. Çàðèì Michael Specter ýðäýìòýä óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéã Ìàéêë Ñïåêòåð áóëàí òîõîéäîî õýçýý ÷ õ¿ð÷ ÷àäàõã¿é äàëàéí ò¿ðëýãèéí äàâàëãààòàé àäèëòãàæ ¿çýæ áàéíà. Ýäãýýð íü àìàðõàí øèéä÷èõ ãóðàâ äàõèí èõ áàéãàà ó÷ðààñ Ãðèéíëàíäûí àñóóäëóóä áèø, ãýõäýý îëîí õ¿í íýãýíò ìºñºí õó÷ëàãà õàäãàëàãäàæ ¿ëäýõ öýãýý îðîéòñîí ãýæ áàéãàà áîëîâ÷ äóëààðëûí íýãýíò ºíãºðººä ÿâ÷èõñàí áàéæ ìàãàäã¿é. õàìãèéí ìóó õîð óðøãèéã ñýðýìæëýí Ãðèéíëàíä í¿ñýð õ¿÷òýé ººð÷ëºëòèéí çàéëóóëàõàä òýãòëýý îðîéòîîã¿é áàéíà. íîöòîé àþóëä áàéãàà öîðûí ãàíö ãàçàð áèø Ýäãýý𠺺ð÷ëºëòèéí õàìãèéí ñ¿éðýëòýé ë áîëîâ óó. Õàìãèéí ò¿ãø¿¿ðòýé áóñ íýã ¿ð äàãàâàðààñ çàéëñõèéõèéí òóëä áèä òºñººë뺺ð 2080-ààä îíä äýëõèé äàõèíä õèéí õàÿãäëûã èðýõ àðâàí æèëä àðãà æèë á¿ð 13-ààñ 88 ñàÿ õ¿ðòýëõ õ¿íèé ãýð áóþó òîãòâîðòîé áàðüæ áàéãààä ýíý çóóíû îðîí äàëàéí ¿åðò àâòàíà ãýñýí ¿íýëãýý äóíä ¿å ãýõýä íààä çàõ íü 60 – 80 õóâèàð áàéíà. ßäóó îðíóóä ¿¿íýýñ áàõü áàéäãààðàà áàãàñãàõ ¸ñòîé. õàìãèéí èõ çîâëîí àìñàíà. Ò¿¿õýíä àíõ Èíãýõ áîëîìæòîé þó? Á¿ðýí áîëîëöîîòîé. óäàà õóìõààãèéíõ øèã àþóëòàé âèðóñûã Ãýõäýý ýíý íü çîëèîñíû áîëîí øèíæëýõ òýýäýã øóìóóë ýä¿ãýý Êèëèìàíæàðî óóë óõààíû óã óðøèãò ä¿éñýí àðãà õýìæýý áîëîí Àôðèêèéí áóñàä óóëàðõàã íóòãààð àâàõûã øààðäàíà. (Áàñ ÿëãàðäàã õèéã áèé áîëæýý. Ýäãýýð óóëàðõàã íóòàã íü ªðíºäºä áèä õóðäàí áàãàñãàõ ¸ñòîé øèã çóó çóóíû òóðøèä çàðèì õºãæèæ áàéãàà òýãæ áàãàñãàõûã àìåðèê÷óóä, åâðîï÷óóä åðòºíöèéí õàìãèéí ñ¿éòãýëòýé ºâ÷í¿¿äýýñ Õÿòàä, Ýíýòõýã õî¸ðîîñ õ¿ëýýäãýý áîëèõ àâðàõ ñýð¿¿íèé õàäãàëóóð áîëæ èðñýí áèëýý. e Journal USA 17 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • Is that possible? Absolutely. But it will same amount of greenhouse gas emissionsrequire equal measures of sacrifice and as driving a small car more than 112science. (And the willingness of Americans kilometers.and Europeans to stop expecting China and The most important way to rein in carbonIndia to cut emissions as rapidly as we must emissions is to charge for them, eitherin the West and to stop using their limited through taxes or with a cap and tradeprogress as an excuse to do nothing.) system. Obviously, when the cost of polluting Individuals can do a lot. According to one is low there are few incentives to stop it,2008 study by researchers at Carnegie Mellon and the cost of pollution remains far tooUniversity, for instance, if we all simply low. The Kyoto Protocol was never ratifiedskipped meat and dairy just one day each in the United States because the Bushweek, it would administration anddo more to lower the U.S. Congressour collectivecarbon footprint Some scientists liken climate feared it would result in large jobthan if the entire change to a tidal wave that can losses; however,population of the no longer be held at bay. These are the ObamaUnited States ate administrationlocally produced not issues that can be easily solved and an increasingfood every day ofthe year. In fact, — but it’s not too late to prevent number in Congressproducing just the worst effects of warming. understand thatone kilogram of the real costs ofbeef causes the global warming Çàðèì ýðäýìòýä óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéã áóëàí òîõîéäîîõ¿ñýë çîðèã, õýçýý ÷ õ¿ð÷ ÷àäàõã¿é äàëàéí Í¿¿ðñòºðºã÷èéíòýäíèé ò¿ðëýãèéí äàâàëãààòàé ÿëãàðàëòûã õóìèõõÿçãààðòàéõºãæèë àäèëòãàæ ¿çýæ áàéíà. Ýäãýýð õàìãèéí ÷óõàë àðãà áîë òàòâàðäýâøëèéã þó ÷ íü àìàðõàí øèéä÷èõ àñóóäëóóä îíîãäóóëàõ áóþóõèéõã¿é áàéõ òºñºâ áîëîíøàëòàã áîëãîäãîî áèø, ãýõäýý îëîí õ¿í íýãýíò õóäàëäààíûáîëèõ õ¿ñýë îðîéòñîí ãýæ áàéãàà áîëîâ÷ ñèñòåìèéãçîðèã ãàðãàõ õÿçãààðëàõ çàìààðøààðäëàãàòàé.) äóëààðëûí õàìãèéí ìóó õîð ò¿¿íä òºëáºð Õóâü õ¿ì¿¿ñ óðøãèéã ñýðýìæëýí çàéëóóëàõàä òàâèõ ÿâäàë þì. Áîõèðäóóëñíûèõýýõýí ç¿éëõèéæ ÷àäíà. òýãòëýý îðîéòîîã¿é áàéíà. òºëºº òºëºõÊàðíåæè ºðòºã äîîãóóðÌåëëîíû èõ áàéõàä ò¿¿íèéãñóðãóóëèéí ñóäëàà÷äûí 2008 îíä õèéñýí çîãñîîõ óðàì ñîíèðõîë òºäèéëºííýã ñóäàëãààãààð áîë, æèøýý íü, õýðýâ òºðºõã¿é, òýãýýä ë áîõèðäîëòûí ºðòºãáèä ç¿ãýýð ë äîëîî õîíîãò ãàíöõàí ºäºð ìàø äîîãóóð ÷èãýýðýý ¿ëäýõ íü èëýðõèéìàõàí áîëîí ñ¿¿í á¿òýýãäýõ¿¿íýýð õèéñýí þì. Áóøèéí çàñàã çàõèðãàà, ÀÍÓ-ûíõîîë èäýõã¿é ºíæèõ þì áîë ýíý íü áèäíèé Êîíãðåññ Êèîòîãèéí Ïðîòîêîë àæëûíõàìòûí áàëèàð óë ìºðíèé í¿¿ðñòºðºã÷èéã áàéð îëîí òîîãîîð öººðºõºä õ¿ðãýíý ãýæáóóðóóëàõàä ÀÍÓ-ûí á¿õ õ¿í àì îðîí áîëãîîìæèëñîí ó÷ðààñ óã Ïðîòîêîëûãíóòàãòàà ¿éëäâýðëýñýí õ¿íñèéã æèëä ºäºð åðººñºº ñî¸ðõîí áàòëààã¿é áèëýý. Õýäèéáîëãîí èäñýíýýñ èë¿¿ èõ ºãººæòýé áàéõ òèéì ÷ Îáàìàãèéí çàñàã çàõèðãàà äýëõèéàæýý. ¯íýíäýý ÷, çºâõºí íýã êèëîãðàìì äóëààðàëòûí æèíõýíý ¿íý óã àñóóäëûã¿õðèéí ìàõ áîëîâñðóóëàõàä ÿëãàðóóëàõ áàéõã¿é ãýæ ç¿òãýõèéí ºðò㺺ñ õàâüã¿éõ¿ëýìæèéí õèéí õýìæýý íü æèæèã èõ áîëíî, îëîí òîõèîëäîëä íýãýíò òèéììàøèíààð 112 êèëîìåòð ÿâàõàä ãàðàõòàé áàéãàà ãýäãèéã îéëãîæ áàéíà. ¯¿íèéãèæèë õýìæýýòýé áàéäàã áàéíà. îéëãîæ áàéãàà Êîíãðåññèéí ãèø¿¿äèéí òîî e Journal USA 18 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • will be, and in many cases are already, far form of diesel. Amyris says that by 2011higher than the costs of pretending the it will be producing more than 750 millionproblem does not exist. Climate-induced liters of diesel fuel a year — resoundingcrises pose the risk of destabilizing entire proof of the principle that we can createregions of the world. new forms of energy without destroying the But how do we cut fossil fuel emissions? atmosphere. The Obama administration hasOne way, of course, is to consume less. signaled, with words and with money, thatAnother is to develop new types of fuel, fuel such endeavors will be supported, which, inthat will not tax our environment. Scientists a world dominated by the political might ofthroughout the world are trying to do just entrenched interests, has not been easy.that. In the United States people like Craig Without international cooperation, noneVenter, who directed the team that won of these efforts will make enough of athe race to sequence the human genome,are now working on engineering microbesthat could help move the United States The melting Greenland Ice Sheet is seen through an icebergaway from our addiction to oil — while in Kulusuk, near the Arctic Circle. Polar melt, which maydrastically cutting greenhouse emissions. exacerbate effects of climate change, is more rapid thanThere are many similar efforts underway scientists anticipated.throughout the country. In California, for © AP Images/John McConnicoexample, Amyris Biotechnology, which hadalready manufactured a synthetic malariadrug, has now engineered three microbesthat can transform sugar into fuel, includingone that turns yeast and sugar into a viable÷ íýìýãäýæ áàéíà. Óóð àìüñãàëààñ ¿¿äñýíõÿìðàë äýëõèéí á¿õýë á¿òýí á¿ñ íóòãóóäûãòîãòâîðã¿éæ¿¿ëýõ ýðñäýë áèé áîëãîæáàéíà. Ãýòýë ÷óëóóæñàí ò¿ëøíèé ÿëãàðóóëàõõèéã áèä ÿàæ áóóðóóëàõ âý? Õýðýãëýýã Òóéëûí òîéðãèéí îéðîëöîîõ Êóëóñê ìºñºí óóëûí öààíààñ Ãðèéíëàíäûí õàéëæ áóé ìºñºí õó÷ëàãà õàðàãäàæ áàéíà. Óóðáàãàñãàõ íü íýã àðãà ãýäýã íü ìýäýýæ. ͺ㺺 àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí íºëººã óëàì äîðäóóëæ ìýäýõ Òóéëûííýã àðãà íü ò¿ëøíèé øèíý õýëáýðèéã, ìºñíèé õàéëàëò ýðäýìòäèéí óðüä÷èëàí õýëæ áàéñíààñ èë¿¿ººðººð õýëáýë, ìàíàé õ¿ðýýëýí áàéãàà õóðäàí ÿâæ áàéíà.îð÷íûã áîõèðëîõã¿é ò¿ëøèéã çîõèîíá¿òýýõ ÿâäàë þì. Äýëõèé äàõèíû ýðäýìòýä÷óõàì ¿¿íèéã õèéõ ãýæ îðîëäîæ áàéíà. ìÿíãàí ëèòð äèçåëèéí ò¿ëø ¿éëäâýðëýíýÀìåðèêèéí Íýãäñýí Óëñàä, õ¿íèé á¿õ ãýæ Aìyris-ûíõàí õýëæ áàéãàà íü áèäãåíèéã ýðýìáýëýõ óðàëäààíä ÿëñàí áàãèéã àãààð ìàíäëûã ñ¿éòãýõã¿é ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèéóäèðäñàí Êðàéã Âåíòåð øèã õ¿ì¿¿ñ îäîî øèíý õýëáýðèéã áèé áîëãîæ ÷àäíà ãýõìèêðîáûã èíæåíåð÷ëýõ àæèë õèéæ áàéíà. çàð÷ìûí áàòàëãàà áîëîí ñîíñîãäîæÝíý íü Àìåðèêèéí Íýãäñýí Óëñûã áèäíèé áàéíà. Îáàìàãèéí çàñàã çàõèðãàà èéìãàçðûí òîñîíä äîíòîõ çóðøëàà îðõèõîä õ¿÷ ÷àðìàéëòûã àìààð òºäèéã¿é ìºíãºòóñ áîëîõ ó÷èðòàé, òýãñíýýð õ¿ëýìæèéí ñàíõ¿¿ãýýð äýìæèõýý èëýðõèéëýýä áàéãàà.õèéí ÿëãàðàëò ýðñ áàãàñàíà. Ìàíàé óëñàä Ýíý íü äàðõëàãäñàí àøèã ñîíèðõëûí óëñèéìýðõ¿¿ îëîí àæèë õèéãäýæ áàéãàà. òºðèéí ñ¿ð õ¿÷ äàâàìãàéëñàí åðòºíöºäÆèøýý íü, Êàëèôîðíèä, õóìõààíû íèéëýã àìàð ç¿éë áèø.ýì õýäèé íü ¿éëäâýðëýýä áàéãàà AmyrisBiotechnology îäîî ýëñýí ÷èõðèéã ò¿ëø Îëîí óëñûí õàìòûí àæèëëàãààã¿éãýýðáîëãîí õóâèðãàæ ÷àäàõ ãóðâàí òºðëèéí ýäãýýð õ¿÷ ÷àðìàéëòûí àëü íü ÷ áîëîìæèéíìèêðîá ãàðãàæ àâààä áàéãàà áºãººä ¿ð ä¿íä õ¿ðýõã¿é. Îëîí õ¿í àëü íü ÿàãààäòýäãýýðèéí íýã íü õºðºí㺠áîëîí èñ÷, ýëñýí èíãýæ áàéíà ãýäãèéã îéëãîæ ýõýëæ áàéíà.÷èõðèéã çîõèõ íàñòàé äèçåëèéí ò¿ëø Æèøýýëáýë, ýêîëîãè÷èä Èíäîíåçè øèãáîëãîäîã áàéíà. 2011 îí ãýõýä æèëä 750 ãàçàðò õàëóóí îðíûõ íü øèðýíãèéã ìîä îãòëîã÷ íàðààð öºëì¿¿ëýõã¿éí òóëä e Journal USA 19 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • difference. Many people are beginningto understand that — which is why, forexample, conservationists are beginningto pay poor timber farmers in places likeIndonesia not to allow their rainforests to beripped apart by loggers. I can only hope itdoesn’t take a catastrophe to make the restof us confront the serious challenges we face— or embrace the fact that we can and arecapable of facing them successfully. The opinions expressed in this article do not necessarilyreflect the views or policies of the U.S. government.òýíäõèéí ÿäóó ìîä áýëòãýã÷ íàðò ìºí㺺ã÷ ýõýëæ áàéíà. Ìèíèé õóâüä áîë áèäíýýñ¿ëäýõ õýñýã ìààíü áèäýíä í¿¿ðëýýä áàéãààíîöòîé ñîðèëòòîé òóëãàðàõààð ñ¿éðýëäõ¿ðýõã¿é, ýñâýë í¿¿ðëýñýí áýðõøýýëäàìæèëòòàé õàðèó ºã÷ ÷àäíà, òèéì ÷àäâàð÷ áàéíà ãýäýã áàðèìòûã õ¿ëýýí çºâøººðºõõýðýãòýé ãýæ ë íàéäàõ áîëæ áàéíà. Ýíý ºã¿¿ëýëä èëýðõèéëñýí ¿çýë áîäîë ÀÍÓ-ûí çàñãèéíãàçðûí áàéð ñóóðü áóþó áîäëîãûí òóñãàë áàéõ àëáàã¿é. e Journal USA 20 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • Critical Issues: An International Tour Brazil Overview on a Range of Threats Liana Anderson BBrazilian biologist Liana Anderson’s razil is a vast country, taking upprimary research has been in the Amazon nearly half of South America andBasin, where she has seen the effects of claiming much of its eastern coastline.climate change close up. She is completing Although renewable energy accounts for 47her doctoral research at the Environmental percent of the energy produced in Brazil,Change Institute, Oxford University. much higher than the global average. BrazilAnderson surveys the most critical areas still emits a large share of the total globalof concern, including agriculture, public greenhouse gas emissions. The chief reasonhealth, and the importance of containing is rapid slash-and-burn deforestation in thedeforestation, which accounts for Brazil’s Amazon Basin. The Amazon, the world’slargest source of damaging greenhouse gas largest tropical forest, spreads over nineemissions. countries, but most of it lies within Brazil. Rainforests are enormous carbon storage sinks. When they are cleared and burned, carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are released into the atmosphere. These haveÍîöòîé àñóóäëóóä: Îëîí óëñûí àÿëàë Áðàçèëü Àþóëûí öàð õ¿ðýýã òîéìëîõ íü Ëèàíà Àíäåðñåí ÁÁèîëîã÷ Ëèàíà Àíäåðñåí ãîë ñóäàëãààãàà ðàçèëü áîë ªìíºä Àìåðèêèéí áàðàãÀìàçîíû øèðýíãýí øóãóéí ñàâ íóòàãò õàãàñûã ýçýëñýí, òóñ òèâèéí ç¿¿íõèéæ áàéãàà áºãººä òýðýýð óóð àìüñãàëûí ýðãèéí èõýíõèéã áàãòààñàí ºðãºíººð÷ëºëòèéí õîð óðøãèéã ÷óõàì ýíä óóäàì íóòàãòàé îðîí þì. Ñýðãýýãäýõ ýð÷èìäýðãýäýýñ íü îëæ õàðæýý. Ëèàíà Îêñôîðäûí õ¿÷ òóñ óëñàä ¿éëäâýðëýæ áàéãàà ýð÷èìèõ ñóðãóóëèéí Áàéãàëü îð÷íû ººð÷ëºëòèéí õ¿÷íèé 47 õóâèéã ýçýëäýã áºãººä ýíý íüõ¿ðýýëýíä äîêòîðûí çýðýã õàìãààëàõ äýëõèéí äóíäæààñ õàâüã¿é ºíäºð òîîñóäàëãààãàà äóóñãàæ áàéãàà þì. áèëýý. Áðàçèëü îäîî ÷ äýëõèéí õ¿ëýìæèéíÀíäåðñåí õºäºº àæ àõóé, íèéòèéí ýð¿¿ë õèéí èõýýõýí õýñãèéã ÿëãàðóóëæ áàéãààìýíä çýðýã õàìãèéí èõ ñàíàà çîâîîæ áîëíî. Ãîë øàëòãààí íü Àìàçîíû øèðýíãýíáàéãàà ñàëáàðóóä, ò¿¿í÷ëýí Áðàçèëèéí øóãóéí ñàâ íóòàãò îéã ìàø ò¿ðãýíõ¿ëýìæèéí õèéí õàÿãäëûí õàìãèéí òîì õóðäàöòàé õÿäàæ, áàñ ò¿éìýðò èä¿¿ëæýõ ñóðâàëæ ãýæ ¿çäýã îéã¿éæèëòèéã áàéãàà ÿâäàë. Àìàçîí íü åñºí îðíû íóòàãòîãòîîí áàðèõûí à÷ õîëáîãäîë çýðãèéã äàìæñàí äýëõèéí õàìãèéí òîì øèðýíãýíñóäàëæ áàéíà. øóãóé áºãººä ò¿¿íèé õàìãèéí èõ õýñýã íü Áðàçèëèéí íóòàãò áàéäàã þì. Õàëóóí îðíû øèðýíãýí îé áîë í¿¿ðñòºðºã÷èéí õèéã øèíãýýäýã àâàðãà òîì àãóóëàõ áèëýý. Òýð îéã õÿäàõ, ò¿éìýðò èäýãäýõýä í¿¿ðñòºðºã÷èéí äàâõàð èñýë áîëîí áóñàä õ¿ëýìæèéí õèé àãààð ìàíäàëä äýãäýíý. Ýíý e Journal USA 21 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • been found to contribute to climate change It is estimated that Brazil releases aboutand global warming. 1 billion tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) into According to the United Nations the atmosphere per year; about 75 percentFramework Convention on Climate Change of this is from deforestation, the Brazilian(UNFCCC), when emissions from land-use Ministry of Science and Technology reports.change and forestry estimations (LUCF) are Recent estimates suggest that the Amazonincluded, Brazil’s emissions amount to 12.3 Basin has a total biomass of 86 petagramspercent of the total of the 151 non-Annex I of carbon, equivalent to the last 11 years ofParties to the UNFCCC, primarily developing CO2 emissions. Deforestation is estimatedcountries, that have no emissions reduction to have reduced the Amazon forest by 15targets according to the Kyoto Protocol. percent in the past three decades, driven Biologist Liana Anderson surveys a forest burn in the Mato Grosso, southern Brazilian Amazon. Courtesy of Liana Anderson/Photo by Douglas Morton Áèîëîã÷ Ëèàíà Àíäåðñåí ªìíºä Áðàçèëèéí Àìàçîíû Ìàòî Ãðîññîä øàòñàí îéã ñóäàëæ áàéíà.íü óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëò áîëîí äýëõèéí ¿¿íèé 75 îð÷èì õóâü íü îéã¿éæèëòýýñäóëààðàëä íºëººëæ áàéãàà þì. ¿¿äýëòýé ãýæ Áðàçèëèéí Øèíæëýõ óõààí, ͯÁ-ûí Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí òåõíîëîãèéí ÿàì ìýäýýëæ áàéíà. Ñ¿¿ëèéíàñóóäëààðõ õ¿ðýý òîãòîîõ ÷óóëãàíû äàãóó ¿åèéí ¿íýëãýýíýýñ ¿çâýë Àìàçîíû ñàâáîë ãàçàð àøèãëàëòûí áîëîí îéí õîëáîãäîë íóòàãò í¿¿ðñòºðºã÷èéí 86 ïåòàãðàììá¿õèé õàÿãäàë õèéã îðîëöóóëàí òîîöâîë (1015) áèîìàññ áàéñàí áºãººä ýíý íüÁðàçèëèéí õàÿãäàë ãîëäóó õºãæèæ áàéãàà ñ¿¿ëèéí 11 æèëä ÿëãàðñàí í¿¿ðñòºðºã÷èéíîðíóóäààñ á¿ðäñýí, ÷óóëãàíä îðîëöîõ 151 äàâõàð èñýëòýé òýíöýõ òîî þì. Ñ¿¿ëèéíîðíû íèéò ä¿íãèéí 12.3 õ¿ðòýëõ õóâèéã 30 æèëä òîõèîñîí îéã¿éæèõ ¿éë ÿâöûíýçýëæ áàéíà. ä¿íä Àìàçîíû îé 15 õóâü áàãàññàí ãýäýã òîîöîî áèé. Ýíý íü îéí á¿ñ íóòàãò äýä Áðàçèëü æèëä 1 òýðáóì òîíí á¿òýö õºãæ¿¿ëñýí, äýëõèé äàõèíä øàðí¿¿ðñòºðºã÷èéí äàâõàð èñëèéí õèé áóóðöàã, ¿õðèéí ìàõ, ä¿íç ãóàëèí çýðãèéíàãààð ìàíäàëä õàÿäàã ãýñýí ¿íýëãýý áèé; e Journal USA 22 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • by infrastructure expansion in the forest envisions diminishing the deforestation offrontier and increasing global demand for the Amazon by 70 percent, in relation to thesoya, beef, timber, etc. Climate change also estimates from 1996-2005, by 2017. Thisis predicted to increase the probability of initiative is a major strategy to mitigatedroughts in this region. The University global climate change by preserving theof Oxford, in collaboration with NASA forest. It has also opened possibilities for(U.S. National Aeronautics and Space funding and political cooperation. At theAdministration) and Brazilian scientists, U.N. Climate Change Conference in Balidemonstrated the close link between droughts (December 2007), the nations agreed toand the increase in forest fires, potentially include payments for Reduced Emissionsdoubling the total amount of carbon emitted from Deforestation and Degradation withinto the atmosphere. (Saatchi, Houghton, Dos the framework of the Kyoto Protocol.Santos Alvala, Soares, and Yu, 2007.) However, the Amazon forest is not the To tackle Brazil’s largest source of only ecosystem facing the threats of climategreenhouse gas emissions, deforestation, the change. The continental extension of BrazilBrazilian government launched in 2008 the demands a multidimensional approach toNational Plan for Climate Change, which adaptation and mitigation. Brazilian and© AP Images/Luis Vasconcelos, Interfoto, File Anama Lake near Manaus, Brazil, after drought affected levels of the Amazon River, caused the water level to drop several feet, and harmed the fishing industry in 2005. Áðàçèëü, 2005 îíû ãàíä íýðâýãäýí Àìàçîí ìºðíèé óñíû ò¿âøèí ìåòð õîë ãàðàíãààð äîîøèëæ, çàãàñíû àæ ¿éëäâýð õ¿íä áàéäàëä îðæ áàéñàí, Ìàíàóñûí õàâüä áàéäàã Àíàìà íóóðûí òýðõ¿¿ ãàíãèéí äàðààõü áàéäàë.õýðýãöýý èõýññýíòýé õîëáîîòîé àæýý. Óóð òºëºâëºãºº ãàðãàñàí áàéíà. ¯¿íèé äàãóóàìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòººñ áîëæ ýíý á¿ñ íóòàãò Àìàçîíû îéã¿éæèëòèéã 2017 îí ãýõýäãàí ãà÷èã òîõèîõ ÿâäàë èõñýíý ãýæ ¿çýæ 1996–2005 îíûõòîé õàðüöóóëàõàä 70 õóâüáàéíà. Îêñôîðäûí èõ ñóðãóóëü NASA áóóðóóëàõààð òîîöæýý. Ýíý ñàíàà÷ëàãà áîë(ÀÍÓ-ûí Àýðîíàâòèê, Ñàíñàð ñóäëàëûí îéã õàäãàëàí õàìãààëàõ çàìààð äýëõèéíãàçàð) áîëîí Áðàçèëèéí ýðäýìòýäòýé óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéã ñààðìàãæóóëàõõàìòðàí ñóäàëãàà õèéæ, àãààð ìàíäàëä òîìîîõîí ñòðàòåãè þì. Ýíý òºëºâëºãºº áàñäýãääýã í¿¿ðñòºðºã÷èéí õèéã õî¸ð äàõèí õºðºí㺠õóðèìòëóóëàõ áîëîí óëñ òºðèéííýìýãä¿¿ëæ ìýäýõ îéí ò¿éìýð, ãàí õî¸ð õàìòûí àæèëëàãàà ºðí¿¿ëýõ áîëîìæèéãíÿãò õîëáîîòîéã òîãòîîñîí áàéíà. (Saatchi, íýýæ áàéíà. ͯÁ-ûí Óóð àìüñãàëûíHoughton, Dos Santoc Alvala, Soares, Yu, ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëààðõ Áàëèéí áàãà õóðàë2007.) äýýð (2007 îíû àðâàí õî¸ðäóãààð ñàð) óëñ Áðàçèëèéí õ¿ëýìæèéí õèéí õàìãèéí òîì îðíóóä Êèîòîãèéí Ïðîòîêîëûí õ¿ðýýíäýõ ñóðâàëæ áîëæ áàéãàà îéã¿éæèëòèéí Îéã¿éæèëò áîëîí Äîðîéòëîîñ ¿¿äñýí õèéíàñóóäëûí ó÷ðûã îëîõûí òóëä Áðàçèëèéí õàÿãäëûã áàãàñãàñíû òºëºº òºëáºð ºã÷ áàéõçàñãèéí ãàçàð 2008 îíä Óóð àìüñãàëûí òóõàéä ñàíàë íýãäñýí þì.ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëààðõ ¯íäýñíèé e Journal USA 23 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • American scientists, testing different scarcity for Ceará State by 2025.scenarios of global warming, estimate Climate change is likely to affectwidespread species loss for the Cerrado agriculture in southern Brazil, the mostbiome (Brazilian important region forsavannah), with loss of crops such as potato,more than 50 percent ofpotential distributional The Amazon forest is not wheat, rice, maize,area for many species. the only ecosystem facing and soybean.for simulations AlthoughNortheast Brazil, thepoorest region in the the threats of climate increased atmospheric CO2 concentrationcountry, is threatened. change. The continental show beneficial effectsThe Water Availabilityand Vulnerability of extension of Brazil for those crops, the effects of increasedEcosystems and Society demands a challenging air temperature andprogram, a collaborationbetween Brazil and multidimensional approach uncertainties in rainfall pattern due to climateGermany, recommendscareful planning in to tackle climate change change are predicted to greatly reduce thelong-term resource-use effects and to develop agricultural productivityplans, as river flow andcrop production are adaptation and mitigation in this region. This will affect crop managementspecifically sensitive solutions. and will requireto climate change. adaptation strategiesThey also predict water from producers and the Àìàçîíû øèðýíãýí îé íü óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí àþóëä Ãýâ÷ Àìàçîíûøèðýíãýí îé íü óóð ºðòñºí öîðûí ãàíö Íèéãìèéí õºòºëáºðººñ çºâëºìæ áîëãîõäîîàìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí ýêîñèñòåì áèø þì. ãîëûí óðñãàë, òàðèìàëàþóëä ºðòñºí öîðûí óðãàìëûí ¿éëäâýðëýëãàíö ýêîñèñòåì áèø Áðàçèëèéí íóòàã ýõ óóð àìüñãàëûíþì. Áðàçèëèéí ãàçðûí õýìæýýíä òýëñýí ººð÷ëºëòºä îíöãîéíóòàã ýõ ãàçðûí ýìçýã áàéäàã ó÷ðààñõýìæýýíä òýëñýí áàéäàë óóð àìüñãàëûí íººö àøèãëàõ óðòáàéäàë óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí íºëººã õóãàöààíû òºëºâëºãººººð÷ëºëòèéí íºëººã áîëîâñðóóëàõäàà òóíáàðüæ àâ÷ øèéäýõ, áàðüæ àâ÷ øèéäýõ, õÿíàìãàé õàíäàæ áàéõñààðìàãæóóëàõ, äàñàíçîõèöîõ øèéäëèéã ñààðìàãæóóëàõ, äàñàí õýðýãòýé ãýñýí áàéíà. Òýä ìºí Ñåàðå ìóæáîëîâñðóóëàõ àæëûã çîõèöîõ øèéäëèéã óëñûí õóâüä 2025 îíîëîí ÷èãëýëòýéáîëãîõûã øààðäàæ áîëîâñðóóëàõ àæëûã ãýõýä óñíû õîìñäîë í¿¿ðëýíý ãýæ ä¿ãíýñýíáàéíà. Äýëõèéí îëîí ÷èãëýëòýé áîëãîõûã áàéíà.äóëààðëûí îëîí çóðàãáàéäëûã øàëãàæ ¿çñýí øààðäàæ áàéíà. Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëò ºìíºäÁðàçèëü, Àìåðèêèéí Áðàçèëèéí õºäººýðäýìòýä Ñåððàäî àæ àõóéä íºëººëæáèîìå-ä (Áðàçèëèéí ñàâàííà) ºðãºí ìýäýõýýð áàéíà. Ýíý íóòàã áîë òºìñ,òàðõñàí îëîí ç¿éë àëãà áîëñíû õàìò îëîí áóóäàé, öàãààí áóäàà, ýðäýíýøèø, øàðç¿éë óðãàäàã áàéñàí íóòàã äýâñãýðèéí áóóðöàã çýðýã òàðèìàë óðãàìëûí õàìãèéí50 ãàðóé õóâü íü àëäàãäñàí ãýõ ¿íýëãýý ÷óõàë á¿ñ íóòàã þì. Àãààð ìàíäëûíãàðãàæýý. Áðàçèëèéí õàìãèéí ÿäóó õýñýã í¿¿ðñòºðºã÷èéí êîíöåíòðàöèéã çîõèîìëîîðáîëîõ ç¿¿í õîéä íóòãèéã àþóë íºìðººä ºòãºð¿¿ëýõ íü ýäãýýð òàðèìàëä àøèãòàéáàéíà. Áðàçèëü, Ãåðìàí õî¸ðûí õàìòðàí íºëººëæ áàéãàà íü õàðàãäàæ áàéãàà õýäèéõýðýãæ¿¿ëæ áàéãàà Óñíû õ¿ðòýýìæ, ÷ óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòººñ ¿¿äýëòýéÝêîñèñòåìèéí ýìçýã áàéäàë áîëîí
  • government. Investments in technologies will patterns and their area of occurrence.be decisive in mitigation of climate change Recent studies in Brazil showed a significantimpacts on the food supply. In contrast, increase in cases of leishmaniasis, asmall farmers in the Amazon are more potentially fatal parasitic disease spreadsusceptible to the extended droughts, floods, by sand flies, during El Niño years. Withand increased wildfires associated with the expected increase of El Niño frequencychanging climate patterns. An immediate and intensity in this century due to climateimprovement of infrastructure, information, change, the number of leishmaniasis cases isand communication networks is essential to likely to rise in many Brazilian regions. Thealleviate the effects of climatological changes cost of leishmaniasis medical care during thein this remote region. 1997/98 El Niño in Bahia State (Northeast Public health is also a great concern. It is region) was estimated at 62 million dollars.accepted that environmental changes will In response to the extensive range ofmodify vector-borne disease transmission threats to Brazil that may result from © AP Images/Andre Penner A boat transports people from flooded homes in Trizidela do Vale, Brazil, along the Mearim River. Although flooding is common here, waters nowrise higher and stay longer. Áðàçèëü, Òðèçèäåëà äî Âàëå-ä ¿åðò àâàõóóëñàí àéëóóäààñ õ¿ì¿¿ñèéã çàâèàð 纺æ áàéíà; ¯åð ýíä åðäèéí ¿çýãäýë áîëîâ÷ ýä¿ãýý óäààí áºãººä èõ ¿åðëýäýã áîëîîä áàéíà.àãààðûí òåìïåðàòóðûí ºñºëò, ìºí áîðîî öàã óóðûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí íºëººã áóóðóóëàõàäîðîëòûí òîäîðõîéã¿é áàéäàë íü ýíý á¿ñ äýä á¿òýö, ìýäýýëýë áîëîí õàðèëöààíóòàãò õºäºº àæ àõóéí ¿éëäâýðëýëèéí õîëáîîíû ñ¿ëæýýã ìàø ò¿ðãýí ñàéæðóóëàõá¿òýýìæèéã èõýýõýí õîðîãäóóëíà ãýæ ÿâäàë àìèí ÷óõàë à÷ õîëáîãäîëòîé.ä¿ãíýõýä õ¿ðãýñýí áàéíà. Ýíý íü òàðèìàë Íèéòèéí ýð¿¿ë ìýíä áàñ èõýýõýí ñàíààóðãàìëûí ¿éëäâýðëýëèéí óäèðäëàãà çîâîîæ áàéíà. Áàéãàëü îð÷íû ººð÷ëºëò íüçîõèîí áàéãóóëàëòàä íºëººëºõ ó÷ðààñ íÿí òýýã÷ýýñ õàëäñàí ºâ÷íèéã äàìæóóëàõ¿éëäâýðëýã÷èä áîëîí çàñãèéí ãàçðààñ õýâ ìàÿãèéã, áàñ òýäãýýðèéí ãàð÷ èðýõçîõèöóóëàõ ñòðàòåãèéã øààðäàõ áîëíî. îð÷èíã ººð áîëãîäîã ãýæ ¿çäýã. ÁðàçèëüäÕ¿íñíèé õàíãàìæèä óóð àìüñãàëûí ñ¿¿ëèéí ¿åä õèéñýí ñóäàëãààíóóäààñººð÷ëºëòèéí íºëººã ñààðìàãæóóëàõàä ¿çâýë äàëàéí ãàæèã äóëààðàë òîõèîõòåõíîëîãèéí õºðºí㺠îðóóëàëò õèéõ ÿâäàë æèë¿¿äýä (El Niňo) ëåéøìàíäàõ áóþóøèéäâýðëýõ à÷ õîëáîãäîëòîé. Òýñ ººð ç¿éë ýëñíèé ÿëààãààð äàìæäàã ¿õëèéí àþóëòàéáîë Àìàçîíû ñàâ ãàçðûí æèæèã ôåðìåðèéí øèìýã÷äèéí ºâ÷èí ãàðàõ òîõèîëäîëàæ àõóéíóóä óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòººñ ìýäýãäýõ¿éö íýìýãäæýý. Ýíý çóóíä óóð¿¿äýëòýé ãàçàð àâ÷ áàéãàà ãàí ãà÷èã, îëîí àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòººñ óëáààëàí El Niňo-¿åð, îëøèðñîí õýýðèéí ò¿éìýð çýðýãò èë¿¿ ãèéí æèëèéí äàâòàìæ, ýð÷èì íýìýãäýõýýðºðòºìõèé áàéíà. Ýíý àëñëàãäñàí á¿ñ íóòàãò e Journal USA 25 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • climate change, many actions have already enforcement and consolidation. Immediatebeen taken by the government and the responses are essential to face the worldwidescientific community. Strengthened networks common threat, climate change. of multinational scientific collaborationhave greatly advanced the knowledge ofmany ecosystems and their interactions with References cited are listed in Additionalthe environment and human populations. Resources.In 2008, State of São Paulo ResearchFoundation launched the Global Climate The opinions expressed in this article do not necessarilyChange program, investing more than 7 reflect the views or policies of the U.S. government.million dollars in scientific projects. Reaching Brazil’s ultimate goal ofgreenhouse gas emissions reduction andmitigating the effects of climate changerequires multinational, interdisciplinaryresearch by the scientific community,political action, the involvement of thecitizens, extensive dissemination ofinformation, and an effective interfaceof regional and international policy foráàéãààòàé õîëáîîòîéãîîð Áðàçèëèéí îëîí øààðäëàãàòàé, óëñ òºðèéí ¿éë àæèëëàãààá¿ñ íóòàãò ëåéøìàíäàõ òîõèîëäëûí òîî øààðäëàãàòàé, èðãýäèéã òàòàí îðîëöóóëàõºñ÷ ìýäýõýýð áàéíà. 1997ň98 îíû El Niňo- ¸ñòîé, ìýäýýëëèéã ºðãºí õ¿ðýýòýé ò¿ãýýõãèéí òóðø Áàõèà ìóæ óëñàä (Ç¿¿í õîéä õýðýãòýé, ¸ñ÷ëîí ñàõèóëæ, áàòàòãàõûí òóëäá¿ñ) ëåéøìàíäàõààñ ñýðãèéëýõ ýìíýëãèéí á¿ñ íóòãèéí áîëîí îëîí óëñûí áîäëîãûã ¿ðçàðäàë 62 ñàÿ äîëëàð áîëñîí áàéíà. íºëººòýé óÿëäóóëàõ ¸ñòîé. Äýëõèé äàõèíû Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòººñ ¿¿äñýí íèéòëýã àþóë áîëæ áàéãàà óóð àìüñãàëûíáàéæ áîëîõ Áðàçèëüä í¿¿ðëýñýí ºðãºí öà𠺺ð÷ëºëòòýé òýìöýõèéí òóëä ìàø ÿàðàëòàéõ¿ðýýòýé àþóë çàíàëûí õàðèóä çàñãèéí õàðèó àðãà õýìæýý àâàõ íü íýí ÷óõàë þì.ãàçàð áîëîí ýðäýìòäèéí õ¿é õàìòëàãèéíç¿ãýýñ îëîí àðãà õýìæýý íýãýíò àâààä Èøëýë¿¿äèéã íýìýëò ýõ ñóðâàëæóóäàäáàéíà. Îëîí ¿íäýñòíèé øèíæëýõ óõààíû äóðäñàí áîëíî.õàìòûí àæèëëàãààíû áýõæèæ áàéãààñ¿ëæýý îëîí ýêîñèñòåìèéí òóõàé ìýäëýãáîëîí òýäãýýðèéí áàéãàëü îð÷èí õèéãýýä Ýíý ºã¿¿ëýëä èëýðõèéëñýí ¿çýë áîäîë ÀÍÓ-ûí çàñãèéíõ¿í àìòàé õîðøèõ õàðèëöàí ¿éë÷èëãýýíèé ãàçðûí áàéð ñóóðü, áîäëîãûí òóñãàë áàéõ àëáàã¿é.òóõàé ìýäëýãèéã èõýýõýí àõèóëæ ºã÷ýý. 2008 îíä Ñàí Ïàóëî ìóæ óëñûíÑóäàëãààíû ñàí Äýëõèéí óóð àìüñãàëûíººð÷ëºëòèéí õºòºëáºð ãàðãàæ, ýðäýìøèíæèëãýýíèé òºñë¿¿äýä 7 ñàÿ ãàðóéäîëëàðûí õºðºí㺠îðóóëñàí áàéíà. Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí íºëººãñààðìàãæóóëàõ, õ¿ëýìæèéí õèéí õàÿãäëûãáóóðóóëàõ òóõàéí Áðàçèëèéí ýöñèéíçîðèëãîä õ¿ðýõèéí òóëä îëîí óëñ îðîëöñîí,îëîí ñàëáàð óõààíû ñóäàëãàà õèéõ e Journal USA 26 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • Critical Issues: An International Tour Canada O Canada: How Good It Could Be Zoë Caron IZoë Caron is co-author of Global Warming for pulled my iPhone from my pocketDummies and editor of ItsGettingHotInHere. to catch up on the news in a publicorg. She is the climate policy and advocacy park, just blocks from my office inspecialist at World Wildlife Fund- Canada downtown Halifax, Nova Scotia. Theand is involved in coordinating the Nova headlines contrasted starkly with theScotia Renewable Energy Consultations, a serene surroundings: “Oil lobby to fundjoint project of the provincial government phony campaign against U.S. climateand Dalhousie University in Halifax. She change strategy” (Guardian News); “Kyotois also a founding member of the Canadian Protocol working group [closes] with ChairYouth Climate Change Coalition. … encouraging parties ‘to work twice asCaron sees the chief climate change hard in Bangkok’” (International Instituteopportunities for Canada in new efforts on for Sustainable Development); “Yvo de Boer:sustainable renewable energy development ‘At this rate, we’re not going to make it.and political will toward action to meet the Recognize that serious climate change ischallenges ahead. equal to game over’” (Global Campaign for Climate Action).Íîöòîé àñóóäëóóä: Îëîí óëñûí àÿëàë Êàíàä Êàíàä ìèíü äýý: Èíãýâýë õè÷íýýí ñàéõàí áàéõ ñàí áèëýý Çî¸ Êàðîí ÍÇî¸ Êàðîí áîë Global Warming for îâà Ñêîòèà ìóæèéí Õàëèôàêñ õîòûíDummies-èéí õàìòðàí çîõèîã÷ áºãººä òºâèéí ìàíàé àæëûí ãàçðààñ õîëã¿éItsGettingHotInHere.org-èéí ýðõëýã÷ þì. áàéäàã íèéòèéí öýöýðëýãò õ¿ðýýëýíäÒýðýýð World Wildlife Fund-Canada–ãèéí áè ñîíèí ìýäýý îëæ ìýäýõ ñàíààòàéóóð àìüñãàëûí áîäëîãûí ìýðãýæèëòýí iPhone-îî õàëààñíààñàà ãàðãàæ èðýâ.áºãººä Íîâà Ñêîòèà ìóæèéí Ñýðãýýãäýõ Ìýäýýíèé ãàð÷ãóóä îð÷íû àìãàëàí òàéâàíýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé çºâëºë人í áóþó ìóæèéí áàéäëààñ äààí÷ ÿëãààòàé áàéëàà: “Ãàçðûíçàñãèéí ãàçàð, Õàëèôàêñûí Äàëõàóñèå òîñíû ëîááè÷óóä ÀÍÓ-ûí óóð àìüñãàëûíèõ ñóðãóóëü õî¸ðûí õàìòàðñàí òºñëèéí ººð÷ëºëòèéí ñòðàòåãèéí ýñðýã õóóðàì÷çîõèöóóëàõ àæèëä îðîëöäîã. Òýðýýð áàñ êàìïàíèò àæëûã ñàíõ¿¿æ¿¿ëíý” (GuardianÊàíàäûí Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí News); “Êèîòîãèéí Ïðîòîêîëûí àæëûíçàëóó÷óóäûí ýâñëèéã ¿¿ñãýí áàéãóóëàã÷ õýñýã Äàðãàòàéãàà [òîõèîëöîí]... ‘Áàíãêîêòãèø¿¿í þì. õî¸ð äàõèí èë¿¿ øàðãóó àæèëëàõ òàëààð’Êàðîí òîãòâîðòîé ñýðãýýãäýõ ýð÷èì òàëóóäûã çîðèãæóóëæ áàéíà” (Òîãòâîðòîéõ¿÷èéã õºãæ¿¿ëýõ õ¿÷èí ÷àðìàéëò áîëîí õºãæëèéí îëîí óëñûí õ¿ðýýëýí); “Þâîí¿¿ðëýí àéñóé ñîðèëòîä õàðèó áàðèõ óëñ äå Áîåð: ‘Ýíý õàíøààð áèä ¿¿íèéã õèéõòºðèéí õ¿ñýë çîðèãèéã óóð àìüñãàëûí áîäîëã¿é áàéíà. Óóð àìüñãàëûí íîöòî麺ð÷ëºëòèéí Êàíàäûí õóâüä òîõèîõ ãîë ººð÷ëºëò òîãëîîì äóóññàíòàé íýã ¿ãáîëîìæ ãýæ ¿çýæ áàéíà. ãýäãèéã îéëãî’” (Óóð àìüñãàëûí òàëààð e Journal USA 27 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • Not particularly uplifting, but such is the The most serious challenge presented state of climate change discourse in Canada. by climate change in Canada is our long- Canadians have ranked the environment as standing reliance on an economy rich in a top priority in the recent past. Surveys natural — but often finite — resources. suggest that Canadians are saturated with Despite growing sparks of leadership in solar climate change awareness, but messaging has and wind power, we continue to promote opted for shame over solutions, and we have development in the Athabasca tar sands, an reacted with nationwide paralysis. underground oil reserve larger than the state of Florida. The province of Nova Scotia still Activist and author Zoë Caron depends on coal, and Ontario continues to develop nonrenewable nuclear energy.Courtesy of Zoë Caron/Photo by Tracy Morris-Boyer Yet we have a tremendous opportunity to enjoy an economy that can thrive from today forward. Waste from Canada’s agricultural sector can provide for biomassderived fuels. Wind across the prairies and off the east coast of Nova Scotia can generate electricity. Solar energy potential exists across many parts of the country. The possibilities for building the infrastructure for this could start in our own towns, creating new green jobs for our country. What we crave as Canadians is a strong public mandate for sustainability at the ìààíü ¿íäýñíèé õýìæýýíèé ñààæèëòòàé ìýò áàéäàã. Êàíàäàä óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòººñ ¿¿äýæ áàéãàà õàìãèéí íîöòîé ñîðèëò áîë èõýíõäýý õÿçãààðëàãäìàë áàéãàëèéí áàÿëàãààð áàÿí ýäèéí çàñãààñ îëîí æèë õàðààò áàéãàà ÿâäàë ìààíü þì. Íàðíû áîëîí ñàëõèíû ýð÷èì õ¿÷èéã àøèãëàõ òàëààð óëàì á¿ð îðîéëæ áàéãààãàà ¿ë õàðãàëçàí áèä Àòàáàñàãèéí áàðàãøèíòàé ýëñ áóþó Ôëîðèäà ìóæ óëñûíõààñ èë¿¿ íººöòýé ã¿íèé ãàçðûí òîñíû îðäûã àøèãëàõ àæëûã ¿ðãýëæë¿¿ëýí äýìæñýýð áàéíà. Íîâà Ñêîòèà ìóæ ºíºº õ¿ðòýë Áàéãàëü îð÷íû èäýâõòýí áºãººä çîõèîã÷ Çî¸ Êàðîí í¿¿ðñíýýñ õàðààò áàéãàà áà Îíòàðèî ìóæ ¿ë ñýðãýýãäýõ öºìèéí ýð÷èì õ¿÷èéã õºãæ¿¿ëñýýð áàéíà. ¿éë àæèëëàãààíû òºëºº äýëõèé êàìïàíèò àæèë). Õýäèé òèéì ÷ ºíººäðººñ ýõëýí öààøèä öýöýãëýí õºãæèæ ÷àäàõ ýäèéí çàñàãòàé Òóõàéëæ óðàì ñýðãýýæ áàéãàà þì áàéõ ñàéõàí áîëîìæ áèäýíä áàéíà. áèø, ýíý áîë Êàíàäàä óóð àìüñãàëûí Êàíàäûí õºäºº àæ àõóéí ñàëáàðûí õàÿãäàë ººð÷ëºëòèéí òàëààð áè÷èãäèæ áàéãàà áèîìàññûí ò¿ëøèéã ò¿¿õèé ýäýýð õàíãàæ ç¿éëèéí áàéäàë þì. Êàíàä÷óóä ñ¿¿ëèéí ÷àäíà. Íîâà Ñêîòèàãèéí ç¿¿í ýðýã áîëîí õýäýí æèëä áàéãàëü îð÷íû àñóóäëûã õýýð íóòãààð õºíäëºí ãóëä ñýëã¿¿öýæ òýðã¿¿í çýðãèéí à÷ õîëáîãäîëòîé ãýæ áàéãàà ñàëõèàð ýð÷èì õ¿÷ ¿éëäâýðëýõ ýðýìáýëæ áàéãàà áèëýý. Êàíàä÷óóä óóð áîëîëöîîòîé. Íàðíû ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé íººö àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëààð á¿ðýí áîëîëöîî òóñ îðíû îëîí ãàçàð ýíä òýíäã¿é óõàìñàð ñóóñàí ãýäãèéã ñóäàëãàà õàðóóëæ áèé. ¯¿íä çîðèóëñàí äýä á¿òöèéã áàéãóóëàõ áàéãàà áîëîâ÷ öàõèì ìýäýýëýë áàéãàà áîëîìæóóä óëñ îðîíäîî íîãîîðóóëàõ øèíý øèéäë¿¿äýýñ õàìãèéí è÷ìýýðèéã íü àæëûí áàéð áèé áîëãîõ çàìààð ìàíàé ñîíãîæ àâäàã ó÷ðààñ áèäíèé õàðèó ¿éëäýë e Journal USA 28 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • federal level. Many young people who will variants of hydrocarbon taxes; and Novalive to see the results of today’s action Scotia has legislated an ambitious renewable— or inaction — on climate change are energy target.frustrated that the federal government seems Our commitment to the Kyoto Protocol hasto focus on other priorities. But provincial been reduced, officially, to the lowest targetsgovernments have taken up the challenge: of all industrialized countries. Fortunately,British Columbia and Ontario have developed Canadians are prepared to act, regardless ofClimate Change Secretariats; British the federal response.Columbia and Quebec have implemented The most serious challenge Permafrost melt resulting from global warming is damaging infrastructure across the Arctic. This section of the Dempsterpresented by climate change Highway in Canada’s Northwest Territories collapsed because of thawing permafrost. in Canada is our long- © AP Images/Rick Bowmer standing reliance on an economy rich in natural —but often finite — resources. Êàíàäàä óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòººñ ¿¿äýæ áàéãààõàìãèéí íîöòîé ñîðèëò áîë èõýíõäýý õÿçãààðëàãäìàë áàéãàëèéí áàÿëàãààð áàÿí ýäèéí çàñãààñ îëîí æèë Äýëõèéí äóëààðëààñ ¿¿äñýí ìºíõ öýâäãèéí õàéëàëò íü Àðêòèêò ýíä òýíäã¿é äýä á¿òöèéã ýâäýæ áàéíà. Êàíàäûíõàðààò áàéãàà ÿâäàë ìààíü áàðóóí õîéä íóòãèéí Äåìðñòåðèéí çàñìàë çàìûí ýíý õýñýã ìºíõ öýâäýã õàéëñíààñ áîëæ öºìºð÷ýý. þì.ººðñäèéí õîòóóäààñ ýõëýí õýðýãæèæ áîëíî. Áèä Êèîòîãèéí Ïðîòîêîëîîð õ¿ëýýñýí Êàíàä÷óóäûíõàà õóâüä áèäíèé õ¿ñëýí ¿¿ðãýý á¿õ ¿éëäâýðæñýí îðíû äîîä çýðãèéíáîëæ áàéãàà ç¿éë áîë îëîí íèéò íü çîðèëò õ¿ðòýëõ õýìæýýíä àëáàí ¸ñîîðõîëáîîíû òºâèéí ò¿âøèíä òîãòâîðòîé áóóðóóëñàí áîëíî. Òºâ çàñãèéí ãàçðûíáàéäëûã õàíãàõ õàòóó ÷àíä á¿ðýí óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí õàðèó ¿éëýðõòýé áàéõ ÿâäàë þì. Óóð àìüñãàëûí àæèëëàãààã ¿ë õàðãàëçàí, àç áîëîõîä,ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëààð ºíººäðèéí ¿éëäýë, êàíàä÷óóä ìààíü ¿éë àæèëëàãàà ÿâóóëàõàäýñ ¿éëäëèéí ¿ð ä¿íã ¿çýõèéí òóëä àìüäðàõ áýëòãýãäñýí õ¿ì¿¿ñ þì.îëîí çàëóó õ¿ì¿¿ñ õîëáîîíû çàñãèéí ãàçàð ªíººäðèéí áàéäëààð óóð àìüñãàëûíººð òýðã¿¿ëýõ ÷èãëýë¿¿äýä àíõààðëàà ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëààðõ Êàíàäûí ãîëòºâëºð¿¿ëæ áàéãààä áóõèìäàæ áàéíà. ò¿íø íü Àìåðèêèéí Íýãäñýí Óëñ áîëæ Ãýõäýý ìóæèéí çàñãèéí ãàçðóóä ñîðèëòûí áàéíà. Ãàéõìààð áàéæ ìàãàäã¿é, Êàíàäûíýñðýã õàðèó àðãà õýìæýý àâ÷ áàéíà: þó õèéõýä áýëòãýãäñýíýýñ ÀÍÓ õàâüã¿éÁðèòàíèéí Êîëóìáè, Îíòàðèî ìóæóóä Óóð èë¿¿ ¿¿ðýã õ¿ëýýñýí áîëæ õàðàãäàæàìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäàë ýðõýëñýí áàéíà. Æèøýýëáýë, Àìåðèêèéí Íýãäñýííàðèéí áè÷ãèéí äàðãà íàðûí ãàçàð Óëñûí íîãîîí òåõíîëîãèä îðóóëæ áàéãààáàéãóóëñàí; Áðèòàíèéí Êîëóìáè, Êâåáåê íýã õ¿íä îíîãäîõ õºðºí㺠îðóóëàëòûíõî¸ð í¿¿ðñòºðºã÷èéí ÿíç á¿ðèéí òàòâàð õýìæýý Êàíàäûíõààñ äàðóé çóðãàà äàõèííýâòð¿¿ëñýí; Íîâà Ñêîòèà ìóæ ñýðãýýãäýõ èõ áàéíà. Õàðèëöààíûõàà “àÿòàéõàí”ýð÷èì õ¿íèé òîìîîõîí çîðèëòûã õóóëü÷ëàí ñòàòóñ êâî-ã òîãòâîðòîé òåõíîëîãè á¿õèéòîãòîîñîí. øèíý ñòðàòåãèéí ò¿íøòýé áîëæ ººð÷ëºõ e Journal USA 29 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • To date, Canada’s primary partner on decisions that we do not and cannot supportclimate change has been the United States. reflects our values and convictions onPerhaps surprisingly, the United States justice and equity, as well as the desire forappears to be far more committed than accessible government plans and processes,Canada is prepared to be. The United States meeting the transparency demanded by ais investing six times more per capita than generation weaned on the Internet.Canada in green technology, for example. The young leaders in climate change haveTransforming “comfortable” status-quo become ever-mightier stakeholders in thisrelationships into engagement with new field. The Canadian Youth Climate Coalitionstrategic partners in sustainable technologies was founded in 2006 to address the politicaloffers staggering potential for the Canadian issues of climate change. The U.S.-Canadaeconomy to prosper in the long term. Energy Action Coalition brings together Despite this response of policymakers and dozens of organizations on climate justice. Aelected officials, or perhaps because of it, global network of youth is working togethervarious communities — business, industrial, across continents to mobilize young peopleindigenous, and nonprofit — are growing and influence global policy. The examplessources of mobilization, awareness, and abound.proposed solutions. The voice and political Climate change is defining the lives oflegitimacy of the youth movement, in this and future generations. How to addressparticular, is building, largely as a response these issues most quickly and effectivelyto political inertia. Climate change is among here in Canada ultimately boils down to ourthe issues that galvanize young people simply government satisfying the needs of futurebecause our government’s actions don’t make generations. While politicians may raisesense to us. The youth reaction to political eyebrows at such revolutionary reform, itíü Êàíàäûí ýäèéí çàñãèéã óðò õóãàöààíä ¿éë àæèëëàãààíû ÿâöûã îéëãîìæòîéöýöýãëýí õºãæèõ ãàéõàëòàé ñàéõàí íººö áàéëãàõ ãýñýí õ¿ñëèéí òóñãàë þì.áîëîìæèéã íýýæ áàéíà. Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëûí Áîäëîãî áîëîâñðóóëàã÷èä áîëîí çàëóó óäèðäàã÷èä ýíý ñàëáàðûí õàìãèéíñîíãîãäñîí àëáàíû õ¿ì¿¿ñèéí èéì õàðèó õ¿÷òýé ñîíèðõîã÷èä áîëæ áàéíà. Êàíàäûí¿éëäëèéã ýñ õàðãàëçàí, ýñâýë ¿¿íýýñ óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí çàëóó÷óóäûíáîëæ, áèçíåñèéíõýí, àæ ¿éëäâýðèéíõýí, ýâñýë íü óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí óëñóóãóóë íóòãèéíõàí, àøãèéí áóñ÷óóä òºðèéí àñóóäàëä õàðèó ºãºõ çîðèëãîòîéãîîðçýðýã ÿíç á¿ðèéí õ¿é õàìòëàãóóä õ¿÷ýý 2006 îíä áàéãóóëàãäñàí þì. ÀÍÓ-Êàíàäûíäàé÷ëàõ, îéëãîæ ìýäýõ ýõ ñóðâàëæàà ºñãºí Ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé ¿éë àæèëëàãààíû ýâñýëíýìýãä¿¿ëæ, òýäýíä èðæ áàéãàà ñàíàë óóð àìüñãàëûí àñóóäëààð øóäàðãà ¸ñûãíýìýãäñýýð áàéíà. ýðõýìëýñýí õýäýí àðâàí áàéãóóëëàãûã Çàëóó÷óóäûí õºäºë㺺íèé äóó õîîëîé, íýãòãýæ áàéãàà áèëýý. Çàëóó÷óóäûíóëñ òºðèéí õóóëü ¸ñíû áàéäàë, òóõàéëáàë, äýëõèéí ñ¿ëæýý çàëóó õ¿ì¿¿ñèéãóëñ òºðèéí ¿ëáýãýð èäýâõã¿é áàéäëûã äàé÷ëàõûí òóëä, äýëõèéí õýìæýýíèéñºðºõ ìàÿãààð á¿ðýëäýí òîãòîæ áàéíà. áîäëîãîä íºëººëºõèéí òóëä òàâàí òèâäÌàíàé çàñãèéí ãàçðûí ¿éëäýë áèäýíä åð人 õàìòðàí àæèëëàæ áàéíà. ¯¿íèé æèøýýîéëãîìæã¿é áàéãàà ó÷ðààñ ë óóð àìüñãàëûí ìàø îëîí áàéãàà.ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäàë çàëóó÷óóäûã Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëò ºíººãèéíöî÷èðäóóëæ áóé àñóóäëóóäûí äîòîð îðæ áîëîí èðýýä¿é ¿åèéíõíèé àìüäðàëûãáàéãàà þì. Áèä äýìæèõã¿é áàéãàà, äýìæèæ òîäîðõîéëæ áàéíà. Ýíä, ìàíàé Êàíàäàäáîëîõã¿é óëñ òºðèéí øèéäâýð¿¿äýä ýäãýýð àñóóäàëä ÿàæ õàìãèéí ò¿ðãýí, ¿ðçàëóó÷óóäûí ¿ç¿¿ëæ áàéãàà õàðèó ¿éëäýë íºëººòýé õàðèó ºãºõ íü ýöñèéí á¿ëýãòáîë ýðõýìëýõ ç¿éëñ, øóäàðãà, òýãø ¸ñíû ìàíàé çàñãèéí ãàçàð èðýýä¿é ¿åèéíõíèéòóõàé áèäíèé îéëãîëòûí òóñãàë, ò¿¿í÷ëýí õýðýãöýýã õàíãàíà ë ãýñýí ¿ã. Èéìýðõ¿¿Èíòåðíåòýä îð÷èõñîí ¿åèéíõíèé øààðäàæ õóâüñãàëò øèíý÷ëýëèéí òóõàéä óëñ òºð÷èäáàéãàà ìýäýýëëèéí èë òîä òóíãàëàã í¿äýý á¿ëòèéëãýí ãàéõàæ áàéæ ìàãàäã¿é ÷áàéäëûí äàãóó çàñãèéí ãàçðûí òºëºâëºãºº, ýíý íü óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí òóõàéä e Journal USA 30 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • is only this revolutionary reform that willbring about the changes necessary to actdecisively on climate change. A middle ground must be createdto encourage continuous and mutualrelationship-building between thegovernment and the public, for it is onlythrough creating a culture of proactiveparticipation that policy truly will reflectthe voice of the people, especially where thestakes are high and the clock is ticking. Tobe sure, this remains an ambitious objective,but we have yet to see a national responseto climate change proportional to the risks.Supported by a vocal youth movement, awell-informed populace, and an abundanceof renewable resources, it’s time to stopbeing meek, modest, and polite, and rise tothe challenge of creating an equitable andflourishing world. The opinions expressed in this article do not necessarilyreflect the views or policies of the U.S. government.ýðñ øèéäýìãèé àæèëëàõàä çàéëøã¿éøààðäëàãàòàé ººð÷ëºëòèéã àâ÷ðàõ öîðûíãàíö õóâüñãàëò øèíý÷ëýë þì. Çàñãèéí ãàçàð, îëîí íèéò õî¸ðûãõàðèëöàí õàðèëöààòàé áîëãîæ, ò¿¿íèéãíü ¿ðãýëæë¿¿ëæ áàéõûã ººãø¿¿ëýõèéíòóëä íèéòëýã õºðñ á¿ðä¿¿ëýõ ¸ñòîé, ÿàãààäãýâýë, ãàãöõ¿¿ ºðñºí èäýâõòýé îðîëöîõñî¸ëûã áèé áîëãîõ çàìààð ë õ¿ì¿¿ñèéíäóó õîîëîéã, ÿëàíãóÿà äýí÷èí èõòýé öàãøàõñàí íºõöºë äýõ äóó õîîëîéã áîäëîãîÿã òóñãàõ áîëíî. ¯íýíäýý áîë, ýíý ìààíüèõ òîì ñàíààëñàí çîðèëãî, ãýõäýý óóðàìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòºä õàðèó áîëãîæáàéãàà ìàíàé ¿íäýñíèé õýìæýýíèé ¿éëäýë¿¿ññýí ýðñäëèéí öàðòàé õàðüöàà íüõàðààõàí ä¿éõã¿é áàéãààã áèä õàðæ áàéíà.Çàëóó÷óóäûí õºäºë㺺íèé äóó õîîëîéãîîðäýìæ¿¿ëñýí ìýäýýëýë ñàéòàé èðãýä,ñýðãýýãäýõ íººö áàÿëàãèéí ýëáýã äýëáýãáàéäàë ýíý òýðýý áîäîõîä äóóëãàâàðòàé,äàðóó, ýåëäýã áàéõàà áîëüæ, òýãø øóäàðãà,õºãæèí öýöýãëýæ áàéãàà åðòºíöèéãáàéãóóëàõ ñîðèëò äóóäëàãûã äàâàõ öàãíýãýíò áîëæýý.  Ýíý ºã¿¿ëýëä èëýðõèéëñýí ¿çýë áîäîë ÀÍÓ-ûí çàñãèéíãàçðûí áàéð ñóóðü, áîäëîãûí òóñãàë áàéõ àëáàã¿é. e Journal USA 31 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • Critical Issues: A n International Tour Caribbean The View from an Island: Jamaica A. Anthony ChenA. Anthony Chen is currently the chairman where islands are threatened by increasinglyof the National Steering Committee of severe storms, rising sea levels, and drought.the Global Environmental Facility SmallGrants Program (GEF-SGP) in Jamaica. IThe GEFSGP is a community action magine yourself 10,000 years ago, whenprogram implemented by the United Nations the earth started warming after the lastDevelopment Program (UNDP). ice age, on an island in higher tropical latitudes, such as Jamaica. Without theChen has headed the Climate Studies benefit of thermometers and tidal gauges,Group at the University of the West Indies, you would probably not have perceived theMona, Jamaica. He is a member of the gradual rise in temperature or sea level.Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change You would not have seen the need to take(IPCC), which shared the 2007 Nobel Peace any adaptation measures. Compare thatPrize with former U.S. Vice President Al Gore. with yourself as a modern islander. OverHe discusses the chief concerns of island a lifetime you will experience a generallynations, with the focus on the Caribbean, warming climate. You will feel the needÍîöòîé àñóóäëóóä: Îëîí óëñûí àÿëàë Êàðèáûí òýíãèñèéí á¿ñíóòàã Íýãýí àðëààñ õàðàãäàõ áàéäàë: ßìàéê À. Àíòîíè ×õåíÀ. Àíòîíè ×õåí áîë ßìàéêèéí Äýëõèéí øèð¿¿í øóóðãà, äýýøèëæ áàéãàà äàëàéíáàéãàëü îð÷íû õºíãºëºëòèéí æèæèã ò¿âøèí, ãàí ãà÷èãò àðëóóä íü íýðâýãäýõòýòãýìæèéí õºòºëáºðèéí (ßÄÁÎÕÆÒÕ) áîëñîí Êàðèáèéí òýíãèñèéí á¿ñ íóòàãòîäîîãèéí çàõèðàë þì. Òóñ õºòºëáºð àíõààðëàà òºâëºð¿¿ëæ, àðëûí ¿íäýñòíèéíü Íýãäñýí ¯íäýñòíèé Áàéãóóëëàãûí ñàíàà çîâîîæ áàéãàà ãîë àñóóäëûã àâ÷ ¿çýæÕºãæëèéí õºòºëáºðººñ (ͯÁÕÕ) áàéíà.õýðýãæ¿¿ëäýã õ¿é õàìòëàãèéí ¿éëàæèëëàãàà áîëíî. 1 0000 æèëèéí ºìíº, ñ¿¿ë÷èéí×õåí ßìàéêèéí Ìîíàãèéí Âåñò Èíäèéí ìºñºí ãàëâûí äàðàà äýëõèé äóëààð÷Èõ ñóðãóóëèéí Óóð àìüñãàëûí ñóäàëãààíû ýõëýõ ¿åä òà ßìàéê øèã õàëóóíá¿ëãèéã òýðã¿¿ëäýã þì. Òýð áàñ Óóð á¿ñèéí äýýã¿¿ð ºðãºðºãò îðøäîã àðàëàìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëààðõ äýý𠺺ðèé㺺 áàéíà ãýæ òºñººëººäçàñãèéí ãàçàð õîîðîíäûí êîìèññûí ¿ç äýý. Òåðìîìåòð áîëîí ò¿ðëýãèéí(ÓÀªÀÇÃÕÊ) ãèø¿¿í áºãººä 2007 îíä ÀÍÓ- õýìæ¿¿ðã¿éãýýð òåìïåðàòóð áàñ äàëàéûí äýä åðºíõèéëºã÷ àñàí Àë Ãîðûí õàìò ò¿âøèí ààæèìäàà íýìýãäýæ áàéãààã òàÍîáåëèéí øàãíàë õ¿ðòæýý. áàðàã ë îéëãîæ ìýäýõã¿é áàéñàí áîëîâ óó.Òýðýýð óëàì á¿ð íýìýãäýæ áàéãàà äàëàéí ßìàð íýãýí äàñàí çîõèöîõ àðãà õýìæýý e Journal USA 32 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • to install air-conditioning or cooling fans What is the difference between 10,000in your home. You will come to believe years ago and now? The former warmingthat periods of drought and flooding have took place over thousands of years and wasbecome more frequent, storm surges more due to natural variations, such as in solardestructive. You probably will be forced to radiation, volcanic eruptions, and vegetation.take temporary measures to react to some The present warming has taken place overof these climate outcomes, such as storing only a century and a half, and it is duewater during droughts or securing your not only to natural variations but also tohome during a hurricane, but nothing on a increased emission of greenhouse gases, suchplanned basis. as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, since the time of the Industrial Revolution (IPCC, 2007). Both proxy dataCourtesy of A. Anthony Chen measurements and actual measurements have shown an exponential increase in these gases over the period (IPCC, 2007). With the benefit of measuring instruments, scientists have been able to detect a warming of the Caribbean region (Peterson and Taylor et al., 2002), drying conditions (Neelin et al., 2006), and rising sea level (Church et al., 2004). Now, fast forward to 2100. While there are many scenarios that we can envisage, climate scientists are coming to a consensus that ¿éëäâýðèéí õóâüñãàëààñ õîéø (ÓÀªÀÇÃÕÊ, 2007) í¿¿ðñòºðºã÷èéí äàâõàð èñýë, ìåòàí, A. Anthony Chen àçîòûí èñýë ãýõ ìýòèéí õ¿ëýìæèéí õèéí À. Àíòîíè ×õåí õàÿãäàë óëàì íýìýãäýæ áàéãààãààñ ¿¿äýæ áàéãàà áèëýý. Äàì ºãºãäºõ¿¿íèé õýìæýýàâàõ õýðýãòýé áàéãààã ÷ îéëãîõã¿é áàéõ ÷, áîäèò õýìæýý ÷ òîäîðõîé õóãàöààíäáàéñàí. Ýíý áàéäëàà ºíººãèéí àðëûí îðøèí ýäãýýð õèé îãöîì ºñ÷ áàéãààã õàðóóëæñóóã÷òàé õàðüöóóëààä ¿ç. Òà åðºíõèé人 áàéíà (ÓÀªÀÇÃÕÊ). Õýìæèõ áàãàæèéíäóëààð÷ áàéãàà óóð àìüñãàëûí äóíä íàñàí òóñëàìæòàéãààð ýðäýìòýä Êàðèáèéí á¿ñòóðøäàà áàéõ áîëíî. Òà ãýðòýý ñýíñ þì óó íóòãèéí äóëààðëûã (Ïåòåðñîí, Òåéëîðàãààð ñýð¿¿ö¿¿ëýã÷ òàâèõ õýðýãòýé áàéãààã áîëîí áóñàä, 2002), õóóðàéøèõ íºõöëèéã,ìýäýðíý. Òà ãàí ãà÷èã, ¿åð òîõèîõ õóãàöàà (Íèéëåí áîëîí áóñàä, 2006), äàëàéíóëàì óëàì îéðõîí áîëæ, äàëàéí øóóðãà ò¿âøíèé äýýøëýëòèéã (׺ð÷ áîëîí áóñàä,óëàì á¿ð ñ¿éòãýëòýé áîëæ áàéãààä èòãýäýã 2004) àæèãëàæ ÷àäàæ áàéãàà áîëíî.áîëíî. Óóð àìüñãàëûí èéìýðõ¿¿ óðøãèéíõàðèóä òà ãàíãèéí ¿åýð óñ õóðèìòëóóëàõ Îäîî 2100 îí ðóó ãÿëñõèéãýýä î÷ú¸.áóþó äàëàéí õàð ñàëõèíû ¿åýð îðîí ãýðýý Áèäíèé áàðàãöààëæ áîëîõ îëîí òºñººëºëõàìãààëàõ çýðýã ò¿ð çóóðûí àðãà õýìæýý çóðàã áàéãàà ÷ óóð àìüñãàëûí ýðäýìòý人ðèéí ýðõã¿é àâàõààñ áèø òºëºâëºãººòýé õî¸ð ç¿éë äýýð ñàíàë íýãäýæ áàéãààãèéíàæèë þó ÷ õèéõã¿é. íýã íü, òåìïåðàòóðûí ºñºëò Öåëüñèéí 2 õýìýýñ äîîãóóð áàéíà, íºãºº íü, Öåëüñèéí 10 000 æèëèéí ºìíºõ áàéäàë ºíººäðèéíõ 2 õýìýýñ äýýã¿¿ð áàéíà ãýñýí òºñººëºë. Ýíýõî¸ðò ÿìàð ÿëãàà áàéíà âý? ªìíºõ ¿åèéí õî¸ð òºñººëºë çóðãèéí äàãóó óóð àìüñãàëûíäóëààðàë îëîí ìÿíãàí æèëèéí òóðø ººð÷ëºëò èæèë òºðëèéí íºëººòýé ÷, äóëààíòîõèîñîí áºãººä íàðíû öàöðàã òóÿà, ãàëò íü ºíäºð áàéõàä ¿ð äàãàâàð, ìàãàäã¿éóóëûí äýëáýðýëò, ºâñ óðãàìàë áèé áîëñîí ýðãýëò áóöàëòã¿é áîëîõîîð, èë¿¿ õàòóóçýðýã áàéãàëèéí ÿíç á¿ðèéí ¿çýãäëýýñ øèð¿¿í öýãòýý õ¿ð÷ ÷ áîëíî. Øèíæëýõ¿¿äýëòýé áèëýý. Òýãâýë ºíººäðèéí äóëààðàë óõààíû ñóäàëãààíä ¿íäýñëýñýí õàìãèéí èõäºíãºæ á¿òýí õàãàñ çóóíû äîòîð òîõèîæ ñàíàà çîâîîæ áàéãàà õî¸ð íºëºº íü óñ áîëîíáàéãààãààñ ãàäíà çºâõºí ÿíç á¿ðèéí ýð¿¿ë ìýíäèéí ñàëáàðò áàéãàà þì.áàéãàëèéí ¿çýãäëýýñ áîëñîí òºäèéã¿é àæ e Journal USA 33 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • focuses on two: one in which temperature consequences of this drying, we look at theincreases are kept below 2 degrees Celsius, results of a study done by ESL Managementand the other, above 2 degrees Celsius. Solutions Limited (2008). Some watershedUnder these two scenarios, the effect of areas will become deficient. The watershedclimate change will be of the same kind but area serving the Kingston metropolitanmore severe at higher temperatures, perhaps area will be in surplus but will be severelyeven reaching a tipping point of no return. strained. Communities supplied by aTwo of the impacts of greatest concern, single spring or river will be increasinglybased on scientific studies, are in the water vulnerable. Nonirrigated crops, which areand health sectors. important for the wider rural community Islanders in the high tropics can expect in Jamaica and in the provision of locallymuch drier conditions. This is because grown crops and foodstuffs for the localmuch of the moisture in high tropics will Jamaican market, will be threatened.be transported to the equator, which will In contrast to drier conditions, rainfallbecome wetter (IPCC, 2007). To see the associated with storms, even though less frequent, is expected to be more intense or © AP Images/Collin Reid A flooded road in Kingston, Jamaica, the result of 2008 tropical storm Gustav, whichclaimed nearly 100 lives. Extreme storms and dry periods are becoming more common in the Caribbean.ßìàéê, Êèíãñòîí õîòûí ¿åðò àâòñàí çàì. Ýíý áîë 2008 îíû áàðàã 100-ààä õ¿íèé àìü íàñàíä õ¿ðñýí Ãóñòàâ ãýäýã õàð ñàëõèíû ¿ð äàãàâàð. Êàðèáûí á¿ñíóòàãò øèð¿¿í øóóðãà,ãàí òîõèîõ ¿å óëàì á¿ð íèéòëýã ¿çýãäýë áîëæ áàéíà. ªíäºðëºãèéí õàëóóí á¿ñýä àæ òºðäºã Ãàíöõàí áóëàã áóþó ãîëîîñ óñààðàðëûíõàí óëàì èë¿¿ õóóðàé íºõöºë õàíãàãääàã õ¿é õàìòëàãóóä óëàì á¿ð ýìçýãèðíý ãýæ õ¿ëýýæ áîëíî. ßàãààä ãýâýë áàéäàëòàé áîëíî. ßìàéêèéí õºäººãèéíºíäºðëºãèéí õàëóóí á¿ñèéí ÷èéãèéí èõýýõýí õýñãèéí õ¿é õàìòëàãèéí õóâüäèõýýõýí õýñýã íü óëàì á¿ð ÷èéãòýé áîëæ áîëîí íóòãèéí òàðèìàë óðãàìàë, õ¿íñáàéãàà ýêâàòîðûí á¿ñ ð¿¿ øèëæèíý òýæýýëýýð ßìàéêèéí îðîí íóòãèéí çàõ(ÓÀªÀÇÃÕÊ, 2007). Ýíý õóóðàéøëûí çýýëèéã õàíãàõàä ÷óõàë à÷ õîëáîãäîëòîé¿ð äàãàâàðûã õàðàõûí òóëä áèä ESL óñàëãààã¿é òàðèàëàíä àþóë ó÷èðíà.Management Solutions Limitted (2008)- Õóóðàéøèõ íºõö뺺ñ ÿã ýñðýãýýð õóðèéí õèéñýí íýã ñóäàëãààã ¿çýæ áàéíà. áîðîî íü ñàëõè øóóðãà äàãóóëíà. Íýã èõÇàðèì óñíû õàãàëáàð íóòàã õîìñäîëä áàéíãà áèø ÷ ãýñýí èõ øèð¿¿í, õ¿÷òýéîðíî. Íèéñëýë Êèíãñòîí õàâèéã õàíãàäàã ñàëõè øóóðãà áîëæ áàéõ òºëºâòýé áàéãàà.óñíû õàãàëáàð íóòàã èë¿¿äýëòýé áàéõ (Êíóòñîí, Òóëåÿ, 2004; Êíóòñîí áîëîíáîëîâ÷ èõýýõýí äàðàìòòàé áàéõ áîëíî. áóñàä, 2008). ¯åð, ÿëàíãóÿà óóëàðõàã e Journal USA 34 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • heavier (Knutson and Tuleya, 2004; Knutson the Assessments of Impacts and Adaptationset al., 2008). Flooding, landslides, and soil to Climate Change (AIACC). Thus theerosion, especially in mountainous regions; transmission of dengue can be expected tosediment transport; and high turbidity in increase in line with increased temperatures,the water supply will produce devastating along with increases in its more deadly form,results. Given the coastal location of many dengue hemorrhagic fever.of Jamaica’s wells — for agriculture, public Other effects includewater supply, and industrial use — increasesin sea level will make these wells vulnerable • the probability of more intenseto salt water intrusion and reduced water hurricanes, the intensity of which isquality. known to be naturally cyclical, but investigation shows that increased Many health issues will arise as intensity can be caused by future rise indocumented in, for example, the Second sea surface temperatures in the Atlantic;National Communication of Jamaica to theUnited Nations Framework Convention on • endangered human settlement due to seaClimate Change, a report required from level rise and storm surges;all parties in the UNFCCC. Dengue fever • bleaching and possible death of coralis a case in point. Temperature rises over reefs;2 degrees Celsius can lead to a three-fold • depletion of coastal resources, includingincrease in the transmission of dengue the death and migration of fishes to(Focks, 1995; Koopman et al., 1991). A cooler waters;direct link between temperature and dengue • possible extinction of some plant species.in the Caribbean has been reported (Chen etal., 2006; Chapter 2) in a study sponsored byíóòàãò ãàçðûí õºðñíèé ãóëñàëò, õºðñíèé ò¿¿íèé õàìãèéí àþóëòàé õýëáýð áîëîõýâäðýë, ÷óëóóëãèéí í¿¿ëò, õýðýãëýýíèé äîòóóð öóñ àëäàõ ÷è÷ðýãèéí õàëäâàðóñíû èõ õýìæýýíèé áîõèðäîë ýíý òýð íýìýãäýíý ãýæ õ¿ëýýæ áîëíî.èõýýõýí ñ¿éòãýë òàðèíà. պ人 àæ àõóé, àæ Áóñàä ¿ð äàãàâàðò íü äàðààõ ç¿éë îðíî:¿éëäâýð áîëîí õ¿í àìûí õýðýãëýýíèé óñíûýõ ¿¿ñâýð áîëäîã ßìàéêèéí ýðýã õàâèéí • ýð÷èì íü óãààñàà ìº÷ëºãòýé áàéõîëîí õóäàã äàëàéí ò¿âøèí äýýøèëñíýýñ ó÷èðòàé äàëàéí õàð ñàëõè èë¿¿ øèð¿¿íáîëæ äàâñòàé áîëîõ çýðãýýð óñíû ÷àíàð áîëîõ ìàãàäëàë, ãýõäýý ñóäàëãààíààñìóóäàõ ýðñäýëòýé áîëíî. ¿çýõýä õàð ñàëõèíû øèð¿¿ñëèéí ýð÷èìæèëò íü Àòëàíòûí äàëàéí Ýð¿¿ë ìýíäèéí îëîí àñóóäàë ãàð÷ óñíû ãàäàðãûí òåìïåðàòóð èðýýä¿éäèðíý. Æèøýý íü, Óóð àìüñãàëûí íýìýãäýõýýñ ¿¿äýæ áîëîõ àæ;ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëààðõ õ¿ðýý òîãòîîõ÷óóëãàí îðîëöîã÷ á¿õ òàëààñ øààðäñàí • äàëàéí ò¿âøèí äýýøèëæ, ñàëõèäàãóó ßìàéêèéí ¯íäýñíèé õî¸ðäóãààð äýãäñýíýýñ áîëæ õ¿ì¿¿ñèéí ñóóðüøèëäóóëçàëòààñ ãàðãàñàí èëòãýëä ýíý àñóóäëûã àþóë çàíàë ó÷èðíà;òîäîðõîé áàðèìòæóóëñàí þì. Ñóëüäàà • ø¿ðýí óóë á¿äãýðýõèéí õàìò ìºõºæ÷è÷ðýã òóëãàðñàí àñóóäàë áîëîîä áàéíà. ìýäíý;Òåìïåðàòóð Öåëüñèéí 2 õýìýýð íýìýãäýõýä • ýðãèéí íººö áàÿëàã øàâõàãäàíà,ñóëüäàà ÷è÷ðýãèéí âèðóñûí õàëäàëò òóõàéëáàë, çàãàñ ¿õýõ áóþó èë¿¿ãóðàâ äàõèí ºñíº (Ôîêñ, 1995; Êóïìàí õ¿éòýí óñòàé ãàçàð ðóó í¿¿íý;áîëîí áóñàä, 1991). Êàðèáûí á¿ñ íóòàã • óðãàìëûí çàðèì òºðºë ç¿éë ìºõºæäàõü òåìïåðàòóð áîëîí ýíý âèðóñûí øóóä ìýäíý.õîëáîîã Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòºä äàñàíçîõèöîõ áîëîí íºëººíèé ¿íýëýëòèéí ¯¿íòýé çýðýãöýí áóé áîëîõ íºõöºë áàéäàëãàçðààñ (ÓÀªÄÇͯÃ) ñàíõ¿¿æ¿¿ëñýí íýãýí íü àÿëàë æóóë÷ëàëûã õóìèõûí õàìòñóäàëãààíä ãàðãàñàí áàéãàà áîëíî (×õåí ñ¿¿ë÷èéíõýýñ áóñàä äýýð äóðäñàí ç¿éëèéíáîëîí áóñàä, 2006; 2 äóãààð á¿ëýã). Òèéì õàæóóãààð õ¿ì¿¿ñò ãàé çîâëîí àâ÷èð÷,ó÷ðààñ òåìïåðàòóð äýýøëýõèéí õýðýýð íèéãìèéí ýíõ àìãàëàí áàéäàë, ýäèéíñóëüäàà ÷è÷ðýãèéí õàëäâàð, ç¿ãýýð ÷ ¿ã¿é çàñãèéí õºãæèë äýâøèëä íîöòîé ñîðèëò í¿¿ðëýíý. e Journal USA 35 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • Compounded with concomitant conditions Ministry of Health. A UNDP/GEF-sponsoredthat could lead to a reduction in tourism, Community Based Adaptation (CBA) programall the above, except the last, would lead to funds selected communities to adapt tohuman suffering and pose serious challenges climate change. A local funding agency,to social peace and economic progress. Environmental Foundation of Jamaica, Because of the severity of these challenges, also plays a significant role in fundingreactive responses will no longer be possible. nongovernmental organizations and otherPlanned adaptive strategies and actions institutions for mitigation and adaptationmust be put in place, either at the national projects.or international level. On the national level, Regionally, several initiatives are currentlyrecommendations for the water sector, based being undertaken to combat climate change.on the 2008 ESL study, have been presented The Belizebased Caribbean Communityto the Ministry Climate Changeof Water for Centre (CCCCC)consideration. For coordinates muchadapting to increased Because of the severity of of the Caribbeandengue transmission,several strategies, [climate change] challenges, region’s responseto climate change.including an early- reactive responses will no The center is a keywarning system,have been suggested longer be possible. Planned node for information on climate changeby the AIACC project adaptive strategies and issues and on the(Chen et al., 2006)and presented to the actions must be put in place, region’s response to managing and either at the national or international level. Ýäãýýð ñîðèëò áàéãàëü îð÷íû ñàííîöòîé ó÷ðààñ Ýäãýýð ñîðèëò íîöòîé ñààðìàãæóóëàõ,õàðèó àðãà õýìæýýãöààøèä àëãóóðëàõ ó÷ðààñ õàðèó àðãà õýìæýýã äàñàí çîõèöîõòºñë¿¿ä äýýðáîëîìæ áàéõã¿é. öààøèä àëãóóðëàõ áîëîìæ àæèëëàæ áàéãààÒºëºâëºñºíäàñàí çîõèöîõ áàéõã¿é. Òºëºâëºñºí äàñàí òºðèéí áóñ áîëîí áàéãóóëëàãóóäñòðàòåãè áîëîí çîõèöîõ ñòðàòåãè áîëîí áóñàä èíñòèòóöèéã¿éë àæèëëàãààã¿íäýñíèé áóþó îëîí ¿éë àæèëëàãààã ¿íäýñíèé ñàíõ¿¿æ¿¿ëýõýä áàñ ÷óõàë ¿¿ðýãóëñûí ò¿âøèíä áóþó îëîí óëñûí ò¿âøèíä ã¿éöýòãýæ áàéãààõýðýãæ¿¿ëýõ ¸ñòîé. áîëíî.¯íäýñíèé ò¿âøèíä õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõ ¸ñòîé. Á¿ñ íóòãèéí õóâüäóñíû ñàëáàðò 2008 óóð àìüñãàëûíîíû ESL ñóäàëãààíû ººð÷ëºëòòýé¿íäýñëýñýí çºâëºìæèéã Óñíû ÿàìàíä òýìöýõ õýä õýäýí ñàíàà÷ëàãà îäîîõýëýëö¿¿ëýõýýð ºðãºí áàðüñàí áàéãàà. õýðýãæèæ áàéíà. Áåëèç-ä áàéðëàäàãÑóëüäàà ÷è÷ðýãèéí õàëäâàð íýìýãäýæ Êàðèáûí õ¿é õàìòëàãèéí óóð àìüñãàëûíáàéãààä äàñàí çîõèöîõûí òóëä ýðòíýýñ ººð÷ëºëòèéí òºâ (ÊÕÕÓÀªÒ) óóðàíõààðóóëàõ ñèñòåìèéã îðîëöóóëàí íýëýýä àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí ýñðýã Êàðèáûíõýäýí ñòðàòåãèéã ÓÀªÄÇͯÃ-ûí òºñ뺺ñ á¿ñ íóòàãò àâ÷ áàéãàà àðãà õýìæýýíèé(×õåí áîëîí áóñàä, 2006) ñàíàë áîëãîñîí èõýýõýí õýñãèéã óÿëäóóëàí çîõèöóóëæáºãººä ò¿¿íèéã Ýð¿¿ë ìýíäèéí ÿàìàíä áàéãàà áîëíî. Ýíý òºâ áîë óóð àìüñãàëûíºðãºí áàðüñàí áàéãàà. ͯÁÕÕňÄÁÎÕ-ººñ ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëóóäûí òóõàé ìýäýýëýëñàíõ¿¿æ¿¿ëñýí Õ¿é õàìòëàãò òóëãóóðëàñàí áîëîí Êàðèáûí á¿ñ íóòàãò óóð àìüñãàëûíäàñàí çîõèöîëòûí (ÕÕÒÄÇ) õºòºëáºð ººð÷ëºëòèéí ýñðýã çîõèîæ áàéãàà, çîõèöîæò¿¿âýð õ¿é õàìòëàãóóäûã óóð àìüñãàëûí áàéãàà õàðèó àðãà õýìæýýí¿¿äèéí òóõà麺ð÷ëºëòºä äàñàí çîõèöîõîä íü çîðèóëàí ìýäýýëýë öóãëàðäàã ãîë óóëçâàð öýã þì.õºðºí㺠ãàðãàæ áàéíà. Îðîí íóòãèéí Êàðèáûí ãàìøãèéí ýñðýã ÿàðàëòàé àðãàñàíõ¿¿æ¿¿ëýõ àãåíòëàã áîëîõ ßìàéêèéí e Journal USA 36 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • adapting to climate change in the Caribbean. tapped in policy making.The Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response On the international level, the mostAgency (CDERA), which is an interregional pressing issue is mitigation of climatesupportive network for countries within the change. Developed and developing countriesCaribbean Community (CARICOM) based must make deep cuts in the emission ofin Barbados, has made response to climate greenhouse gases to prevent the dangerouschange part of its mandate. The respective consequences that would arise from a climatenational meteorological offices play change driven by a rise of more than 2important roles as well. degrees Celsius in temperature. The case is However, commitment of the region’s being argued on behalf of small islands bypolicymakers in response to the threats posed the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS),by climate change has not been reflected an intergovernmental organization of low-generally at the national level. Guyana is lying coastal and small island countriesthe notable exception. Given the severity that consolidates the voices of 43 smallof the threats, it has been suggested (Hill, island developing states, 37 of which are2009) that the Jamaican goverment ensure members of the United Nations. The alliancethat the global and all-encompassing represents 28 percent of the developingnature of climate change is coordinated countries, 20 percent of the U.N.’s totaland integrated in all foreign and domestic membership, and 5 percent of the worldpolicies and programs, at all levels of the population. Besides pressing for emissionpolitical system. The important roles played cuts, AOSIS is seeking a commitment fromby national meteorological agencies will need developed countries to fund adaptationto be strengthened and their expertise be measures in small islands.õýìæýýíèé àãåíòëàã (ÊÃÝßÀÕÀ) áîë ñààðìàãæóóëàõ ÿâäàë þì. ÒåìïåðàòóðÊàðèáûí õ¿é õàìòëàãóóäûí õ¿ðýýíèé Öåëüñèéí õî¸ð õýìýýñ èë¿¿ íýìýãäýõýýñîðíóóäàä òóñàëäàã á¿ñ õîîðîíäûí ñ¿ëæýý ¿¿äýõ óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí àþóëòàéáºãººä Áàðáàäîñò áàéðëàäàã ýíý àãåíòëàã ¿ð äàãàâàðûã ñýðýìæëýí çàéëóóëàõûíóóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí õàðèó àðãà òóëä õºãæèíã¿é áîëîí õºãæèæ áàéãààõýìæýýã á¿ðýí ýðõèéíõýý íýã õýñýã áîëãîîä îðíóóä õ¿ëýìæèéí õèéí õàÿãäëûã ýðñáàéíà. ¯íäýñíèé öàã óóðûí õîëáîãäîõ áàãàñãàõ ¸ñòîé. Àðëûí æèæèã óëñóóäûíáàéãóóëëàãóóä áàñ ÷óõàë ¿¿ðýã ã¿éöýòãýæ õîëáîî (ÀÆÓÕ) æèæèã àðëóóäûí íýðèéíáàéãàà áîëíî. ºìíººñ íýã àñóóäëûã õýëýëö¿¿ëæ áàéãàà Õýäèé òèéì ÷, á¿ñ íóòãèéí áîäëîãî áîëíî. ÀÆÓÕ áîë íàì äîð ýðýãòýé, àðëûíáîëîâñðóóëàã÷äûí óóð àìüñãàëûí æèæèã îðíóóäûí çàñãèéí ãàçàð õîîðîíäûíººð÷ëºëòººñ ¿¿äýæ áóé àþóë çàíàëä õàðèó áàéãóóëëàãà áºãººä 37 íü Íýãäñýíáîëãîõ ¿¿ðýã àìëàëò ¿íäýñíèé ò¿âøèíä ¯íäýñòíèé Áàéãóóëëàãûí ãèø¿¿í áàéãààåðºíõèé人 òóñãàëàà îëîîã¿é áàéãàà áîëíî. àðëûí õºãæèæ áàéãàà 43 æèæèã óëñûíÃàéàíà ë ãàíöààðàà ¿¿íä õàìààðàõã¿é. äóó õîîëîéã íýãòãýæ áàéäàã þì. Ýíý õîëáîîÀþóë çàíàë íîöòîé ó÷ðààñ óóð àìüñãàëûí õºãæèæ áàéãàà îðíóóäûí 28 õóâü, ͯÁ-ûíººð÷ëºëò äàÿàð áºãººä á¿õíèéã õàìàðñàí á¿õ ãèø¿¿äèéí 20 õóâèéã òóñ òóñ òºëººëæøèíæòýéã õàðãàëçàí óëñ òºðèéí ñèñòåìèéí áàéãàà áºãººä äýëõèé õ¿í àìûí 5 õóâèéãá¿õ ò¿âøèíä ãàäààä, äîòîîä á¿õ áîäëîãî ýçýëæ áàéíà. ÀÆÓÕ íü õàÿãäàë õèéãáîëîí õºòºëáºð¿¿äýä óÿëäàí çîõèöñîí, õîðîãäóóëàõûã øààðäàõààñ ãàäíà æèæèãíýãäñýí áàéäëûã õàíãàõ ¸ñòîé ãýæ àðëóóä äýýð äàñàí çîõèöîõ àðãà õýìæýýãßìàéêèéí çàñãèéí ãàçàðò ñàíàë áîëãîñîí ñàíõ¿¿æ¿¿ëýõ ¿¿ðýã àìëàëò õºãæèíã¿éþì (Õèëë, 2009). ¯íäýñíèé öàã óóðûí óëñóóäààð àâàõóóëàõ àðãà ýðýëõèéëæàãåíòëàãóóäûí ã¿éöýòãýäýã ÷óõàë ¿¿ðãèéã áàéíà. Àðëûíõíû ºíãºðñºí, îäîî, èðýýä¿éíáýõæ¿¿ëýõ øààðäëàãàòàé, òýäãýýðèéí ä¿ð çóðãóóä áèäíèéã óóð àìüñãàëûí íºëººìýäëýã ÷àäâàðûã áîäëîãî áîëîâñðóóëàõàä áàãààð òýìäýãëýãäñýí, áàñ óóð àìüñãàëûíàøèãëàõ ¸ñòîé. ººð÷ëºëòèéí òàëààð þì õèéõ øààðäëàãà áàãà áàéñàí íýãýí òàëáàðààñ óóð àìüñãàëûí Îëîí óëñûí ò¿âøèíä õàìãèéí òóëãàìäñàí ººð÷ëºëòèéí ¿ð äàãàâàð õàòóó øèð¿¿íàñóóäàë áîë óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéã ìýäðýãäýõ íýãýí òàëáàð ðóó àâàà÷èæ e Journal USA 37 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • Our scenarios of past, present, and futureislanders, have taken us from a scene inwhich little impact of climate was notedand little needed to be done about climatechange to one in which the effects of climatechange will be severely felt. Small islandershave done the least to contribute to climatechange but will be among those suffering theworst impacts. From the perspective of smallislanders, it is imperative for all to act tomitigate and adapt to climate change. References cited are listed in AdditionalResources.The opinions expressed in this article do not necessarilyreflect the views or policies of the U.S. government.áàéíà. Æèæèã àðëûíõàí óóð àìüñãàëûíººð÷ëºëòºä õàìãèéí áàãà íºëººëñºí àòëààõàìãèéí ìóó ¿ð óðøãèéíõ íü çîâëîíã ýäëýõóëñóóäûí òîîíä áàéõ áîëîõ íü. Æèæèãàðëûíõíû í¿äýýð õàðàõàä óóð àìüñãàëûíººð÷ëºëòèéã ñààðìàãæóóëàõ, ò¿¿íä äàñàíçîõèöîõûí òóëä èäýâõòýé àæèëëàõ ÿâäàëºíººãèéí öàã ¿åèéí øààðäëàãà áîëîîäáàéíà. Èøëýë¿¿äèéã íýìýëò ýõ ñóðâàëæóóäàääóðäñàí áîëíî.Ýíý ºã¿¿ëýëä èëýðõèéëñýí ¿çýë áîäîë ÀÍÓ-ûí çàñãèéíãàçðûí áàéð ñóóðü, áîäëîãûí òóñãàë áàéõ àëáàã¿é. e Journal USA 38 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • Critical Issues: A n International Tour China Addressing Climate Change Through Sustainable Development Jiahua PanExecutive director of the Research Center on mitigation. He has authored numerousfor Sustainable Development (RCSD) at the papers and articles on the economic andChinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS), social dimensions of sustainable developmentJiahua Pan is also an economics professor and climate change policy. He discussesat the CASS graduate school. He served as the urgency of implementing sustainablea senior program officer and adviser on the development programs in China, which isenvironment and development at the United particularly vulnerable to the effects ofNations Development Program’s Beijing global warming and climate change, andoffice. He was a senior economist for the the measures already taken to protect theIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, environment.Working Group III, and a lead authorfor the 3rd and 4th assessment reportsÍîöòîé àñóóäëóóä: Îëîí óëñûí àÿëàë ÕÿòàäÓóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòºä òîãòâîðòîé õºãæëèéã ñºðã¿¿ëýí òàâèõ íü Æèàõóà ÏàíÕÿòàäûí Íèéãìèéí øèíæëýõ óõààíû ýäèéí çàñãèéí áîëîí íèéãìèéí ÷èãëýëèéíàêàäåìèéí (ÕÍØÓÀ) Òîãòâîðòîé òàëààð, óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéíõºãæëèéí ñóäàëãààíû òºâèéí (ÒÕÑÒ) áîäëîãûí àñóóäëààð íýëýýä òîîíû áè÷èãã¿éöýòãýõ çàõèðàë Æèàõóà Ïàí áîë áàðèìò, ºã¿¿ëýë çîõèîæýý. Óóð àìüñãàëûíÕÍØÓÀ-èéí ýðäìèéí çýðýã îëãîõ ººð÷ëºëò áîëîí äýëõèéí äóëààðëûíñóðãóóëèéí ýäèéí çàñãèéí ïðîôåññîð þì. óðøèãò îíöãîé ýìçýã Õÿòàä óëñûí õóâüäͯÁ-ûí Õºãæëèéí õºòºëáºðèéí Áýýæèí òîãòâîðòîé õºãæëèéí õºòºëáºð¿¿äèéãäýõ òºëººëºã÷èéí ãàçàðò õºòºëáºðèéí õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõ ÿâäàë íýí òóëãàìäñàí çîðèëòàõëàõ ìýðãýæèëòýí áºãººä áàéãàëü áîëæ áàéãàà òóõàé, ò¿¿í÷ëýí áàéãàëüîð÷èí, õºãæëèéí àñóóäëûí çºâëºã÷ îð÷íûã õàìãààëàõ òàëààð íýãýíò àâñàíõèéæ áàéæýý. Òýðýýð Óóð àìüñãàëûí àðãà õýìæýýí¿¿äèéí òàëààð Ïàí ºã¿¿ë溺ð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëààðõ çàñãèéí ãàçàð áàéíà.õîîðîíäûí êîìèññûí III Àæëûí õýñãèéíàõëàõ ýäèéí çàñàã÷ áàéñàí áºãººäñààðìàãæóóëàõ àñóóäëààð 3, 4 ä¿ãýýð¿íýëãýýíèé èëòãýëèéí òýðã¿¿ëýõ çîõèîã÷áàéñàí áîëíî. ̺í òîãòâîðòîé õºãæëèéí e Journal USA 39 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • C hina has long suffered from climatic challenges, both adaptation and mitigation. disasters throughout its history and China’s experiences and challenges are will be more vulnerable to climate of global significance, and international change. The key reason lies in the fact that cooperation is needed for effective mitigation the physical environment is highly fragile. of and adaptation to climate change. Ever-increasing human population, physical resources, and infrastructure are exposed to climate risks, along with effects from China’s development process. Sustainable Climate Security development has been taken as the key approach to addressing climate change Extreme climatic events, such as drought, flooding, and typhoons in the coastal regions and snow storms in theCourtesy of Jiahua Pan northern inland region, often trigger social unrest and instability. In 1931, Yangtze River flooding killed 145,000 people, with tens of millions made homeless. The most economically dynamic and wealthy population is concentrated in the coastal areas, in particular the Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, and Bohai Rim. During the past 30 years, the sea level has been rising at 2.6 millimeters per year and this trend is to continue. In the Yangtze River Delta region, population density is at 890 òóðøëàãà, àâ÷ áàéãàà àðãà õýìæýý äýëõèé íèéòèéí à÷ õîëáîãäîëòîé áºãººä óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéã ¿ð íºëººòýé ñààðìàãæóóëàõ, ò¿¿íä äàñàí çîõèöîõîä îëîí óëñûí õàìòûí àæèëëàãàà çàéëøã¿é õýðýãòýé. Óóð àìüñãàëûí àþóëã¿é áàéäàë Jiahua Pan Æèàõóà Ïàí Ãàí, ¿åð, ýðýã îð÷ìûí íóòãèéã íýðâýäýã äàëàéí õàð ñàëõè, õîéä íóòãèéí öàñàí øóóðãà ìýòèéí öàã óóðûí òóéëûí Õ ÿòàä ººðèéíõºº ò¿¿õýíä óóð íîöòîé ¿çýãäë¿¿ä íèéãìèéí ñýòãýë ñàíààã àìüñãàëûí ãàìøãààñ óðò õóãàöààíä óéìðóóëæ, òîãòâîðã¿é áàéäëû㠺人õ çîâëîí àìñàæ èðñýí áºãººä ýä¿ãýý íü ýëáýã áàéäàã. 1931 îíä òîõèîñîí Õºõ óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòºä èë¿¿ èõ ýìçýã ìºðíèé ¿åð 145 000 õ¿íèé àìü íàñûã áàéõààð áàéíà. ¯¿íèé ¿íäñýí øàëòãààí á¿ðýëãýæ, õýäýí àðâàí ñàÿ õ¿íèéã îðîõ íü áèåò áàéãàëü îð÷èí íü ìàø èõ õýâðýã îðîíã¿é áîëãîæ áàéñàí. Ýäèéí çàñãèéí áàéäàã ÿâäàë þì. Áàéíãà ºñ÷ áàéãàà õ¿í õóâüä õàìãèéí ýð÷òýé, ÷èíýýëýã õ¿í àì, áèåò íººö áîëîí äýä á¿òýö çýðýãò àì ýðãèéí á¿ñ íóòãààð, ÿëàíãóÿà Õºõ íü Õÿòàäûí õºãæëèéí ÿâöààñ ¿¿äñýí ìºðíèé áýë÷èð, ×ó ìºðíèé (Êàíòîíû) íºëººíèé õàìò óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí áýë÷èð, Áîõàéí òîõîé çýðýã íóòãààð ýðñäýë í¿¿ðëýýä áàéíà. Òîãòâîðòîé òºâëºðºí ñóóðüøñàí áàéäàã. Ñ¿¿ëèéí õºãæëèéã óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí ãó÷èí æèëèéí òóðø äàëàéí ò¿âøèí æèë ñîðèëòîä äàñàí çîõèöîõ, ñààðìàãæóóëàõ á¿ð 2,6 ìì-ýýð äýýøèëæ èðñýí áºãººä õàðèó àðãà õýìæýýã õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõ ãîë ýíý õàíäëàãà ¿ðãýëæèëñýýð áàéíà. Õºõ çàì áîëãîæ àâààä áàéãàà áèëýý. Õÿòàäûí ìºðíèé áýë÷èðèéí ñàâ íóòàãò õ¿í àìûí e Journal USA 40 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • per square kilometer. Fifteen large cities in disappearance of the oasis agriculture.the delta region occupy 1 percent of China’s Along with population growth, a rising rateland area, but their share of China’s gross of urbanization, and overall developmentdomestic product (GDP) is as high as 17 of the economy, climate change is no doubtpercent in 2008. In the northwest, where a security issue. Water scarcity is anotherhuman settlements are highly dependent issue. Extreme events precipitated by climateon snowmelt in the Himalaya and Tianshan change make food production insecure. SeaMountains, temperature increase would mean level rises will put hundreds of millions of Solar power water heaters grace rooftops in Yichang city, central China. China’s Golden Sun Project, launched in 2009, aims to subsidize installation of 500 megawatts of solar generators across the country© AP Images/Imaginechina Íàðíû ýð÷èì õ¿÷ýýð óñ õàëààã÷ Òºâ Õÿòàäûí Þé÷àí õîòûí áàéøèíãóóäûí äýýâðèéã ÷èìýãëýæ áàéíà. 2009 îíä ýõýëñýí Õÿòàäûí Àëòàí íàð òºñºë 500 ìåãàâàòòûí íàðíû ãåíåðàòîðûã óëñ îðîí äàÿàð ñóóðèëóóëàõ àæëûã òàòààñààð ñàíõ¿¿æ¿¿ëýõ çîðèëãîòîé þì.íÿãòðàë íýã êâ. êèëîìåòð íóòàãò 890 õ¿í õºäºº àæ àõóé àëãà áîëíî ãýñýí ¿ã áîëíî.áàéíà. Ýíý áýë÷èð íóòàãò áàéãàà 15 òîì Õ¿í àì ºñºõèéí õàìò, õîòæèëòûí ò¿âøèíõîò Õÿòàäûí õóóðàé ãàçðûí íýã õóâèéã íýìýãäýõèéí õàìò, ýäèéí çàñàã á¿õýëäýýýçýëäýã áîë òýäãýýðèéí ¿éëäâýðëýëèéí õºãæèõèéí õàìò óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòõýìæýý 2008 îíä Õÿòàäûí äîòîîäûí íèéò ÿìàð ÷ ýðãýëçýýã¿é àþóëã¿é áàéäëûíá¿òýýãäýõ¿¿íèé (ÄÍÁ) 17 õóâèéã ýçýëæ àñóóäàë áîëæ áàéãàà þì. Óñíû õîìñäîëáàéñàí þì. Õ¿í àìûí ñóóðüøèë Ãèìàëàé áàñ íýã àñóóäàë þì. Óóð àìüñãàëûíáîëîí Òÿíü Øàíüä öàñ õàéëàõààñ èõýýõýí ººð÷ëºëòººñ ¿¿äñýí òóéëûí íîöòîéõàìààðàëòàé áàéäàã áàðóóí õîéä íóòàãò ¿çýãäë¿¿ä õ¿íñíèé ¿éëäâýðëýëèéã íàéäâàðòåìïåðàòóð äýýøëýíý ãýäýã íü áàÿí á¿ðäíèé ìóóòàé áîëãîæ áàéíà. Äàëàéí ò¿âøíèé e Journal USA 41 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • people and assets at trillions of Renminbi climate events each year amounted to 3 to 6(Yuan/RMB) at high risk. Therefore, percent of China’s GDP. For the past decademinimization of climate change impacts and or so, the losses are at 1 percent or less,adaptation to climate change constitute the although in absolute terms the monetaryfoundation for sustainable development in figure is larger. Before reform in 1978, eachChina. year typhoons would kill numerous people and destroy houses in the coastal region. Now the buildings are able to withstand the Fighting Climate Change Through Development China is a victim of climate China is a victim of climate change. Doing change. Doing nothingnothing will certainly result in diminishedsustainability. The experiences in China and will certainly result inthe world show that climate change can be diminished sustainability.effectively addressed through development.In 1998, Yangtze River flooding occurred The experiences in Chinaagain, similar to the scale of 1931, and the and the world show thatlosses were a negligible fraction as comparedto 1931. The reason is very simple: The dikes climate change can beare much stronger and more resources can effectively addressed throughbe mobilized for flood control now. Before2000, economic losses incurred by extreme development. Õÿòàä áîë óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí íýã õîõèðîã÷äýýøëýëò õýäýí çóóí ñàÿ õ¿íèéã èõýýõýíýðñäýëä îðóóëàõ áºãººä çàðäàë õºðºí㺠íü þì. Þó ÷ õèéõã¿é áàéõõýäýí òýðáóì þíèàð ¿íýëýãäýæ áàéíà. Òèéì íü òîãòâîðòîé áàéäàëó÷ðààñ óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí ¿ðäàãàâàðûã õàìãèéí äîîä õýìæýýíä õ¿ðãýæ, ñóëðàõàä õ¿ðãýõ íüóã ººð÷ëºëòºä äàñàí çîõèöîõ íü Õÿòàäûí ìýäýýæ. Óóð àìüñãàëûíòîãòâîðòîé õºãæëèéí ñóóðèéã á¿ðä¿¿ëíý. ººð÷ëºëòºä õºãæ뺺ð ¿ð íºëººòýé õàðèó ºã÷ áîëîõ Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí íü Õÿòàäûí áîëîí äýëõèéí ýñðýã õºãæ뺺ð òýìöýõ íü íèéòèéí òóðøëàãààñ Õÿòàä áîë óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí õàðàãäàæ áàéíà.íýã õîõèðîã÷ þì. Þó ÷ õèéõã¿é áàéõíü òîãòâîðòîé áàéäàë ñóëðàõàä õ¿ðãýõíü ìýäýýæ. Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòºä ÄÍÁ-íèé 3-6 õóâüä õ¿ðäýã áàéñàí þì.õºãæ뺺ð ¿ð íºëººòýé õàðèó ºã÷ áîëîõ Ñ¿¿ëèéí àðâàí æèë áóþó òýð îð÷ìûííü Õÿòàäûí áîëîí äýëõèéí íèéòèéí õóãàöààíä õîõèðîë õýäèéãýýð ìºíãºíèéõººòóðøëàãààñ õàðàãäàæ áàéíà. 1998 îíä ¿íýìëýõ¿é òîîãîîð ºìíºõººñ èõ áàéñàí ÷Õºõ ìºðºí 1931 îíûõòîé ä¿éõ¿éö äàõèí ÄÍÁ-íèé 1 áóþó ò¿¿íýýñ áàãà õýìæýýíäèõ ¿åðëýñýí, ãýõäýý ãàðç õîõèðîë íü 1931 áàéñàí áîëíî. 1978 îíû øèíý÷ëýëýýñ ºìíºîíûõòîé õàðüöóóëàõàä òóí øàëèõã¿é æèë á¿ðèéí äàëàéí õàð ñàëõè îëîí òîîíûáàéñàí þì. Øàëòãààí íü ìàø ýíãèéí: õ¿íèé àìèíä õ¿ðäýã, ýðãèéí á¿ñ íóòãààðäàëàí õààëòóóä õàâüã¿é èë¿¿ áàò áºõ º÷ òº÷íººí àéëûí îðîí ãýðèéã ñ¿éòãýäýãáîëñîí, îäîî ¿åðèéã õÿíàëòàä áàéëãàõûí áàéëàà. Òýãâýë îäîî áàéøèí áàðèëãà ìàøòóëä èë¿¿ íººö áîëîëöîîã äàé÷ëàõ øèð¿¿í õàð ñàëõèíä ÷ àæðàõã¿é òýñ÷áîëîìæòîé áîëñîí. 2000 îíîîñ ºìíº öàã áàéãàà áîëíî. Óðüä÷èëàí àíõààðóóëàõóóðûí íîöòîé ¿çýãäë¿¿äèéí óëìààñ àìñàæ ñèñòåì õ¿ì¿¿ñèéã ñàéí áýëòãýëòýé áàéõàäáàéñàí æèë á¿ðèéí ýäèéí çàñãèéí õîõèðîë e Journal USA 42 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • strongest typhoon. Pre-warning systems to GHG reductions. In China’s 11th five-year can effectively let people be well prepared. plan (2006-2010), a compulsory target is to Watersaving technologies and irrigation are reduce energy consumption per unit of GDP able to reduce demand for water. by 20 percent in 2010 as compared to 2005. As a developing economy, under the Strong enforcement through administrative Kyoto Protocol, China is not required to and incentive measures indicates that this reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions target will be achievable. Reforestation and in absolute terms. But this does not mean afforestation efforts, including sealing the that China has not been taking actions to mountains for natural regeneration and curb emissions. As a matter of fact, the return of arable land to forest in the past pursuit for sustainable development in China three decades, has led to an increase in forest is consistent with recommended emission coverage from 12.7 percent in the late 1970s reductions and has contributed substantially to 18.7 percent now. New buildings are to© AP Images/Imaginechina The Yellow River, China’s second largest, is beset by pollution and water shortage from soaring demand and climate change. Õÿòàäûí õî¸ð äàõü òîì ãîë Øàð ìºðºí ýðñ íýìýãäýæ áóé õýðýãöýý áîëîí óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí óëìààñ áîõèðäîõûí õàìò óñíû õîìñäîëä àâòàæ áàéíà. ¿ð íºëººòýé òóñ áîëæ áàéíà. Óñ õýìíýõ îí ãýõýä 20 õóâèàð õîðîãäóóëàõ ÿâäàë òåõíîëîãè, óñæóóëàõ àæèë óñíû õýðýãöýýã áîëíî. Çàõèðãààíû áîëîí ÿíç á¿ðèéí áàãàñãàõ áîëîìæ îëãîæ áàéíà. óðàìøóóëëûí àðãà õýìæýýã òóóøòàé Õÿòàä õºãæèæ áàéãàà îðîí ó÷ðààñ õýðýãæ¿¿ëæ áàéãààãààñ ýíý çîðèëò Êèîòîãèéí Ïðîòîêîëûí äàãóó õ¿ëýìæèéí õýðýãæèõ áîëîìæòîé íü õàðàãäàæ áàéãàà õèéí õàÿãäëûã ¿íýìëýõ¿é õýìæýýãýýð þì. Îéã ñýðãýýõ, øèíýýð îéæóóëàõ, íü áóóðóóëàõ øààðäëàãàä õàìààðàõã¿é ò¿¿íèé äîòîð óóë íóðóóäûã áàéãàëèàñàà áàéãàà. Ãýõäýý ýíý áîë Õÿòàä õàÿãäàë àÿíäàà ñýðãýõýýð õàäãàëæ, ò¿¿í÷ëýí ãàçàð õèéã áàãàñãàõ òàëààð àðãà õýìæýý òàðèàëàíãèéí íóòãèéã áóöààæ îéæóóëàõ àâàõã¿é áàéãàà ãýñýí ¿ã áèø. Õÿòàäàä ÷èãëýëýýð ñ¿¿ëèéí ãóðâàí àðâàí æèëä òîãòâîðòîé õºãæëèéã óðàãøëóóëæ áóé òàâüñàí õ¿÷ ÷àðìàéëò îé ìîäîîð õó÷èãäñàí áîäèò àæèë íü õàÿãäàë õèéã áóóðóóëàõ íóòàã äýâñãýð 1970-ààä îíû ñ¿¿ë÷ýýð òàëààð ãàðãàñàí çºâëºìæòýé ÿã òààð÷ 12.7 õóâü áàéñíûã îäîî 18.7 õóâü õ¿ðòýë áàéãàà ó÷ðààñ òýð á¿õýí ìààíü õ¿ëýìæèéí ºñºõºä õ¿ðãýñýí áàéãàà þì. Øèíý áàéøèí õèéã áàãàñãàõàä áàéíãà õóâü íýìýð áîëæ áàðèëãóóäûí ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé çàðöóóëàëò áàéãàà áèëýý. Õÿòàäûí 11 ä¿ãýýð òàâàí õóó÷èíòàé õàðüöóóëàõàä 65 õóâèàð æèëèéí òºëºâëºãººíèé (2006-2010) áàãà áîëëîî. Äýëõèéí ñàëõèíû ýð÷èì çààâàë õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõ íýã çîðèëò íü ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé íèéãýìëýãèéí ìýäýýíèé äàãóó õ¿÷íèé õýðýãëýýã ÄÍÁ-íèé íýãæýýð áîë 2008 îíä Õÿòàä øèíýýð ñóóðèëóóëñàí òîîöîõîä 2005 îíûõòîé õàðüöóóëáàë 2010 ñàëõèíû ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé òºõººðºì溺𺺠e Journal USA 43 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • be 65 percent more energy efficient than old to the world average level, although theones. According to the World Wind Energy number is still substantially lower than theAssociation, newly installed wind power Organization for Economic Cooperation andcapacity in China in 2008 ranks fourth, Development figure. As China is still in theaccounting for 23.1 percent of the world process of urbanization and industrialization,total newly installed capacity in 2008. China increase in GHG emissions is likely tohas been investing in wind and solar power continue.so aggressively that China might be thereal leader in the development of renewableenergy. Social policies and advocacyof sustainable consumption also help. International CooperationChina has already prepared national andprovincial level climate change programs. Clearly, mitigation of climate change inFurther planning and actions will make the China goes beyond national boundaries.development process more climate friendly. International cooperation will effectivelyFor instance, climate change mitigation and reduce the rate of emissions in China. Theadaptation must be included in the planning Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) underof transriver basin water diversion, seawall the Kyoto Protocol has shown the potentialconstruction, and urban development. of international cooperation. The amountDespite China’s aggressive mitigation of financial inflow into China is minimal,efforts, China’s GHG emissions have kept but it enables commercially unviable windincreasing. Since 2007, China was considered power and energy efficiency investmentsto emit more than the United States, and to become feasible. The rapid increase inper capita emissions are already comparable wind power in the past several years is a good example for illustration. Carbon priceäºðºâä¿ãýýðò îðæ áàéãàà áºãººä òýäãýýð íü õýìæýý íü îäîîãîîð Ýäèéí çàñãèéí õàìòûí2008 îíû äýëõèé õýìæýýíä ñóóðèëóóëñàí àæèëëàãàà, õºãæëèéí áàéãóóëëàãûíá¿õ õ¿÷èí ÷àäëûí 23.1 õóâü áîëñîí òîîíîîñ ìýäýãäýõ¿éö äîîãóóð áàéãàà ÷áàéíà. Õÿòàä ñàëõè áîëîí íàðíû ýð÷èì íýã õ¿íä îíîãäîõ õàÿãäàë õèéí õýìæýýõ¿÷ ¿éëäâýðëýõ ñàëáàðò ñýðãýýãäýõ ýð÷èì äýëõèé äóíäàæòàé íýãýíò æèøèõ¿éöõ¿÷èéã õºãæ¿¿ëýõ òóõàéä æèíõýíý áîë÷èõîîä áàéíà. Õÿòàä ýä¿ãýý ÷ õîòæèõ,òýðã¿¿ëýã÷ áîëæ ÷àäàõààð èõýýõýí èäýâõòýé àæ ¿éëäâýðæèõ ¿éë ÿâöäàà ÿâàà áîëîõîîðõºðºí㺠îðóóëæ áàéãàà þì. Íèéãìèéí õ¿ëýìæèéí õèéí õàÿãäàë öààøèäáîäëîãî áîëîí òîãòâîðòîé õýðýãëýýã ¿ðãýëæëýí ºñºõ ÿíçòàé áàéãàà þì.ñàéøààæ áàéãàà ÿâäàë áàñ òóñ áîëæáàéíà. Õÿòàä ¿íäýñíèé áîëîí ìóæóóäûíò¿âøèíä óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéíõºòºëáºð¿¿äèéã íýãýíò áîëîâñðóóëæ Îëîí óëñûí õàìòûí àæèëëàãààãàðãààä áàéíà. Öààøäûí òºëºâëºëò áîëîí¿éë àæèëëàãàà ìààíü õºãæëèéí ¿éë Õÿòàäàä óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéãÿâöûã óóð àìüñãàëä èë¿¿ ýýëòýé áîëãîíî. ñààðìàãæóóëàõ àæèë ¿íäýñíèé õèëýýðÆèøýý íü, óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéã õÿçãààðëàãäàõã¿é áàéãàà íü òîäîðõîé. Îëîíñààðìàãæóóëàõ, ò¿¿íä äàñàí çîõèöîõ óëñûí õàìòûí àæèëëàãàà Õÿòàäûí õàÿãäàëòàëààð õèéõ àæèëä ãîë ìºðºí õîîðîíäûí õèéí ÿëãàðàëòûí ò¿âøèíã ¿ð íºëººòýéñàâ ãàçàðò óñíû ãîëäèðëûã ººð÷ëºõ, áóóðóóëíà.äàëàéí ºíäºð äàëàí áàéãóóëàõ, õîòæèëòûã Êèîòîãèéí Ïðîòîêîëîîð áèé áîëãîñîíõºãæ¿¿ëýõ òºëºâëºãºº áàãòñàí áàéõ ¸ñòîé. Öýâýð õºãæëèéí ìåõàíèçì (ÖÕÌ) Ñààðìàãæóóëàõ òàëààð òàâüæ áàéãàà îëîí óëñûí õàìòûí àæèëëàãààíû íººöÕÿòàäûí èäýâõòýé õ¿÷ ÷àðìàéëòûã ¿ë áîëîìæèéã õàðóóëæ áàéãàà áèëýý. Õÿòàäàäõàðãàëçàí, Õÿòàäûí õ¿ëýìæèéí õèéí îðæ èðæ áàéãàà ìºíãºíèé óðñãàë äîîäõàÿãäàë íýìýãäñýýð áàéíà. 2007 îíîîñ õýìæýýíä áàéãàà áîëîâ÷ òýð íü àðèëæààíûõîéø, Õÿòàäûã Àìåðèêèéí Íýãäñýí ¿¿äíýýñ àøèãã¿é ñàëõèíû ýð÷èì õ¿÷Óëñààñ èë¿¿ õèéí õàÿãäàë ÿëãàðóóëäàã àøèãëàõûã áîëîìæòîé áîëãîæ, ¿ð àøèãòàéãýæ òîîöîæ áàéãàà áºãººä õýäèéãýýð òîî ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé õºðºí㺠îðóóëàëòàä òààòàé e Journal USA 44 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • of Certified Emissions Reductions (CER) and mitigation require shaking hands tofrom CDM projects signals the market that join forces, instead of finger-pointing at onelowcarbon technologies can be competitive. another. Technological cooperation is one of thekeys. Mitigation of climate change is ofglobal public benefit. Government must The opinions expressed in this article do not necessarilyplay a role in the development, transfer, reflect the views or policies of the U.S. government.and deployment of climate-friendlytechnologies. Technological cooperationbetween developing countries can also be ofimportance as appropriate technologies fromdeveloping countries can be workable andcost effective. In addition, demonstrationof how low emissions can result in a highquality of living in developed nations willhelp shape climate-friendly consumptionpatterns in China. Climate change adaptationíºõöºë á¿ðä¿¿ëæ ºã÷ áàéíà. Ñ¿¿ëèéí õýäýí àìüäðàëûí ºíäºð ÷àíàð õàÿãäàë õèéã ÿàææèëä ñàëõèíû ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé ¿éëäâýðëýë áàãà áîëãîæ áàéãààã èëòãýí õàðóóëàõ íüò¿ðãýí ºññºí íü ¿¿íèéã õàðóóëàõ íýã ñàéí Õÿòàäàä óóð àìüñãàëä ýýëòýé õýðýãëýýíèéæèøýý þì. ÖÕÌ-ûí òºñë¿¿äèéí Õàÿãäàë ä¿ð òºðõèéã òîéìëîí ãàðãàæ èðýõýäõèéí ìàãàäëàãààòàé áóóðàëòûí (ÕÕÌÁ) òóñ áîëíî. Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéãí¿¿ðñòºðºã÷èéí õèéí ¿íý çàõ çýýëä ñààðìàãæóóëàõ, ò¿¿íä çîõèöîõ çîðèëò áèåí¿¿ðñòºðºã÷ áàãà ÿëãàðóóëäàã òåõíîëîãè áèå ð¿¿ãýý õóðóóãààðàà ÷è÷ëýõèéí îðîíäºðñºëäºõ ÷àäâàðòàé áàéíà ãýñýí äîõèî ºã÷ õ¿÷ýý íýãòãýõèéí òóëä ãàð áàðèëöàõûãáàéíà. Òåõíîëîãèéí õàìòûí àæèëëàãàà øààðäàæ áàéíà. ìàø ÷óõàë ÷èãëýëèéí íýã þì. Óóðàìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéã ñààðìàãæóóëàõíü äýëõèéí îëîí íèéòýä àøèã òóñòàé. Óóðàìüñãàëä ýýëòýé òåõíîëîãèéã õºãæ¿¿ëýõ, {Ýíý ºã¿¿ëýëä èëýðõèéëñýí ¿çýë áîäîë ÀÍÓ-ûí çàñãèéíøèëæ¿¿ëýõ, ¿ð àøèãòàé áàéðøóóëàõ ãàçðûí áàéð ñóóðü, áîäëîãûí òóñãàë áàéõ àëáàã¿é.òàëààð çàñãèéí ãàçàð ¿¿ðýã ã¿éöýòãýõ¸ñòîé. Ò¿¿í÷ëýí õºãæèæ áàéãàà îðíóóäûíçîõèñòîé òåõíîëîãè õýðýãëýæ áîëîõóéöáºãººä àøèã ñàéòàé áàéæ áîëîõ ó÷ðààñòýäãýýðèéí õîîðîíäûí òåõíîëîãèéí õàìòûíàæèëëàãàà áàñ ÷óõàë à÷ õîëáîãäîëòîé áàéæ÷àäíà. Íýìæ õýëýõýä, õºãæèíã¿é îðíóóäûí e Journal USA 45 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • Critical Issues: A n International Tour Germany Security Through Energy Policy: Germany at the Crossroads R. Andreas KraemerR. Andreas Kraemer has been director of Germany has been a leader in renewableEcologic Institute in Berlin, Germany, energy development, setting ambitioussince its founding in 1995. Well-versed in climate protection policies at home that havesustainable development and environment fueled growth of new technologies and relatedpolicy after more than 20 years in the field, jobs that are now being exported around thehe is a professor in the Berlin Program of world.Duke University in Durham, North Carolina,and cochairman of the OekoWorld advisory Tboard on “green” investments. Ecologic he greatest concern in Germany isInstitute Washington, D.C., of which he is not acute domestic effects of climatechairman, opened in 2008. change, but that developments around the world might harm political stability in other countries, result in a loss of trade,Íîöòîé àñóóäëóóä: Îëîí óëñûí àÿëàë Ãåðìàí Ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé áîäëîãîîð àþóëã¿é áàéäëûã õàíãàõ íü: ÕÁÍÃÓ ñàëàà çàìûí áèë÷èðò Ð. Àíäðåàñ ÊðàèìåðÐ. Àíäðåàñ Êðàèìåð ÕÁÍÃÓ-ûí íèéñëýë äýâø¿¿ëýí àæëûí áàéðóóäûã áèé áîëãîñîíÁåðëèí äýõ Ýêîëîãèéí õ¿ðýýëýíãèéí øèíý òåõíèê òåõíîëîãèéã ýð÷èìæ¿¿ëñýíçàõèðëààð 1995 îíä áàéãóóëàãäñàíààñ íü íü ýä¿ãýý äýëõèéí äàõèíä íèéë¿¿ëýãäýæõîéø òàñðàëòã¿é àæèëëàæ áóé áºãººä áàéíà.òîãòâîðòîé õºãæèë, áàéãàëü îð÷íû ÕÁÍÃÓ-ûí õóâüä óóð àìüñãàëûíñàëáàðò õîðü ãàðóé æèë àæèëëàí ýë ººð÷ëºëòººñ õàìãèéí èõýýð ñýòãýë ò¿ãøèõñàëáàðûã ã¿íçãèé ìýääýã, Óìàðä Êàðîëèíû ç¿éë íü òóñ óëñûí äîòîîäîä õîð óðøèãÄóðõàì õîò äàõü Äþêèéí Èõ ñóðãóóëèéí ó÷ðóóëàõàä áóñ, õàðèí áóñàä óëñ îðîíäÁåðëèíû õºòºëáºðèéí ïðîôåññîð, Íîãîîí óëñ òºðèéí òîãòâîðòîé áàéäëûã íüõºðºí㺠îðóóëàëòûí Ýêî-åðòºíö Ǻâëºõ àëäàãäóóëæ, ãàäààä õóäàëäààíû ýðãýëòèéãçºâëºëèéí õàì äàðãà, Âàøèíãòîí ÄÑ-ä áàãàñãàí, øèëæèëò õºäºë㺺íèéã2008 îíä áàéãóóëàãäñàí Ýêîëîãèéí äýâýðãýæ óëìààð ìºðãºë人íä õ¿ðãýæõ¿ðýýëýíãèéí äàðãà. ÕÁÍÃÓ ñýðãýýãäýõ áîëçîøã¿é íºõöºë áàéäàë äýëõèé äàõèíäýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé ¿éëäâýðëëèéí ñàëáàðò áèé áîëãîõîä îðøèíî. Óóð àìüñãàëûíõîøóó÷èëæ, óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòºº ººð÷ëºëòèéí ýñðýã òýìöýõ ñàéí ãàäààäõàìãààëàõ òîìõîí áîäëîãóóäûã äîòîîäîî e Journal USA 46 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • induce migration, and ultimately cause infrastructure along the rivers. Seasonallyconflict. Promoting good climate policies low flow already forces the occasionalabroad is seen as being in Germany’s best shutdown of nuclear plants and otherinterest and as good global citizenship. installations. Recent record floods in all At the heart of Europe, with all neighbors large rivers are seen as a consequence ofbeing member states of the European Union changing climate, with a warmer atmosphere(E.U.), Germany is in a favorable position, carrying more water and triggering strongergeographically and politically. Some E.U. rainfall or snowfall. In time, a partial retreatcountries like Belgium, the Netherlands, from vulnerable areas will become necessary,Britain, or Denmark will likely suffer more yet there is no sense of urgency now.from rising sea levels, while others aroundthe Mediterranean will feel stronger effects Courtesy of Ecologic Institutefrom changing rainfall patterns. Germanyhas comparatively strong, well-organized,and efficient government and can respondto emerging threats more effectively thancountries with more limited statehood,especially developing countries outside theE.U. Germany is most vulnerable to theeffects of climate change along the NorthSea and Baltic coasts, but these are notdensely populated. However, we find manyhouses, businesses, and much transportáîäëîãî íü Ãåðìàíû àøèã ñîíèðõîëäòºäèéã¿é, äýëõèéí ñàéí èðãýí áàéõàäíèéöíý ãýæ òóñ óëñàä ¿çäýã áàéíà.Å âðîï òèâèéí òºâä, Åâðîïûí Õîëáîîíû ãèø¿¿í óëñóóäààð õ¿ðýýëýãääýã ÕÁÍÃÓ ãàçàð ç¿éí áîëîí óëñòºðèéí òààòàé áàéðëàëä îðøäîã áèëýý.Äàëàéí óñíû ò¿âøèí äýýøëýõýä ÅâðîïûíÕîëáîîíû ãèø¿¿í Áåëüãè, Íèäåðëàíä,Áðèòàíè, Äàíè çýðýã óëñàä èõýýõýíáýðõøýýë ó÷èð÷ áîëçîøã¿é áàéõàä õóðáîðîî îðîõ íü ººð÷ëºãäºõºä Ãàçàð äóíäûíòýíãèñèéí îð÷ìûí áóñàä óëñàä ¿ëýìæ R. Andreas Kraemeróðøèã òàðèõ áîëíî. Òºðèéí ÷àäàâõè Ð. Àíäðåàñ Êðàèìåðáàãàòàé, ÿëàíãóÿà Åâðîïûí Õîëáîîíûáóñ õºãæèæ áàéãàà óëñóóäûã áîäîõîä,õàðüöàíãóé õ¿÷òýé, çîõèîí áàéãóóëàëò, óëèðëûí áàéäëààñ øàëòãààëàí ãîëóóäûí¿éë àæèëëàãàà ñàéòàé òºð á¿õèé ÕÁÍÃÓ óñ òàòàðõàä öºìèéí ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé¿¿ñýí ãàðàõ àþóëûí ýñðýã èë¿¿ ¿ð ä¿íòýé ¿éëäâýð¿¿ä áîëîí áóñàä áàéãóóëàìæóóä ¿åàæèëëàõ áîëîìæòîé. ¿å õààãäàõàä õ¿ðäýã. Ñàÿõàí á¿õ òîìõîí Õýäèéãýýð õ¿í àì ñèéðýã ñóóðüøäàã ãîëóóä óðüä ºìíº ¿çýãäýýã¿é èõýýðáîëîâ÷ õîéä òýíãèñ, ÿëàíãóÿà Áàëòèéí ¿åðëýñíèéã íü öàã àãààð äóëààðñíààñòýíãèñèéí ýðýã îð÷èìûí óóð àìüñãàëûí óñíû ò¿âøèí íýìýãäýí, áîðîî õóð èõººð÷ëºëò Ãåðìàí óëñàä ýìçýã íºëººëäºã. îðæ, öàñ óíàñàí çýðýã óóð àìüñãàëûíÃýõäýý îëîí òîîíû îðîí ñóóö, áèçíåñèéí ººð÷ëºëòèéí óðøèã ãýæ ¿çýæ áàéíà. Ýíýáàéãóóëëàãóóä, òýýâðèéí äýä á¿òöèéí èõýíõ ìýò ýìçýã ãàçðóóäààñ õýñýã õóãàöààíä í¿¿æ,íü ãîëóóäûí äàãóó áàéðëàäàã áºãººä öàã øèëæèõ øààðäëàãà ãàðàõ áîëîâ÷ îäîîãîîð òóëãàìäñàí çîðèëò áîëîîã¿é áàéíà. e Journal USA 47 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • Transformation German energy taxes raise the prices of fuel, gas, and power, inducing families and Promoting energy efficiency and renewable businesses to monitor their energy use.energies is the preferred way to a climate- Manufacturers develop efficient industrialsafe future for Germany. Fossil energy equipment, household appliances, and cars,carriers are on the way out, as may be while building regulations promote insulationnuclear power. and efficient heating (and cooling) systems. Domestic hard coal production from deepmines is expensive and in phase-out; surface-mined soft coal (lignite) will remain a fuel The greatest concernfor power generation for some time but ispolitically on the defensive. Very likely, no in Germany is … thatnew coal-fired power plants will be built in developments around theGermany. Domestic oil and gas productionis economically irrelevant, and reliance on world might harm politicalimports is not only expensive but brings with stability in other countries,it threats to security of supply. Disruptionsin gas deliveries from Russia in recent result in a loss of trade,winters have not affected Germany directlybut still raised concerns about supply induce migration, andsecurity, as well as the outlook for the new ultimately cause conflict.democracies in Russia’s shadow. ÕÁÍÃÓ-ûí õóâüä óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòººñ õàìãèéí èõýýð ñýòãýë ªºð÷ëºëò ò¿ãøèõ ç¿éë íü ... õàðèí áóñàä óëñ îðîíä óëñ òºðèéí Ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé õýìíýëò, ñýðãýýãäýõ ýð÷èìõ¿÷èéã õºõè¿ëýí äýìæèõ íü ÕÁÍÃÓ- òîãòâîðòîé áàéäëûãûí õóâüä óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòººñõàìãààëàãäñàí èðýýä¿éã á¿ðä¿¿ëýõ íü àëäàãäóóëæ, ãàäààäçîõèñòîé àðãà þì. Ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé õóäàëäààíû ýðãýëòèéã¿éëäâýðëýëýýñ õàñàãäàæ áàéãàà îðãàíèêò¿ëøíèé ºíººãèéí áàéäàë öºìèéí ýð÷èì áàãàñãàí, øèëæèëòõ¿÷èíä íýãýí àäèë òîõèîëäîæ áîëîõ þì. õºäºë㺺íèéã äýâýðãýæ Äîòîîääîî ãàçðûí ã¿íýýñ óóðõàéí óëìààð ìºðãºë人íä õ¿ðãýæàðãààð í¿¿ðñ îëáîðëîõ íü ºðòºã èõòýéáºãººä áàéðàà òàâüæ áàéãàà òóë 纺ëºí áîëçîøã¿é íºõöºë áàéäàëí¿¿ðñ áóþó ëèãíèòèéã èë óóðõàéí àðãààðîëáîðëîõ ÿâäàë íýã õýñýãòýý ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé äýëõèé äàõèíä ¿¿ñ÷ áèé¿éëäâýðëýëèéí ò¿¿õèé ýä áàéõ áîëîâ÷ áîëãîõîä îðøèíî.óëñ òºðèéí õóâüä õîðèãëîëòûí áàéäàëäáàéíà. Ãåðìàí óëñàä í¿¿ðñýíä ñóóðèëàñàíöàõèëãààí ñòàíöóóä íýìæ øèíýýðáàðèãäàõã¿é áîëîëòîé. Äîòîîääîî ãàçðûí óëñóóäûí Îðîñûí òàëààðõ îéëãîëòîä ñ¿¿äýðòîñ, áàéãàëèéí õèé ¿éëäâýðëýõ ýäèéí óíàãàñàí.çàñãèéí õóâüä çîõèñòîé áóñ, èìïîðòîä ÕÁÍÃÓ-ûí ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé òàòâàðòóëãóóðëàõ íü ¿íýòýé òºäèéã¿é õàíãàí øàòàõóóí, áàéãàëèéí õèé, ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèéíèéë¿¿ëýëòèéí íàéäâàðòàé áàéäàëä àþóë ¿íèéã íýìýãä¿¿ëñýí ó÷èð àéë ºðõ,ó÷èð÷ áàéíà. Ñ¿¿ëèéí õýäýí ºâºë ÎÕÓ-ààñ áèçíåñèéí áàéãóóëëàãóóä ýðè÷ì õ¿÷íèéáàéãàëèéí õèé íèéë¿¿ëýëò òàñàëäñàí íü õýðýãëýýãýý õÿíàõàä õ¿ðýâ. ¯éëäâýðëýã÷ÕÁÍÃÓ-ä øóóä íºëººëººã¿é áîëîâ÷ ýð÷èì íàð ýð÷èì õ¿÷èíä õýìíýëòòýé ¿éëäâýðèéíõ¿÷íèé àþóëã¿é áàéäàë, øèíýýð àðä÷èëñàí òîíîã òºõººðºìæ, ãýð àõóéí õýðýãñë¿¿ä, àâòîìàøèí çîõèîí á¿òýýæ, ¿éëäâýðëýõèéí e Journal USA 48 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • Public investment programs, tax breaks, broadly. The production of storable biomassand dedicated credit lines support retrofits and biogas, and their subsequent conversionof existing buildings, and the efficient co- to power and heat, is a particularly dynamicgeneration of heat and power. and promising field now, attracting Net metering and attractive feed-in tariffs innovators and investors alike.support renewable power producers and As a consequence of these policies,are gradually leading to more diversified renewable energies now make up 15.1structure of distributed power generation. percent of total power consumption and 9.5The key Federal Renewable Energy Act percent of total energy consumption (2008).provides for feed-in tariffs above grid price Last year’s turnover of the industry was 29levels to support emerging renewable energy billion euros (more than $40 billion), and ittechnologies during the early phase of employs about 280,000 at various levels ofmarket development, especially for solar and qualification.wind power. The tariffs, designed to provide In 2008, overall greenhouse gas emissionsa stable economic environment for otherwise decreased by 12 million tons, or 1.2 percent,very risky investments in renewable from 2007 levels. Total emissions are nowenergies, go down over time and will end as 945 million tons CO2e (CO2 equivalent)the renewable energies reach grid parity and and within Germany’s target corridor ofcan survive on the market. the Kyoto Protocol, which allows Germany Germany never focused on fermenting emissions during the period 2008 to 2012 atgrain to make ethanol as a bio-fuel, which 21 percent below those of 1990. Germany’sis inefficient and environmentally harmful, 2008 emissions are 23.3 percent below 1990but approached bio-energies — including levels, making it likely that Germany willbio-diesel, biogas, and wood pellets — more meet the target.ñàöóó áàéøèí áàðèëãûí ä¿ðýì æóðìóóä îðøèí òîãòíîõ áîëîìæòîé áîëîõ ¿åääóëààí òóñãààðëàëò, õýìíýëòòýé õàëààëò õàëàãäàõ áîëíî.(õºðãºëò)-ûí ñèñòåì¿¿äèéã áèé áîëãîæ ÕÁÍÃÓ õýìíýëòã¿é, áàéãàëü îð÷èíäáàéíà. Òºðèéí õºðºí㺠îðóóëàëòûí õàëòàé ¿ð òàðèàã ýñãýæ, áèî ò¿ëø áóþóõºòºëáºð¿¿ä, òàòâàðûí õºíãºëºëò, ýòàíîë ãàðãàæ àâàõàä àíõààðäàãã¿é áºãººäáàðèëãà áàéøèíãóóäûã øèíý÷ëýí áèî äèçåëü, áèî õèé, ìîäîí ñóì çýðýãòîíîãëîõîä äýìæëýã ¿ç¿¿ëýõ çýýë¿¿ä, èë¿¿ ºðãºí õ¿ðýýòýé áèî ýð÷èì õ¿÷èéãäóëààí, öàõèëãààíûã õýìíýëòòýé àðãààð ÷óõàë÷èëäàã. Õàäãàëàõ áîëîìæòîé áèî¿éëäâýðëýõýä õºõè¿ëýí äýìæèæ áàéíà. ìàññ áîëîí áèî õèé ¿éëäâýðëýõ, öàõèëãààí Òîîëóóðûí öýâýð çààëò, öàõèëãààí ýð÷èì ýð÷èì, äóëààí ãàðãàí àâàõàä òýäãýýðèéãõ¿÷ ¿éëäâýðëýõèéã óðàìøóóëñàí òàðèô õóâèðãàõ íü øèíèéã ñàíàà÷ëàã÷èä,íü ñýðãýýãäýõ ýð÷èì õ¿÷ ¿éëäâýðëýã÷äèéã õºðºí㺠îðóóëàã÷äûí ñîíèðõëûã òàòàæ áóéäýìæèæ ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé ¿éëäâýðëýëèéã èõýýõýí ýð÷òýé áºãººä èðýýä¿éòýé ÷èãëýëèë¿¿ îëîí á¿ðýëäýõ¿¿íòýé á¿òöýä ààæìààð áîëîîä áàéíà.øèëæ¿¿ëæ áàéíà. Ýäãýýð áîäëîãûí ¿ð ä¿íä 2008 îíä Ñýðãýýãäýõ ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé Õîëáîîíû ñýðãýýãäýõ ýð÷èì õ¿÷ íèéò ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèéõóóëü íü ¿éëäâýðëýñýí öàõèëãààí ýð÷èì íèéò õýðýãëýýíèé 9.5 õóâèéã ýçýëæ áàéñàíõ¿÷èíä íýãäñýí ñ¿ëæýýãýýð òàðààãääàãààñ áîë ºíººäºð 15.1 õóâüä õ¿ðñýí áàéíà.¿íèéí ºíäºð ò¿âøèí òàðèô òîãòîîñîí íü ªíãºðºã÷ îíä ¿éëäâýðëýëèéí íèéò ýðãýëòñýðãýýãäýõ ÿëàíãóÿà íàð, ñàëõèíû ýð÷èì 29 òýðáóì åâðî (40 ãàðóé òýðáóì àì.õ¿÷íèé òåõíîëîãèéã çàõ çýýëèéí ýõíèé äîëëàð)-ä õ¿ð÷, òºðºë á¿ðèéí ìýðãýæèë,¿å øàòàíä äýìæèæ áàéíà. Õºðîºí㺠ò¿âøíèé 280 ìÿíãàí õ¿íèéã àæèëëóóëæîðóóëàõàä ýðñäýë ºíäºðòýé ñýðãýýãäýõ áàéíà.ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé ñàëáàðò ýäèéí çàñãèéí 2008 îíä õ¿ëýìæèéí õèé 12 ñàÿ òîííòîãòâîðòîé îð÷èíã á¿ðä¿¿ëýõýä ÷èãëýñýí ÿëãàðóóëñàí íü 2007 îíû ò¿âøèíãýýñ 1.2òàðèô íü õýñýã õóãàöààíä õýðýãæèæ õóâü áàãàññàí áàéíà. Îäîîãèéí áàéäëààðñýðãýýãäýõ ýð÷èì õ¿÷, ñ¿ëæýýãýýð äàìæäàã ÿëãàðóóëæ áóé í¿¿ðñ õ¿÷ëèéí äàâõàðýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé ò¿âøèíä õ¿ð÷ çàõ çýýëä èñýë 945 ñàÿ òîíí ÑÎ2 (ÑÎ2 àäèëòãàõ)-ä e Journal USA 49 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • When could Germany supply all power proliferation risks and security policy priceneeds from renewable sources? A federally of nuclear technologies.funded research and demonstration projectlinks variable wind and solar power plantswith biogas-to-power plants, hydropower, andpump storage to form a virtual “combined Doing Well by Doing Good:renewable power plant” (kombikraftwerk.de). Exporting SolutionsThirty-six plants linked throughout Germanyproved able to follow the load curve on the Germany did not wait for other nationsgrid and supply a fixed proportion of power to bear the brunt of climate change anddemand through the year. Assessments of copy solutions others had found. Instead,the renewable power and industrial scale-up Germany has developed domestic policiespotentials indicate that a full conversion to and worked with its partners in the E.U.renewable power could be attained by 2050. to formulate continentwide responses toThis transformation would be completed the challenges of climate change. Germanyeven earlier by using smart-grid technology, engages with energy exporters, such asdemand response, load-variable power use, Russia, and many others to diversify itsfeed-in tariffs, and battery storage in electric sources of energy, improve energy securityautomobiles; the German government wants and understanding of the need to mitigateto see 1 million electric cars on its roads greenhouse gas emissions, prepare for theby 2020. The concomitant phase-out of coal impact of unavoidable climate change, andand nuclear power makes the transformation move toward sustainable and equitableattractive in view of climate change and the societies.õ¿ðñýí áºãººä Êèîòîãèéí Ïðîòîêîëûí öàõèëãààíààð àæèëëàäàã àâòîìàøèíóóäûíçîðèëòîò õîíãèë, 2008-2012 îíä ÿëãàðóóëàõ àêêóìëÿòîðûí áàãòààìæèéã íýìýãä¿¿ëýõõèéí õýìæýýã 1990 îíûõîîñ 21 õóâü òîõèîëäîëä ýíýõ¿¿ øèëæèëòèéã ò¿¿íýýñ ÷áóóðóóëàõûã ÕÁÍÃÓ-ä çºâøººðñºí. ºìíº õèéõ áîëîìæòîé. ÕÁÍÃÓ-ûí ÇàñãèéíÕÁÍÃÓ-ûí 2008 îíä ÿëãàðóóëñàí õèéí ãàçàð 2020 îí ãýõýä çàì äýýðõ öàõèëãààíõýìæýý 1990 îíû ò¿âøèíãýýñ 23.3 õóâü àâòîìàøèíû òîîã íýã ñàÿä õ¿ðãýõýýðáóóðñàí íü òóñ óëñ òàâüñàí çîðèëòîî õàíãàí ÷àðìàéæ áàéíà. Í¿¿ðñ áîëîí öºìèéíáèåë¿¿ëíý ãýäýã èòãýëèéã òºð¿¿ëæ áàéíà. ýð÷èì õ¿÷ ààæìààð áàãàñ÷ óóð àìüñãàëûí ÕÁÍÃÓ õýðýãöýýò á¿õ ýð÷èì õ¿÷ýý õýäèéä ººð÷ëºëò, ¿é îëíîîð õºíººã÷ çýâñýã òàðõàõñýðãýýãäýõ ýõ ¿¿ñâýðýýñ ãàðãàí àâàõ âý? ýðñäýë, àþóëã¿é áàéäëûã õàíãàõ áîäëîãîäÕîëáîîíû çàñãèéí ãàçðààñ ñàíõ¿¿æèãääýã öºìèéí òåõíèê òåõíîëîãèéí ó÷ðóóëàõñóäàëãàà òóðøèëòûí òºñºë íü ñàëõè, íºëººã áîäîõîä ýíýõ¿¿ øèëæèëò óëàìíàðíû ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé ¿éëäâýð¿¿äèéã ñîíèðõîëòîé áîëíî.áèîõèéíýýñ ýð÷èì õ¿÷ ãàðãàõ, óñíû ýð÷èìõ¿÷, ñýðãýýãäýõ ýð÷èì õ¿÷òýé õîñëîñîí¿éëäâýð, ÕÁÍÃÓ äàÿàð õîëáîãäñîí 36 Ñàéí õèéñíýýð ñàéíûã á¿òýýõ:¿éëäâýð íü ñ¿ëæýýíèé à÷ààëëûã õàðãàëçàíæèëèéí òóðøèä öàõèëãààí ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé Øèéäëèéã ýêñïîðòëîõ íüýðýëòèéí òîãòìîë õóâü õýìæýýã íèéë¿¿ëýõáîëîìæòîéã õàðóóëñàí. ÕÁÍÃÓ óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí õ¿íä õ¿÷ðèéã áóñàä óëñ ¿íäýñòýí ýäýëæ, Ñýðãýýãäýõ ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé ¿íýëãýý, òýäíèé íýýæ îëñîí øèéäëèéã õóóëáàðëàõ¿éëäâýðèéí õ¿÷èí ÷àäàëä õèéñýí ãýæ õ¿ëýýæ èðñýíã¿é. Õàðèí ÷ ¿íäýñíèé¿íýëãýýíýýñ õàðàõàä 2050 îí ãýõýä áîäëîãîî áîëîâñðóóëæ, óóð àìüñãàëûíá¿õýëäýý ñýðãýýãäýõ ýð÷èì õ¿÷èíä øèëæèõ ººð÷ëºëòºä íèéò Åâðîï òèâèéí õýìæýýãýýðáîëîìæòîé. Óõààëàã ñ¿ëæýý òåõíîëîãè, õàðèó àðãà õýìæýý àâ÷ õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõèéííèéë¿¿ëýëòèéã ýðýëòýä íèéö¿¿ëýõ, ýð÷èì òóëä Åâðîïûí Õîëáîîíû ò¿íø¿¿äòýéãýýõ¿÷íèé à÷ààëëûã õóâààðèëàí õýðýãëýõ, õàìòðàí àæèëëàñàí áèëýý. Òóñ óëñ ýð÷èìöàõèëãààí ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé ¿éëäâýðëýë õ¿÷íèéõýý ýõ ¿¿ñâýðèéã ºðãºæ¿¿ëýõ,íèéë¿¿ëýëòèéã óðàìøóóëñàí òàðèô, e Journal USA 50 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • Examples of this approach include German cooperation for efficient carbon markets. leadership in setting up the International The Transatlantic Climate Bridge establishes Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) bilateral links with the United States and and the International Carbon Action Canada. A significant share of German Partnership (ICAP), promoting international cooperation with developing countries and emerging economies is directed at climate solutions and access to sustainable energy Germany has invested heavily in renewable energy research supplies. and development. A scientist at RWE Energy Company in This proactive attitude is not new. It can Bergheim, Germany, tests algae grown in a pilot project for carbon dioxide reduction for coal power plants. be traced to the beginnings of the E.U. in the 1950s and, more specifically, to the oil crises in the 1970s and early 1980s. Since© AP Images/Roberto Pfeil the establishment of a full-fledged federal ministry of environment in 1986, German policies on environment, climate, and energy were marked by continuity and consistency across party lines and through changes in government. In setting effective policies at home, developing new technologies and services, letting them mature in the domestic and European markets, and selling them to other nations, Germany has created and ÕÁÍÃÓ Ñýðãýýãäýõ ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé îëîí óëñûí àãåíòëàã (IRENA), Í¿¿ðñ õ¿÷ëèéí îëîí óëñûí ò¿íøëýë (ICAP) áàéãóóëàõ ¿éë ÿâöûã õîøóó÷èëæ, í¿¿ðñ õ¿÷ëèéí íºëºº á¿õèé çàõ çýýëèéã áèé áîëãîõ îëîí óëñûí õàìòûí àæèëëàãààã õºõè¿ëýí äýìæèæ áàéãààãààñ ýíýõ¿¿ õàíäëàãûã òîä õàðæ áîëíî. Àíòëàíòûí äàëàéã äàìíàñàí Óóð àìüñãàëûí àñóóäëààðõ ã¿¿ð íü ÀÍÓ áîëîí Êàíàä óëñòàé õî¸ð òàëûí õýëõýý õîëáîîã ýõë¿¿ëýâ. ÕÁÍÃÓ- ààñ õºãæèæ áàéãàà áîëîí øèíý òóòàì õºãæèæ áàéãàà óëñóóäòàé ºðí¿¿ëäýã õàìòûí àæèëëàãààíû íýëýýä õýñýã íü Ýðäýìòýä ÕÁÍÃÓ-ûí Áýðãõýéì äàõü í¿¿ðñýíä ò¿øèãëýäýã óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéã øèéäâýðëýõ, ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé ñòàíöóóäàä í¿¿ðñ õ¿÷ëèéí äàâõàð èñëèéã áàãàñãàõ òóðøèëò òºñëèéí õ¿ðýýíä áè÷èë áèåò ¿ðæ¿¿ëæ ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé òîãòâîðòîé íèéë¿¿ëýëòèéã áàéíà . áèé áîëãîõîä ÷èãëýäýã áèëýý. Ýíýõ¿¿ èäýâõòýé õàíäëàãà áîë øèíý ç¿éë áèø áºãººä 1950-ààä îíä Åâðîïûí Õîëáîî á¿ðýëäýí áèé áîëæ áàéõ ¿åýñ, òîäðóóëæ ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé àþóëã¿é áàéäëûã õàíãàõ, õýëáýë 1970, 1980-ààä îíû ãàçðûí òîñíû õ¿ëýìæèéí õèéí áóóðóóëàõ õýðýãöýý õÿìðàëûí òýðòýýõ îí æèë¿¿äýýñ ýõýëñýí øààðäëàãûã îéëãîõ, óóð àìüñãàëûí áèëýý. Õîëáîîíû çàñãèéí ãàçàðò áàéãàëü ººð÷ëºëòèéí çàéëøã¿é ¿ð äàãàâàðò áýëýí îð÷íû àñóóäëûã ýðõýëñýí áèå äààñàí ÿàì áàéõ, òîãòâîðòîé, òýãø ýðõòýé íèéãýì áàéãóóëàãäñàí 1986 îíîîñ õîéø çàñãèéí ººä óðàãøëàõ äýâøèõèéí òºëºº ýð÷èì ãàçðóóä ñîëèãäñîí áîëîâ÷ òóñ óëñûí õ¿÷ ýêñïîðòëîã÷ ÎÕÓ áîëîí áóñàä îëîí áàéãàëü îð÷èí, óóð àìüñãàë, ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé îðîíòîé àæèëëàæ áàéíà. áîäëîãî íü àëü ÷ íàìûí ¿åä áàéíãûí áºãººä òóóøòàé ÷àíàðàà õàäãàëæ èðñýí. e Journal USA 51 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • secured businesses and jobs and providedsolutions for others to adapt and adopt. For more information, see www.ecologic.eu<http:// www. ecologic.eu>; www.ecologic-institute.us.The opinions expressed in this article do not necessarilyreflect the views or policies of the U.S. government.¯íäýñíèé õýìæýýíä áîäèò íºëºº á¿õèéáîäëîãî ÿâóóëæ, øèíý òåõíèê òåõíîëîãè,¿éë÷èëãýýã áîëîâñðóóëæ, òýäãýýðèé㺺ðèéí îðíû áîëîí Åâðîïûí óëñóóäûí çàõçýýëä áýõæ¿¿ëæ, áóñàä îðîíä õóäàëäñàíààðÕÁÍÃÓ áàòòàé áèçíåñ, àæëûí áàéðóóäûãáèé áîëãîæ, õ¿ëýýí àâàõ, íýâòð¿¿ëýõøèéäë¿¿äèéã áóñäàä íèéë¿¿ëæ èðñýíáèëýý. www.ecologic.eu<http:// www. ecologic.eu>;www.ecologic-institute.us. – ýýñ äýëãýðýíã¿éìýäýýëëèéã ¿çíý ¿¿.Ýíý ºã¿¿ëýëä èëýðõèéëñýí ¿çýë áîäîë ÀÍÓ-ûí çàñãèéíãàçðûí áàéð ñóóðü áóþó áîäëîãûí òóñãàë áàéõ àëáàã¿é. e Journal USA 52 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • Critical Issues: A n International Tour India India’s Global Position on Climate Change R. K. PachauriRajendra K. Pachauri is chairman of the inundation by water from sea level rise andIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change increasingly severe storms. There is evidence(IPCC) and director-general of the Energy of melt in Himalayan glaciers, water& Resources Institute (TERI) in New Delhi, resources for much of Asia. Pachauri outlinesIndia. He accepted the 2007 Nobel Peace some of the problems and the measures takenPrize, shared with former U.S. Vice President to minimize the damage.Al Gore, on behalf of the IPCC for raisingawareness of and posing solutions for the Tproblems of global warming. he subject of climate change is receiving considerable attention andIndia has serious concerns because it already eliciting widespread interest in India,experiences the impact of climate change in particularly since the visit of Secretary oflow-lying areas, which are more vulnerable to State Hillary Clinton in July 2009. IndiaÍîöòîé àñóóäëóóä: Îëîí óëñûí àÿëàë Ýíýòõýã Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëààðõ Ýíýòõýãèéí áàéð ñóóðü Ð.Ê.Ïà÷óðèÓóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëààðõ ò¿ãøäýã áèëýý. Àçèéí èõýíõ íóòãèéíÇàñãèéí ãàçàð õîîðîíäûí õýñýã óñíû óíäðàã áîëäîã Ãèìàëàéí îðãèëûí(ÓÀªÇÃÕÕ)-èéí äàðãà, Ýíýòõýãèéí ìºñºí ãîëóóä ãýñ÷ áàéãàà íü íîòëîãäñîí.íèéñëýë Øèíý Äåëè äýõ Ýð÷èì õ¿÷, Ïà÷óðè ó÷èð÷ áàéãàà áýðõøýýë¿¿äèéãíººöèéí õ¿ðýýëýíãèéí Åðºíõèé çàõèðàë áîëîí àþóëûã áàãàñãàõ ÷èãëýëýýð àâàõ àðãàÐàæåíäðà Ê.Ïà÷óðè äýëõèéí äóëààðëûí õýìæýýí¿¿äèéã òîäîðõîéëñîí áàéíà.àñóóäëààðõ îéëãîëòûã äýýøë¿¿ëæ,øèéäëèéã äýâø¿¿ëýí òàâüñíû ó÷èð ÒÓÀªÇÃÕÕ-èéã òºëººëºí ÀÍÓ-ûí Äýä ºðèéí íàðèéí áè÷ãèéí äàðãà Õèëëàðèåðºíõèéëºã÷ àñàí À.Ãîðèéí õàìò Íîáåëèéí Êëèíòîí 2009 îíû 7 äóãààð ñàðäøàãíàëûã õ¿ëýýí àâñàí. Ýíýòõýãò àéë÷èëñíààñ õîéø óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëò íýëýýä õýìæýýãýýðÄàëàéí óñíû ò¿âøèíã äýýøèëæ, óëàì àíõààðàë òàòàæ, ¿ëýìæõýí ñîíèðõîëá¿ð õ¿÷òýé áîëæ áóé õàð ñàëõèíóóäûí òºð¿¿ëäýã ñýäýâ áîëîîä áàéíà. Ýíýòõýã óëñóëìààñ ¿åðò íýí ºðòºìòãèé áîëîîä áàéãàà Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëààðõíàì äîð ãàçðóóäààðàà óóð àìüñãàëûí Íýãäñýí ¯íäýñòíèé Áàéãóóëëàãûíººð÷ëºëòèéí óðøãèéã õýäèéí ìýäýð÷ Åðºíõèé õ¿ðýýíèé êîíâåíöèéã 1992 îíäýõýëñýí ó÷èð Ýíýòõýã óëñ èõýä ñýòãýë áàéãóóëàãäàõààñ ºìíº ò¿¿íèé õýëýëöýæ e Journal USA 53 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • has been quite active on multilateral issues vulnerable to its impacts. With a coastline related to climate change, going back, of 7,600 kilometers, for instance, it has to in fact, to the period when the United be worried about sea level rise. Some parts Nations Framework Convention on Climate of the country, such as the Sundarbans Change (UNFCCC) was being negotiated across the Hooghly delta and the low-lying prior to its completion in 1992. India has coastal area of Kutch on the western side, been reiterating the principle of “common are particularly vulnerable to sea level rise, but differentiated responsibility,” and its because even with a small increase in sea position as a country is often misunderstood level, large parts of these locations would on this account. be threatened with major damage and Indians are concerned about climate change destruction and with complete inundation, because ours is a country that is particularly resulting from storm surges and cyclonic activity. In the Sundarbans, in particular, some islands have already disappeared and others are under similar threat. Chairman Rajendra K. Pachauri and former U.S. Vice President Al Gore greet the public after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize jointly awarded to the IPCC and Gore for their work on climate change, December 2007.© AP Images/Odd Andersen Indians are concerned about climate change because ours is a country that is particularly vulnerable to its serious and diverse impacts. Ýíýòõýã÷¿¿ä óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòºä ñýòãýë ò¿ãøäýã ó÷èð ò¿¿íèé íîöòîé áºãººä îëîí ÿíçûí ¿ð äàãàâàð ìàíàé óëñàä íýí ýìçýã íºëººëäºã. Äàðãà, ÀÍÓ-ûí Äýä åðºíõèéëºã÷ àñàí À.Ãîðè íàð óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí ÷èãëýëýýð àæèëëàñíû íü òºëºº Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëààðõ Çàñãèéí ãàçàð õîîðîíäûí õýñýãò áîëîí À.Ãîðèä õàìòàä íü îëãîñîí ñýòãýë ò¿ãøèõýä õ¿ðäýã. Äàëàéí óñíû Íîáåëèéí øàãíàëûã 2007 îíû 12 äóãààð ñàðä õ¿ëýýí àâñíû ò¿âøèí ÿëèìã¿é äýýøëýõýä ¿ëýìæ äàðàà îëîí íèéòýä ìýíä÷èëæ áàéãàà íü. õýìæýýíèé ãàçàðò èõýýõýí õîõèðîë, ñ¿éòãýë ó÷èð÷, õàð ñàëõè, äàëàéí øóóðãàíû óëìààñ á¿õýëäýý ¿åðò àâòàõ àþóë áàéõ ¿åýñ ýõëýí óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòòýé í¿¿ðëýäýã ó÷èð òóñ îðíû çàðèì õýñýã, õîëáîîòîé îëîí òàëò àñóóäëóóäààð èäýâõòýé ÿëàíãóÿà íóòãèéí áàðóóí ç¿ãò Õóóãëèéí àæèëëàæ èðñýí. “Á¿õ íèéòýýð, ãýõäýý ñàâ ãàçàðò îðøäîã Ñóíäàðáàíñ çýðýã õàðèëöàí àäèëã¿é õàðèóöëàãà õ¿ëýýõ” Êóò÷èéí ýðýã îð÷ìûí íàì äîð ãàçàð äàëàéí çàð÷ìûã áàðèìòëàõàà Ýíýòõýã óëñ óäàà óñíû ò¿âøèí äýýøëýõýä òóí ýìçýã áîëäîã äàðàà èëýðõèéëñýí áºãººä òóñ óëñûí áèëýý. Ñóíäàðáàíñä çàðèì àðàë õýäèéí ¿ã¿é ýíýõ¿¿ áàéð ñóóðü öàã ¿ðãýëæ òàøàà áîëñîí áºãººä áóñäàä íü ìºí ë òèéì àþóë îéëãîãäîæ èðñýí. ó÷ðààä áàéãàà þì. Ìàíàé óëñ óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòºä Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëò Ýíýòõýãò íîöòîé íýí ýìçýã ó÷èð ýíýòõýã÷¿¿ä ýíý àñóóäàëä áºãººä îëîí òàëààð íºëººëæ áàéíà. Òóñ èõýýõýí àíõààðàë õàíäóóëäàã. Æèøýý íü, óëñûí íóòàã äýâñãýðèéí çàðèì õýñýãò íèéò 7600 êèëîìåðò óðò óñàí õèëòýé óëñ óíàäàã õóð òóíäàñíû áàéäàë ººð÷ëºãäñºí áîëîõîîð äàëàéí óñíû ò¿âøèí äýýøëýõýä íü íýãýíò íîòëîãäñîí. Ýíýòõýãèéí çàðèì e Journal USA 54 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • The impacts of climate change on India to the increase in frequency, intensity, would be diverse and serious. There is and duration of floods, droughts, and heat already evidence in some parts of the waves. Human health will be affected by country of changes in precipitation patterns. climate change, not only on account of these While some parts of India show a perceptible occurrences but also as a result of increased decline in rainfall and there is reduced snow vector-borne diseases. Another area of deep in the Himalayas, a major concern also arises concern to Indian society stems from the from projected increases in the frequency impacts of climate change on agriculture. and intensity of extreme precipitation There is already growing evidence, on the events. These are not only likely to pose a basis of ongoing research, that some crop major danger to those who would be affected yields are declining on account of climate directly, but they could also affect the change. This trend will, of course, grow livelihoods of hundreds of millions of small if global society is unable to mitigate the farmers, who are entirely dependent on emissions of greenhouse gases adequately. rain-fed agriculture. India is also vulnerable India has a remarkably good record of© AP Images/Biswaranjan Rout Extreme weather events — severe storms, floods, and, drought — increasingly plague the Indian subcontinent. A villager crosses a parched landscape near Bhubaneswar during a widespread 2009 heat wave. 2009 îíû öî÷èð èõ õàëóóíä Áóáíýøâàð îð÷ìûí õàòàæ õóóðàéøñàí ãàçàð ýíý çóðàã äýýð õàðàãäàæ áóé øèã ýðñ òýðñ öàã àãààð Ýíýòõýãèéí ñàëáàð òèâ óëàì á¿ð íýðâýõ áîëîâ. õýñýãò õóð áîðîî áàãàñ÷, Ãèìëàéä öàñ óíàõ áèëýý. Õèéãäýæ áóé ñóäàëãààíû ä¿íãýýñ íü òàòàðñàí áàéõàä õýò èõýýð óíàäàã õóð ¿çýõýä óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòººñ ¿¿äýí òóíäàñíû äàâòàìæ, õ¿÷ íýìýãäñýí ÿâäàë çàðèì òºðëèéí ¿ð òàðèàíû óðãàö ìóóäàæ ÷ ñýòãýë èõýýýõýí ò¿ãøýýæ áàéíà. Ýíý áàéãàà òàëààðõ íîòîëãîî óëàì á¿ð îëøèð÷ á¿õýí íü øóóä ºðòñºí õ¿ì¿¿ñò èõýýõýí áàéíà. Õ¿í òºðºëõòºí õ¿ëýìæèéí õèéã àþóë ó÷ðóóëààä çîãñîõã¿é, õóð áîðîîíä çîõèñòîé áàéäëààð áàãàñãàæ ýñ ÷àäâàë ýíý ò¿øèãëýí ãàçàð òàðèàëàí ýðõýëäýã îëîí õàíäëàãà öààøèä óëàì ãàçàð àâàõ áîëíî. çóóí ñàÿ æèæèã àæ àõóé ýðõëýã÷äèéã Ýíýòõýã óëñ “íîãîîí õóâüñãàë” õèéñíýýð íýðâýõ áîëíî. ¯åð, ãàí, îãöîì íýìýãääýã õºäºº àæ àõóéãàà ãàéõàìøèãòàé õºãæ¿¿ëæ õýò õàëàõ ¿çýãäëèéí äàâòàìæ, õ¿÷, ÷àäñàí áîëîâ÷ óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëò ¿ðãýëæëýõ õóãàöàà íü Ýíýòõýã óëñàä øèíý ñîðèëòûã áèé áîëãîæ áàéíà. պ人 ìºí ýìçýã íºëººëäºã. Äóðäñàí ¿çýãäë¿¿ä àæ àõóéí ñàëáàðûí áîäëîãûí íýã ¿íäñýí òºäèéã¿é, øàâüæ, àìüòàí, õ¿íýýñ çîðèëò íü ºíººäºð 1.2 òýðáóì, îéðûí 10- õ¿íä äàìæäàã õàëäâàðò ºâ÷í¿¿äèéã 20 æèëä ¿¿íýýñ ÷ îëîí áîëîõ õ¿í àìûã äààìæðóóëäàã óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëò õàíãàëòòàé õýìæýýíèé õ¿íñ òýæýýëýýð íü íèéãìèéí ýð¿¿ë ìýíäýä ñºðºã íºëºº õàíãàõàä îðøèíî. Òèéì ó÷ðààñ õ¿íñíèé ¿ç¿¿ëäýã. Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí àþóëã¿é áàéäëûã òóñ óëñ íýí òýðã¿¿íä õºäºº àæ àõóéä ó÷ðóóëäàã õîð óðøèã àíõààðäàã áèëýý. ýíýòõýãèéí íèéãìèéã èõýä ò¿ãøýýäýã e Journal USA 55 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • agricultural progress, mainly as a result of areas.the green revolution, but climate change In terms of cooperative relationshipsposes a new challenge. The major objective of that India is trying to establish, thepolicy in the agricultural sector is to ensure most promising would be in the field ofadequate food and nutrition for 1.2 billion joint technology development. However,people today and a larger number in the next India’s position is that in keeping withdecade or two. Food security is, therefore, a the provisions and intent of the UNFCCC,major concern in this country. finances should be provided for facilitating India’s response to the challenge of climate transfer of clean technologies, which inchange can perhaps best be described by several cases would be far more expensivereferring to the National Action Plan on than conventional systems but wouldClimate Change (NAPCC), which actually have lower levels of emissions and energyconsists of eight separate missions involving intensity. But the particular activity thatboth mitigation and adaptation measures. would have great interest, not only for theAs far as mitigation is concerned, the Solar Indian government but also for business asEnergy Mission, which has set a goal of well as academic and research organizations20,000 megawatts of solar capacity being in India, would be the possibility ofinstalled by 2020, is clearly the most collaborative research projects betweenambitious and progressive plan that could organizations in the United States and India.have been drawn up in this field. The It is envisaged that with the substantiallyimpacts of climate change would, of course, lower cost of scientific and technicalseriously affect agriculture and availability manpower in India, even American businessof water, and the NAPCC will target will find such an approach beneficial. Ofadequate adaptation measures in both these course, intellectual property issues would Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí ýñðýã òýìöýõ öýâýð òåõíîëîãè äàìæóóëàõ ÿâäëûãòàëààð Ýíýòõýã óëñûí ÿâóóëæ áàéãàà õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõýä ñàíõ¿¿æèëò õóâààðèëàõ¿éë àæèëëàãààã àþóëûã áóóðóóëàõ, äàñàí àæ. Òýð÷ëýí, Ýíýòõýãèéí çàñãèéí ãàçàðòçîõèöîõ àðãà õýìæýýí¿¿äèéã áàãòààñàí òºäèéã¿é áèçíåñèéí áîëîí øèíæèëãýýáèåý äààñàí íàéìàí çîðèëò á¿õèé Óóð ñóäàëãààíû áàéãóóëëàãóóäûí õ¿ðýýíäàìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí òàëààð ¯íäýñíèé èõýýõýí àíõààðàë òàòàõ ¿éë àæèëëàãààòºëºâëºãººíººñ õàðæ áîëíî. Àþóëûã áîë ÀÍÓ áîëîí Ýíýòõýãèéí ñóäàëãààíûáóóðóóëàõûí òóõàéä 2020 îí ãýõýä 20 áàéãóóëëàãóóäûí õîîðîíä ýðäýììÿíãàí ìåãàâàò ýð÷èì õ¿÷ ¿éëäâýðëýõ øèíæèëãýýíèé àæëóóäûã õàìòðàí õèéæíàðíû ¿¿ñã¿¿ðèéã ñóóðèëóóëàõ Íàðíû ã¿éöýòãýõýä îðøèíî. Ýíýòõýãèéí ýðäýìýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé ýðõýì çîðèëãî áîë ýíý ñóäëàëûí áîëîí òåõíèêèéí àæèëòíóóäûíñàëáàðò äýâø¿¿ëñýí, õàìãèéí øàõóó ¿ëýìæ õÿìä íººö íü Àìåðèêèéíáºãººä äýâøèëòýò õºòºëáºð þì. Óóð áèçíåñèéíõíèé ñîíèðõëûã òàòíà ãýæàìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëò õºäºº àæ àõóéä ¿çýæ áàéíà. Ýíý ìýò àæèëëàãààíûíîöòîé íºëºº ¿ç¿¿ëæ, óñíû õîìñäîë îþóíû ºì÷èéí àñóóäëûã øèéäâýðëýõ¿¿ñãýõ áîëîõîîð ¯íäýñíèé õºòºëáºð ýäãýýð çàéëøã¿é øààðäëàãà áèé áîëîâ÷ òóñ÷èãëýëä õàíãàëòòàé äàñàí çîõèöîõ àðãà õî¸ð óëñ õî¸óëàà Äýëõèéí Õóäàëäààíûõýìæýýí¿¿äèéã ìºí òóñãàñàí áàéíà. Áàéãóóëëàãûí ãèø¿¿í áîëîõîîð íîöòîé Ýíýòõýã óëñûí áèé áîëãîõîîð ÷àðìàéæ áýðõøýýë ¿¿ñýõ ó÷èðã¿é þì.áóé õàìòûí àæèëëàãààíû õàðèëöààíûõóâüä òåõíîëîãèéã õàìòðàí áîëîâñðóóëàõ Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí ýñðýã òýìöýõ÷èãëýëä èõýýõýí íàéäâàð òàâüæ áàéíà. ÀÍÓ, Ýíýòõýãèéí ñòðàòåãèéí õàðèëöàà Ýíýòõýã óëñ Íýãäñýí ¯íäýñòíèé áóñàä õºãæèæ áàéãàà áîëîí õºãæèíã¿éÁàéãóóëëàãûí Åðºíõèé õ¿ðýýíèé óëñóóäàä èæèë òºñòýé áàéäëààð õàìòðàíêîíâåíöèéí çîðèëãî, ç¿éë çààëòóóäûã àæèëëàõ ¿ëãýð äóóðàéëëûã ¿ç¿¿ëýõ òóëáàðèìòëàõûí ñàöóó îëîí òîõèîëäîëä äóðäñàí õî¸ð óëñàä òºäèéã¿é, äýëõèéíæèðèéí òåõíîëîãèîñ ºíäºð ºðòºãòýé äàõèíä à÷ õîëáîãäîëòîé áàéõ áîëíî.áîëîâ÷ õ¿ëýìæèéã õèé ÿëãàðóóëàõ, ýð÷èì Ýíýòõýã óëñ èæèë òºñòýé ñîðèëòóóäòàéõ¿÷ õýðýãëýõ òàëààðàà èë¿¿ õýìíýëòòýé òóëãàð÷ áàéãàà ªìíºä Àçèéí Á¿ñèéí e Journal USA 56 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • need to be clearly resolved in such activities, involving organizations based in the E.U.but since both countries are signatories to and those in “third countries,” such as India.the World Trade Organization, this should not present a serious problem. Overall, a strategic relationship betweenthe United States and India to deal with The opinions expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. government.the challenge of climate change would havebenefits not only for the two countriesthemselves but for the world as well byproviding a model for similar arrangementsbetween other developed and developingcountries. India is also trying to promotecollaborative ventures with the membernations of the South Asian Association forRegional Cooperation, since they face similarchallenges, as well as with the EuropeanUnion (E.U.), which has a major programfor funding technological developmentsÕàìòûí àæèëëàãààíû ãèø¿¿í óëñóóäáîëîí Åâðîïûí Õîëáîîíû óëñóóäûíáàéãóóëëàãóóäûã õàìàðñàí òåõíèêòåõíîëîãè áîëîâñðóóëàõ àæèëëàãààãñàíõ¿¿æ¿¿ëäýã òîìõîí õºòºëáºð¿¿ä á¿õèéÅâðîïûí Õîëáîîòîé Ýíýòõýã ìýòèéí“ãóðàâäàõü åðòºíö”-èéí áîëîí ÅâðîïûíÕîëáîîíû óëñóóä äàõü áàéãóóëëàãóóäûãõàìàðñàí õàìòûí àæèëëàãàà õºãæ¿¿ëýõèéã÷àðìàéæ áàéíà. Ýíý ºã¿¿ëýëä èëýðõèéëñýí ¿çýë áîäîë ÀÍÓ-ûí çàñãèéíãàçðûí áàéð ñóóðü áóþó áîäëîãûí òóñãàë áàéõ àëáàã¿é. e Journal USA 57 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • Critical Issues: A n International Tour Indonesia Reducing Poverty While Cutting Carbon Emissions Harry SurjadiHarry Surjadi, founder and executive will be most keenly felt by the poor, asdirector of the Society of Indonesian extreme weather upsets agriculture andEnvironmental Journalists, has reported drives up food prices. Staving off poverty is aon environmental issues for two decades. A critical component of climate change policies,graduate of Bogor Agricultural University, he Surjadi writes.has written for magazines and newspapers,and he now maintains an environment Hblog on the Internet. He was a Knight ow many Indonesians have ever readInternational Journalism Fellow and or heard about the issue of globalhas given workshops to journalists and warming and climate change? Studiesnongovernmental organizations in Indonesia. have shown that climate change awareness is increasing, but this is largely among theIn Indonesia, the impacts of climate change educated.Íîöòîé àñóóäëóóä: Îëîí óëñûí àÿëàë Èíäîíåçè Í¿¿ðñòºðºã÷èéí õèéã áàãàñãàõûí õàìò ÿäóóðëûã áóóðóóëàõ íü Õàððè ÑóðæàäèÁàéãàëü îð÷íû ñýäâýýð ìýðãýøñýí ìýäðýãääýã. Òèéìýýñ óóð àìüñãàëûíÈíäîíåçèéí ñýòã¿¿ë÷äèéí íèéãýìëýãèéã ººð÷ëºëòèéí ýñðýã áîäëîãûí ¿íäñýí õýñýã¿íäýñëýã÷ áºãººä ÿéöýòãýõ çàõèðàë Õàððè íü ÿäóóðëûã áóóðóóëàõàä ÷èãëýõ ¸ñòîéÑóðæàäè áàéãàëü îð÷íû ñýäâýýð 20 ãàðóé õýìýýí Ñóðæàäè áè÷èæ áàéíà.æèë àæèëëàæ áàéãàà íýãýí. Áîãîðûí պ人àæ àõóéí Èõ ñóðãóóëèéã ä¿¿ðãýñýí òýðáýýð Äáàéãàëü îð÷íû ñýäâýýð ñîíèí ñýòã¿¿ë¿¿äýä ýëõèéí äóëààðàë, óóð àìüñãàëûíáàéíãà íèéòëýë áè÷èæ, èíòåðíýòýä ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëûã õè÷íýýíáëîã õºòºëäºã, Îëîí óëñûí ñýòã¿¿ë ç¿éí èíäîíåçè õ¿í óíøñàí ýñâýëºðãºìæëºëòýé, ñýòã¿¿ë÷èä, òºðèéí áóñ ñîíññîí áý? Ñóäàëãààíààñ ¿çýõýä óóðáàéãóóëëàãóóäàä çîðèóëàí ººðèéí îðîíä àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí òàëààðõ îéëãîëòñóðãàëòóóä çîõèîí áàéãóóëäàã. íýìýãäýæ áàéãàà áîëîâ÷ ýíý íü èõýâ÷ëýí áîëîâñðîëòîé õ¿ì¿¿ñèéã õàìàð÷ áàéíà.Èíäîíåçèä öàã àãààð îãöîì õóâüñàõàäõºäºº àæ àõóéí ¿éëäâýðëýëä ìóóãààð 2007 îíû 2 äóãààð ñàðä Èíäîíåçèéííºëººëæ, õ¿íñíèé á¿òýýãäýõ¿¿íèé ¿íèéã çóðãààí õîòîä ÿâàãäñàí Àêíèýëñîíºñãºäºã ó÷èð óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí Îìíèáóñûí ñóäàëãààíû ä¿íãýýñ ¿çýõýä óãóðøèã ÿäóó÷óóäàä õàìãèéí õ¿íäýýð ñóäàëãààíä õàìðàãäñàí 1700 õ¿íèé 70 e Journal USA 58 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • According to an ACNielsen Omnibus survey One year later, in March 2008, people in six Indonesian cities in February 2007, surveyed who were aware of climate change 70 percent of the 1,700 people surveyed said had increased 3 percent, and significantly they had not read or heard anything about more of them considered climate change very the issue of global warming. Only 28 percent serious. Mass media successfully educated said they had. The same study found that 50 these people that climate change is a serious percent of people surveyed attributed rapid threat to Indonesia. global warming to human activities like But have 43 million farmers, fishers, and driving cars and other uses of fossil fuels. local people who depend on forests read or Only 24 percent said the causes are natural heard about climate change? Have many changes in the climate, while 25 percent said of the 32.5 million Indonesians under the both nature and human activity were factors. poverty line ever read or heard about global About 76 percent considered climate change warming and climate change? Probably not. “fairly serious” or “very serious.” If they had, and were asked, “What are the most serious threats climate change presents to Indonesia?” their answers would beCourtesy of Harry Surjadi scarcity of basic necessities. Their greatest concern is greater poverty and the lack of food and water, whether this comes from climate change or other causes. Studies have shown global warming will likely increase the frequency and intensity of drought and floods in many areas. áàéíà. Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëò Èíäîíåçè óëñàä íîöòîé àþóë ó÷ðóóëæ áàéãàà òàëààð íèéòèéí õýâëýë ìýäýýëëèéí õýðýãñë¿¿ä òýäãýýð õ¿ì¿¿ñèéã àìæèëòòàé ãýãýýð¿¿ëæ áàéíà. Ãýâ÷ îéí áàÿëàãò ò¿øèãëýäýã 43 ñàÿ Harry Surjad òàðèà÷èí, çàãàñ÷èí, íóòãèéí îðøèí Õàððè Ñóðæàäè ñóóã÷èä óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí òàëààð óíøäàã, ñîíñäîã áîëîâ óó? Àìüæèðãààíû áàòàëãààæèõ ò¿âøèíãýýñ äîîãóóð íºõöºëä õóâü íü äýëõèéí äóëààðëûí àñóóäëààð àìü çóóæ áàéãàà Èíäîíåçèéí 35 ñàÿ ÿìàð íýãýí ç¿éë óíøààã¿é áóþó èðãýíèé ÷óõàì õýä íü äýëõèéí äóëààðàë, ñîíñîîã¿é, õàðèí äºíãºæ 28 õóâü íü óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí òóõàé óíøñàí, ñîíññîí ãýæ õàðèóëñàí áàéíà. Ñóäàëãààíä äóóëñàí áàéäàã áîë? Óíøààã¿é, ñîíñîîã¿é õàìðàãäñàí õ¿ì¿¿ñèéí 50 õóâü äýëõèéí áàéæ ìàãàäã¿é ë þì. îãöîì äóëààðëûã àâòîìàøèí æîëîîäîõ, Òýä õýðýâ ñîíññîí áàéãààä óóð àìüñãàëûí îðãàíèê ò¿ëø õýðýãëýõ çýðýã õ¿íèé ¿éë ººð÷ëºëòººñ Èíäîíåçèä õàìãèéí íîöòîé àæèëëàãààòàé õîëáîæ ¿çñýí áîë 25 õóâü ÿìàð àþóë ó÷èðàõ âý? ãýæ àñóóâàë ºðãºí íü áàéãàëèéí áîëîí õ¿íèé õ¿÷èí ç¿éëòýé õýðýãöýýò áàðààíû õîìñäëûã íýðëýõ áîëíî. õîëáîîòîé ãýæ ä¿ãíýñýí àæ. Õàðèí Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòòýé õàìààðàëòàé, ñóäàëãààíä îðîëöîãñäûí 76 õóâü íü óóð ýñâýë õàìààðàëã¿é ÷ áàéñàí óëàì á¿ð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéã “íîöòîé” áóþó ÿäóóðàõ, õîîë õ¿íñ, óíäíû óñ õîìñäîõîîñ “¿ëýìæ íîöòîé” ãýæ ä¿ãíýñýí áàéíà. òýä õàìãèéí èõýýð ñýòãýë ò¿ãøäýã áàéíà. Ò¿¿íýýñ õîéø íýã æèëèéí äàðàà 2008 Ñóäàëãààíààñ ¿çýõýä äýëõèéí äóëààðëààñ îíû 3 äóãààð ñàðä ÿâàãäñàí ñóäàëãààíä ¿¿äýí îëîí ãàçàðò ãàí, ¿åðèéí äàâòàìæ, óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéã ìýääýã ýð÷ íýìýãäýæ áàéãàà áîëîëòîé. 1973, 1983, õ¿ì¿¿ñèéí òîî 3 õóâèàð íýìýãäñýí 1997 îíä òîõèîñîí òîìõîí ãóðâàí Ýë Íèíîñ áºãººä òýäíèé íýëýýä íü óóð àìüñãàëûí (¿åð)-èéí óðøãààð Èíäîíåçèä õ¿÷òýé ãàí ººð÷ëºëòèéã “¿ëýìæ íîöòîé” ãýæ ä¿ãíýñýí áîëæ, òóòàðãûí îëîí çóóí òàëáàé óðãàö e Journal USA 59 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • Three major El Niños, in 1973, 1983, and poor people and worsen their poverty. 1997, caused severe drought in Indonesia. Meanwhile, Indonesia will continue to emit Hundreds of rice paddy fields have failed carbon dioxide (CO2). In 2005 Indonesia harvests due to drought. Hundreds of was already the world’s third-largest CO2 thousands of people living in more than 50 emitter, after the United States and China, villages across Central Java Regency now with emissions around 2.2 gigatons, or face a shortage of clean water as an ongoing billion tons, CO2 per annum. A study drought worsens. conducted by McKinsley and Company, Extreme weather affects agriculture and a consultant company for the Indonesian can raise prices for staple foods, such as rice, government’s Climate Change National important to poor households. Indonesians Council (CCNC), predicted that Indonesia’s who earn less than $2 a day will suffer first, greenhouse gas emissions would increase by and the number of poor people will increase. 2 percent annually. Poverty is Indonesia’s greatest concern, and climate change will increase the number of© AP Images/Achmad Ibrahim Trees smolder after a clearing fire in a Sumatran forest in Indonesia. Such clearings release massive amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, a major contributor to global warming. Èíäîíåçè óëñàä Ñóìàòðûí îéã öýâýðëýõýýð ãàäàí øàòààñíû äàðàà ìîäíóóä øàòàæ áàéíà. Ýíý ìýò öýâýðëýãýý í¿¿ðñ õ¿÷ëèéí äàâõàð èñëèéã àñàð èõ õýìæýýãýýð àãààðò ÿëãàðóóëæ, äýëõèéí äóëààðàëä õàìãèéí èõ õóâü íýìýð îðóóëäàã. àëäñàí Òºâ ßàâà Ðèæýíñèéí 50 ãàðóé îëîí òýðáóì òîííûã ÿëãàðóóëñààð áàéíà. òîñãîíû îëîí áóìàí îðøèí ñóóã÷ ãàíãèéí Èíäîíåçèéí çàñãèéí ãàçðûí óóð àìüñãàëûí óëìààñ óíäíû óñíû ãà÷ààëä îðñîí. ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëààðõ ¯íäýñíèé çºâëºëä Ýðñ òýðñ öàã óóð õºäºº àæ àõóéä çºâëºãºº ºãäºã “Ìêýíçè áà êîìïàíè”-èéí íºëººëæ, ÿäóó àìüäðàëòàé ýìçýã á¿ëãèéí õèéñýí ñóäàëãààãààð òóñ óëñûí ÿëãàðóóëäàã àéë ºðõ¿¿äýä àìèí ÷óõàë õýðýãöýýò öàãààí õ¿ëýìæèéí õèéí õýìæýý æèë òóòàì 2 áóäàà çýðýã õ¿íñíèé ãîë íýð òºðëèéí õóâèàð íýìýãäýæ áàéãàà àæ. á¿òýýãäýõ¿¿íèé ¿íý íýìýãäýâ. Õîíîãò 2 àì. Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëààðõ äîëëàð õ¿ðýõã¿é îðëîãîòîé èíäîíåçè÷¿¿ä ¯íäýñíèé çºâëºëèéí Åðºíõèé íàðèéí õàìãèéí ò¿ð¿¿íä íýðâýãäýæ, ÿäóóñûí òîî áè÷ãèéí äàðãà Àãóñ Ïóðíîìîãèéí ÷ ºñºâ. Èíäîíåçèéí õóâüä ÿäóóðàë áîë õýëñýíýýð, ÿëãàðóóëäàã í¿¿ðñ õ¿÷ëèéí õàìãèéí èõýýð ñýòãýë ò¿ãøýýäýã àñóóäàë äàâõàð èñëèéí õýìæýý îãöîì íýìýãäýæ, þì. Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëò ÿäóó÷óóäûí Èíäîíåçè óëñ õýðýâ ÿìàð íýãýí àðãà õýìæýý òîîã íýìýãä¿¿ëæ, ÿäóóðëûã äààìæðóóëäàã. àâàõã¿é áîë 2020 îíä 2.8 ãèãàòîí, 2030 îíä Èíäîíåçè í¿¿ðñ õ¿÷ëèéí äàâõàð èñëèéã 3.6 ãèãàòîíä õ¿ðíý. 2030 îíä ÿëãàðóóëàõ ÿëãàðóóëñàí õýâýýð áàéãàà áºãººä òóñ óëñ ýíýõ¿¿ õèéí 80 õóâü íü îéã ñ¿éòãýñýí, 2005 îíä í¿¿ðñ õ¿÷ëèéí äàâõàð èñëèéã ãàçðûí ãàäàðãóóãèéí íîãîîí á¿ðõ¿¿ëèéã ÿëãàðóóëäàã õýìæýýãýýðýý ÀÍÓ, ÁÍÕÀÓ- óñòãàñàíààñ áîëîí òýýâýð, öàõèëãààí ýð÷èì ûí äàðàà äýëõèéä ãóðàâäóãààð áàéð õ¿÷íèé ¿éëäâýð¿¿äýýñ ¿¿äýõ àæ. Æèë ýçýëæ, æèëýýñ æèëä 2.2 ãèãàòîí áóþó e Journal USA 60 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • According to CCNC Secretary General Agus It is clear that developed countries canPurnomo, in 2020 emissions were expected help Indonesia to mitigate climate change.to jump to 2.8 gigatons CO2 and then to The CCNC, based on the McKinsley study,3.6 gigatons by 2030, if Indonesia takes recommended bilateral cooperation withno action. The main sources of emissions developed countries on programs to halt— responsible for 80 percent of the total or reduce deforestation and encourageprojected 2030 emissions — are deforestation reforestation. The study estimated the costand peat land clearing, transportation, and to reduce emissions from the forestry sectorpower plants. The forestry sector contributes is about 7 euros (approximately $10 U.S.)about 850 million tons CO2e (carbon dioxide for every one ton of CO2 equivalent. Toequivalent) per year. The deforestation rate implement programs to reduce emissionsis around 1 million hectares per year, which about 1.1 billion tons of CO2 equivalent peremitted 562 million tons CO2e. Degraded year, Indonesia would need $10.8 billion offorest is responsible for 211 million funding.tons CO2e per year. And forest fires are But the government must takeresponsible for 77 million tons CO2e. responsibility and move more quickly. “It According to the McKinsley study, takes five years [for the government] toIndonesia could potentially reduce emissions change. In five years we need help from64 percent, or as much as 2.3 gigatons of outside world. The outside world shouldCO2, by 2030 through the adoption of 150 show the money. Money is the easiest policydifferent programs tool to get real andfocused on forestry, fast results,” saidpeat land, andagriculture sectors. If [ the poor] were asked, Purnomo in a recent interview. “What are the most serious threats climate change presents to Indonesia?” their answersá¿ð íýã ñàÿ îð÷èì would be scarcity of basic õàìòðàí àæèëëàõûããà îé óñòñàíààñ562 ñàÿ òîíí, îéí necessities, water and food. Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí÷àíàð äîðîéòñîíîîñ àñóóäëààðõ211 ñàÿ òîíí, îéí ¯íäýñíèé çºâëºëò¿éìðèéí óðøãààð Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòººñ Ìêýíçèéí77 ñàÿ òîíí í¿¿ðñ ñóäàëãààíä ¿íäýñëýíõ¿÷ëèéí äàâõàð èñýë Èíäîíåçèä õàìãèéí èõýýð çºâëºæ áàéíà. Îéíÿëãàð÷ áàéíà. ÿìàð àþóë çàíàëõèéëæ áàéíà ñàëáàðò íýã òîíí õ¿ëýìæèéí õèéã “Ìêýíçè áàêîìïàíè”–èéí âý ? õýìýýí ÿäóó÷óóäààñ áàãàñãàõ ºðòºãñóäàëãààãààð àñóóâàë óñ, õîîë õ¿íñ ãýõ îéðîëöîîãîîð 7 åâðî (10 îð÷èìÈíäîíåçè óëñººðèéí ÿëãàðóóëäàã ìýò íààä çàõûí õýðýãöýýò àì. äîëëàð) áîëîõí¿¿ðñ õ¿÷ëèéí ç¿éëñèéí õîìñäîë ãýæ òýä áºãººä í¿¿ðñ õ¿÷ëèéí äàâõàðäàâõàð èñëèéíõýìæýýã îéí ìîä, õàðèóëàõ áîëíî. èñëèéã æèë òóòàìõîã õàÿäàã ãàçðóóä, 1.1 òýðáóì òîííîîðõºäºº àæ àõóéä ò¿ëõ¿¿ àíõààðñàí 150 áóóðóóëàõàä òóñ óëñàä íèéò 10.8 òýðáóìõºòºëáºðèéã õýðýãæ¿¿ëñýíýýð 2030 îí ãýõýä àì. äîëëàðûí ñàíõ¿¿æèëò øààðäàãäàõ àæ.64 õóâü áóþó 2.3 ãèãà òîííîîð áóóðóóëàõ Õýäèé òèéì áîëîâ÷ çàñãèéí ãàçàðáîëîìæòîé þì áàéíà. õàðèóöëàãà õ¿ëýýæ, èë¿¿ øóóðõàé Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéã ñààðóóëàõàä àæèëëàõ øààðäëàãàòàé. ”ªºð÷ëºëòõºãæèíã¿é îðíóóä Èíäîíåçèä òóñàëæ ãàðãàõàä çàñãèéí ãàçàðò 5 æèë øààðäàãäàõ÷àäàõ íü òîäîðõîé. Îéã ñ¿éòãýäýã ÿâäëûã áºãººä ýíý õóãàöààíä áèäýíä ãàäààäûíòàñëàí çîãñîîõ áóþó áóóðóóëàõ, îéí òóñëàìæ äýìæëýã øààðäëàãàòàé. Ãàäààäíºõºí ñýðãýýëòèéã õºõè¿ëýí äýìæèõ åðòºíö áèäýíä ìºí㺠îëãîõ õýðýãòýé.õºòºëáºð¿¿äèéã õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõ ÷èãëýëä Áîäèò ¿ð ä¿íä ò¿ðãýí õ¿ðãýõ áîäëîãûíõºãæèíã¿é îðíóóäòàé õî¸ð òàëûí øóãàìààð õàìãèéí õÿëáàð õýðýãñýë áîë ìºí㺔 õýìýýí e Journal USA 61 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • The developed countries should make sureevery dollar or euro they invest addressesnot only climate change mitigation but alsosafeguards Indonesians against poverty.Reducing poverty is a main goal of allemissions reduction programs. “At the end of the day,” says Purnomo,“the government of Indonesia can only createan enabling environment.” The opinions expressed in this article do not necessarilyreflect the views or policies of the U.S. government.Ïóðíîìî ñàÿõàí ºãñºí íýãýí ÿðèëöëàãàäààäóðäñàí áèëýý. Õºãæèíã¿é îðíóóä îðóóëñàíõºðºíãèéíõºº àì.äîëëàð áóþó åâðî á¿ðèéãóóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéã áóóðóóëàõàäòºäèéã¿é èíäîíåçè÷óóäûã ÿäóóðëààñõàìãààëàõàä çîðèóëàõàä àíõààðàõ ¸ñòîé.ßäóóðëûã áóóðóóëàõ íü í¿¿ðñ õ¿÷ëèéíäàâõàð èñëèéã áóóðóóëàõ õºòºëáºð¿¿äèéí¿íäñýí çîðèëò áîëæ áàéíà. “Òààòàé îð÷íûã íýãýí öàãò Èíäîíåçèéíçàñãèéí ãàçàð á¿ðä¿¿ëýõ ë áîëíî” õýìýýíÏóðíîìî ºã¿¿ëæ áàéíà. Ýíý ºã¿¿ëýëä èëýðõèéëñýí ¿çýë áîäîë ÀÍÓ-ûí çàñãèéíãàçðûí áàéð ñóóðü áóþó áîäëîãûí òóñãàë áàéõ àëáàã¿é. e Journal USA 62 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • Critical Issues: A n International Tour Kenya Strategies to Counter Climate-Related Threats to Kenya’s Economy Richard Odingo LVice chair of the Nobel Prize-winning United ike many small African countries,Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Kenya is vulnerable to the impacts ofChange (IPCC), Richard Odingo is a Kenyan climate variability in the short termexpert on climate science. He is a professor and to climate change in the long term.in the Department of Geography at the Virtually all sectors of the Kenyan economyUniversity of Nairobi. are vulnerable to climate change. The energyIn Kenya, as in many other African sector is overreliant on hydropower for thecountries, economic survival depends on modern sector and biomass for the ruralvigorous action to address climate-linked sector. Agriculture and food productionenvironmental conditions, which range from are plagued by frequent, climate-linkedsevere drought to flooding. Odingo examines food insecurity crises, and the water sectorsome of the problems and suggests remedies. faces serious shortages in rural and urban areas. Early-warning systems are in place,Íîöòîé àñóóäëóóä: Îëîí óëñûí àÿëàë Êåíè Êåíèéí ýäèéí çàñàãò ¿ç¿¿ëæ áóé óóð àìüñãàëûí õîëáîãäîë á¿õèé àþóë çàíàëûã áàãàñãàõ ñòðàòåãè Ðè÷àðä Îäèíãî ÀÍîáåëèéí øàãíàëò Óóð àìüñãàëûí ôðèê òèâèéí îëîí îðíû íýãýí àäè뺺ð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëààðõ Çàñãèéí ãàçàð Êåíè óëñàä ýäèéí çàñãèéí õóâüäõîîðîíäûí õýñãèéí äýä äàðãà Ðè÷àðä îðøèí òîãòíîõ ýñýõ íü õ¿÷òýé ãàí,Îäèíãî óóð àìüñãàëûí ñóäàëãààãíû ¿åð ãýõ ìýò öàã óóðààñ ¿¿äýëòýé áàéãàëèéíÊåíèéí ìýðãýæèëòýí áºãººä Íàéðîáèéí íºõöºë áàéäëûã øèéäâýðëýõ ýð÷èìòýé ¿éëÈõ ñóðãóóëèéí Ãàçàð ç¿éí ñàëáàðûí àæèëëàãààíààñ õàìààðäàã. Îäèíãî ýäãýýðïðîôåññîð þì. íºõöºë áàéäëûí çàðèìûã øèíæèëæ, àâàõÀôðèêèéí îëîí îðíû íýãýí àäèë Êåíè àðãà õýìæýýã ñàíàë áîëãîæ áàéíà.óëñàä ýäèéí çàñãèéí õóâüä îðøèí ¿ëäýõ Àôðèê òèâèéí îëîí æèæèã óëñóóäûííü õàëóóí ãàíãààñ ýõëýýä ¿åð óñíû íýãýí àäèë àãøèí çóóðò õóâüñ÷ ººð÷ëºãääºãàþóë õ¿ðòýëõ óóð àìüñãàëòàé õîëáîîòîé öàã àãààðûí áîëîí àñàð óðò õóãàöààãáàéãàëü îð÷íû íºõöºë áàéäëóóäûã õàìàðäàã óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéíøèéäâýðëýõ òóóøòàé àæèëëàãààíààñ ¿ð äàãàâàð Êåíè óëñàä ýìçýã íºëººëäºã.øàëòãààëíà. Îäèíãî çàðèì áýðõøýýëèéã Êåíèéí ýäèéí çàñãèéí áàðàã á¿õ ñàëáàðñóäàëæ òýäãýýðèéí ýñðýã àâàõ àðãà óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòºä õÿëáàðõàíçàìóóäûã ñàíàë áîëãîæ áàéíà. ºðòäºã. Îð÷èí ¿åèéí ñàëáàðóóäààð e Journal USA 63 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • but the lack of timely response has led to associated with El Niño-linked high rainfallfrequent problems: crises in energy supply, accompanied by flooding, such as occurredmarked by power rationing; famines leading in 1997-1998, often leads to a fall in theto international appeals for food aid; and gross domestic product by up to 20 percentrural insecurity because of inadequate in affected years. Such obvious vulnerabilitywater and grazing for nomadic pastoralist calls for serious planning efforts to forestallpopulations. Consequently, the government drought and flood-induced disasters, but thishas always resorted to crisis management to has not happened.respond to climatic threats in these critical The greatest concern is that over thesectors. A bad drought and food shortage years, despite the availability of climate information, including early warning Courtesy of IISD Reporting Services provided by USAID’s (U.S. Agency for International Development’s) FEWSNET, the economic planners have been slow to recognize the dangers posed and the need to shift gears away from traditional crisis management. The most telling evidence of this reluctance to plan with climate change in mind can be seen from the economic development planning paper Vision 2030, wherein climate change has been given short shrift and virtually ignored. Similarly, agricultural planners are yet to advance beyond responding to information about óðøãààð çàñãèéí ãàçàð ýäãýýð ÷óõàë ñàëáàðò ó÷èðñàí óóð àìüñãàëûí àþóëûí ýñðýã îíöãîé áàéäëûí ãîðèìîîð àæèëëàõàä õ¿ðäýã. Ýë íèíîãèéí óðøãààð ãàí, õ¿íñíèé õîìñäîë, õóð áîðîî èõ îðñîíîîñ ¿¿äýí 1997- Richard Odingo at a November 2007 IPCC plenary session. 1998 îíä òîõèîñîí øèã ¿åðò íýðâýãäñýí æèë¿¿äýä äîòîîäûí íèéò á¿òýýãäýõ¿¿íèé Ðè÷àðä Îäèíãî 2007 îíû 11 ä¿ãýýð ñàðä Óóð àìüñãàëûí ¿éëäâýðëýë 20 õ¿ðòýë õóâü õîðîãääîã. Ýíýººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëààðõ çàñãèéí ãàçðóóä õîîðîíäûí õýñãèéí ìýò íýí ýìçýã áàéäàë íü ãàí, ¿åðýýñ ¿¿ääýã á¿ãä õóðàëäààíä ¿ã õýëæ áàéãàà íü. àþóëààñ óðüä÷èëàí ñýðãèéëýõèéí òóëä íÿãò íÿìáàé òºëºâëºõèéã øààðääàã áîëîâ÷ ýíý á¿õýí õýðýãæèõã¿é áàéíà.æèøýý òàòàõàä ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé ¿éëäâýðëýë ÀÍÓ-ûí Îëîí óëñûí õºãæëèéííü óñàí öàõèëãààí ñòàíöààñ, áèîìàññ àãåíòëàãèéí áàéãóóëñàí FEWSNET ãýäýã¿éëäâýðëýë õºäºº àæ àõóéí ñàëáàðààñ óðüä÷èëàí ñýðýìæë¿¿ëýõ ñ¿ëæýý çýðýã¿ëýìæ õàìààðäàã. Öàã óóðààñ õàìààðàëòàé óóð àìüñãàëûí õîëáîãäîëòîé ìýäýýõ¿íñíèé àþóëã¿é áàéäëûí õÿìðàë, õºäºº ìýäýýëýë áàéäàã áîëîâ÷ ýäèéí çàñãèéíîðîí íóòàãò áîëîí õîò ñóóðèí ãàçðóóäàä õºãæëèéã òºëºâëºã÷ íàð òóëãàð÷ áóéóñíû õóðö ãà÷ààë çýðýã çîâëîí áýðõøýýë àþóë, õÿìðàëûã äàâàí òóóëäàã óëàìæëàëòõºäºº àæ àõóé, õ¿íñíèé ¿éëäâýðëýëä àðãóóäààñ ººðººð àæèëëàõ øààðäëàãàòàéãîëîíòàà òóëãàðäàã. Óðüä÷èëàí ñýðãèéëýõ ìýäðýõäýý õàøèð õîéðãî áàéãàà íüòîãòîëöîî áèé áîëîâ÷ õàðèó àðãà õýìæýýã õàìãèéí èõýýð ñýòãýë ò¿ãøýýæ áàéíà. Óóðøóóðõàé àâ÷ õýðýãæ¿¿ëäýãã¿é íü àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéã òºëºâëºëòºä òóñãàõöàõèëãààíû õóâààðèëàëòàä õÿçãààðëàõ òàëààð öàëãàð íààçãàé áàéãààãèéí õàìãèéíãýõ÷èëýí ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé õÿìðàë, ºëñãºëºí òîä æèøýý íü 2030 îí õ¿ðòýëõ ýäèéíí¿¿ðëýñíèé óëìààñ ãàäààä óëñóóäàä õàíäàí çàñãèéí õºãæëèéí Ǻí 2030 ãýäýã áàðèìòõ¿íñíèé òóñëàìæ õ¿ñýõ, í¿¿äëèéí ìàë áè÷èãò óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéã áàðàãàæ àõóé ýðõýëäýã õºäººãèéí õ¿í àìä òóñãààã¿é, ¿íäñýíäýý ¿ë õàéõàðñàí ÿâäàëõóäàã óñ, áýë÷ýýðèéí õîìñäîë çýðýã îëîí þì. պ人 àæ àõóéí õºãæëèéã òºëºâëºã÷òîîíû áýðõøýýë ¿¿ñýõýä õ¿ðãýäýã. Ò¿¿íèé e Journal USA 64 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • annual rainfall variability and start thinking drop in agricultural yields attributable toof the impacts of slowly advancing climate droughts. As warming accelerates, crisischange. Climate change and global warming conditions will arise. Water stress willare mentioned as future challenges to increase geometrically in most arid and semi-the economy but not factored in the 2030 arid areas.scenarios. Government is not serious enough in Yet according to the Fourth Assessment addressing the consequences of climateReport issued by the IPCC in 2007, by 2030 change — or, indeed, factoring climatethe first strains of global warming will change impacts in the development process.already be felt in most sub-Saharan African Hence, food security is threatened, as are thecountries. Kenya and most countries in the prospects for self-sufficient food production.Great Horn of Africa are highly sensitive The economy is always buffeted by climaticto climate change. Under the ravages ofclimate variability and climate change, it Children collect dirty water from this drying river in Nyariginuwill be well-nigh impossible to maintain a village, Kenya. A prolonged dry spell wiped out 2009 harvestssustained economic growth of 10 percent throughout the country, severely compromising food security.per annum over 25 years, as projected in © AP Images/Khalil SenosiKenya’s Vision 2030. Kenya depends onhydropower for electricity, yet hydropower isextremely vulnerable to climate fluctuations.As rivers dry up because of drought andglaciers disappear on Mt. Kenya, water forhydropower production will no longer beguaranteed. Another major worry is theíàð ÷ ãýñýí æèë òóòàì õóâüñàí ººð÷ëºãäºæáàéãàà õóð òóíäàñíû òóõàé ìýäýýëëèéãõàðãàëçàõààñ öààøõèéã õèéëã¿é, ààæìààðäààìæèð÷ áóé óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéíòóõàé îãò áîäîõã¿é áàéãàà þì. Óóðàìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëò, äýëõèéí äóëààðàë Íÿàðèãèíó òîñãîíû áàãà÷óóä õàòàæ øèãýñýí ãîëîîñ áîõèðíü èðýýä¿éä ýäèéí çàñãèéí ¿íäñýí ñîðèëò óñ àâ÷ áàéíà. Óäààí ¿ðãýëæèëñýí ãàí 2009 îíä òóñ îðîíáîëíî ãýæ äóðäñàí áîëîâ÷ 2030 îíû äàÿàð óðãàö àëäóóëæ, õ¿íñíèé àþóëã¿é áàéäëûã ¿ëýìæ äîðîéòóóëñàí.òºñººëºëä òóñãàãäñàíã¿é. Ñàõàðûí öºë îð÷ìûí Àôðèêèéí èõýíõîðîíä óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí ýõíèé áàòàëãààã¿é áîëäîã. ̺í ãàíãààñ óëáààëàíõ¿íäðýë¿¿ä 2030 îí ãýõýä ìýäðýãäýíý ãýæ ãàçàð òàðèëàíãèéí ¿éëäâýðëýëä óðãàöÓÀªÇÃÕÕ 2007 îíä íèéòëýñýí äºðºâäýõ áóóðäàã íü áàñ ë ñýòãýë ò¿ãøýýõ øàëòãààíóäààãèéí ¿íýëãýýíèé òàéëàí èëòãýëäýý þì. Äóëààðàë íýìýãäýõèéí õýðýýðäóðäñàí. Êåíè áîëîí Àôðèêèéí ýðýã õÿìðàëûí íºõöºë áàéäàë äààìæèð÷ áàéíà.õàâèéí óëñóóä óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòºä Õóóðàé áîëîí õàãàñ õóóðàé á¿ñ íóòãóóäàäèõýä ýìçýã áèëýý. óñíû õîìñäîë ãåîìåòðèéí ïðîãðåññîîð ºñºí Öàã óóð õóâüñ÷, óóð àìüñãàë íýìýãäýæ áàéíà.ººð÷ëºãäºõ íºõöºëä Êåíèéí 2030 îíû Çàñãèéí ãàçàð óóð àìüñãàëûíòºñººëºëä äóðäñàí÷ëàí ýäèéí çàñãèéã ººð÷ëºëòèéí ¿ð äàãàâàðûã øèéäâýðëýõ,æèëä 10 õóâü ºñãºæ òýðõ¿¿ ºñºëòèéã 25 òýäãýýðèéã õºãæëèéí ¿éë ÿâöàä òóñãàææèëèéí õóãàöààíä òîãòâîðòîé õàäãàëàõ òîîöîõ òàëààð íóõàöòàé àíõààðàõã¿é áàéíà.íü ¿íýõýýðèéí áîëîìæã¿é þì. Ýð÷èì Òèéì ó÷ðààñ õ¿íñíèé àþóëã¿é áàéäàë,õ¿÷íèé õóâüä óñàí öàõèëãààí ñòàíöààñ õ¿íñíèé ¿éëäâýðëýëýýð áèå äààõ áîëîìæèäõàìààðàëòàé Êåíè óëñàä óñàí öàõèëãààí àþóë í¿¿ðëýæ áàéíà. Óóð àìüñãàë ýäèéíñòàíöóóä íü óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòººñ òóí çàñàãò ÿìàãò íºëºº ¿ç¿¿ëäýã. Ãýòýë ñàéòàðèõ õàìààðäàã. Ãàí ýñâýë Êåíè óóëûí ìºñºí òîîöîîëñîí ¿ð äàãàâàðò äàñàí çîõèöîõãîëóóä õàéëñàíààñ ãîëóóä íü øèðãýõýä óñàí ¿éë àæèëëàãààã ýíý ¿íäýñòýí òºëºâ뺺ã¿éöàõèëãààí ñòàíöóóä óñààð õàíãàãäàõ ÿìàð ÷ õýâýýð áàéíà. Êåíè áîë Ñàõàðûí öºë e Journal USA 65 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • considerations, and the nation has yet to acute water shortages for agricultural andgraduate to carefully calculated fallback urban populations and for livestock, whichadaptation action plans. Kenya is considered in addition have no grazing. Livestocka leader among the developing economies of mortality is at its highest in the last 20sub-Saharan Africa, but extensive production years, and economic growth is bound to beof tea and coffee for export has come at the depressed down to 2 percent or less.expense of food production; self-sufficiency Kenya needs the developed world to helpin food-related crops and livestock with improved agricultural planning andproduction have been neglected. energy development that relies less on The current drought in Kenya, the second hydropower and more on renewable sources.in two years, is a small symptom of what is More sober economic planning and adequateclearly one of the funding to helpworst on record. agriculturalMore than 4 and pastoralmillion persons The greatest concern is that over communitiesat risk fromfood shortage is the years, despite the availability weather bad droughts arean indication of of climate information…the necessary. Safetythe vulnerabilityof the food economic planners have been slow nets for food, agriculture, andproduction to recognize the dangers posed and livestock shouldsystem. Thedrought has been the need to shift gears away from be promoted. Looking to foodcompounded by traditional crisis management. imports as a way Îëîí æèëèéí òóðøèä ñýòãýëõàâèéí õàìãèéí èõ ò¿ãøýýæ áàéãàà ç¿éë õîðîãäñîí áºãººäÀôðèêèéíõºãæèæ áàéãàà áîë öàã óóðûí ìýäýý ìýäýýëýë ýäèéí çàñãèéí ºñºëò 2 õóâü,óëñóóäûã áàéëàà ÷ ãýñýí ó÷èð÷ áàéãàà ìàãàäã¿é ò¿¿íýýñõîøóó÷ëàã÷ãýãääýã áîëîâ÷ àþóëûã àíçààð÷, õÿìðàëûã ÷ äîîãóóð áàéõ áîëîëòîé.ýêñïîðòîä ãýòëýí äàâæ èðñýí óëàìæëàëò Êåíè óëñàäçîðèóëæ öàé,êîôå èõýýð àðãóóäàà ººð÷ëºõ øààðäëàãà õºäºº àæ àõóéí òºëºâëºëòººòàðèàëäàã òóëãàð÷ áàéãààã ìýäðýõ òàëààð áîëîâñðîíãóéíü õ¿íñíèé¿éëäâýðëýë, ýäèéí çàñãèéã òºëºâëºã÷èä òóí áîëãîæ, ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèéõ¿íñíèé ¿ð õºø¿¿ë õîéðãî áàéãààä îðøèíî. ¿éëäâýðëýëýýòàðèà, ìàë óñàí öàõèëãààíàæ àõóéí ñòàíöààñ õýòá¿òýýãäýõ¿¿íèé õýðýãöýýã äîòîîääîî õàíãàõ õàìààðäàãã¿é, ñýðãýýãäýõ ýõ ¿¿ñâýð¿¿äýäçîðèëòûã ¿ë õàéõðàõàä õ¿ðãýæ áàéíà. èë¿¿ ò¿øèãëýäýã áîëãîí õºãæ¿¿ëýõýä Êåíèä ñ¿¿ëèéí õî¸ð æèëä õî¸ðäàõü õºãæèíã¿é îðíóóäûí äýìæëýã òóñëàìæóäààãàà òîõèîëäîæ áóé îäîîãèéí ãàí áîë øààðäëàãàòàé. Ýäèéí çàñãèéí ýð¿¿ë ñàðóóëíºõöºë áàéäàë íýí õ¿íäýð÷ áàéãààãèéí òºëºâëºëò, ãàíãèéí õ¿íäðýëèéã äàâàíæèæèãõýí øèíæ þì. ĺðâºí ñàÿ ãàðóé õ¿í òóóëàõàä íü õºäººãèéí áîëîí í¿¿äëèéíõ¿íñíèé õîìñäîëä îðîõ ýðñäýëòýé áàéãàà íü ìàë àæ àõóé ýðõëýã÷äýä òóñëàõ õàíãàëòòàéõ¿íñíèé ¿éëäâýðëýëèéí òîãòîëöîî õý÷íýýí ñàíõ¿¿æèëò ÷ õýðýãòýé áàéíà. Õ¿íñ,ýìçýã áàéäàëä áàéãààã èëòãýí õàðóóëäàã. õºäºº àæ àõóé, ìàë àæ àõóéã õàìãààëàõÃàíãèéí õàæóóãààð õºäººãèéí õ¿í àì, õîò òîãòîëöîî ìºí øààðäëàãàòàé áàéíà.ñóóðèí ãàçðóóäûí îðøèí ñóóã÷èä, ìàë Õ¿íñèéã ãàäààäààñ èìïîðòëîõ ÿâäëûãñ¿ðýã óñààð ãà÷èãäàõààñ ãàäíà áýë÷ýýðã¿é ýäãýýð áýðõøýýëýýñ ãàðàõ àðãà çàì ãýæ ¿çýõáîëîîä áàéíà. Ñ¿¿ëèéí 20 æèëèéí íü óõààëàã áèø õàíäëàãà áîëíî. Õºãæëèéíõóãàöààíä ìàë ñ¿ðýã õàìãèéí îëîí òîîãîîð áîëîí ñàíõ¿¿ãèéí àëèâàà òºëºâëºëòºä óóð e Journal USA 66 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • out is unwise. The economic importance of these problems other than sound economicclimate change must be factored into all planning that gives governments alternativedevelopment and financial planning. ways of responding to the climate crisis.  Water requires urgent attention.Investment in water harvesting at alllevels can provide better environmental The opinions expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. government.management to stop deforestation anddevegetation, which will slow downthe progress of climate change. In theinternational arena, Kenya can benefit byworking with other nations. Technologytransfer and adequate funding at nationaland international levels to help reducevulnerability to climate change can makeadaptation a working reality. Makingpastoral areas more productive andintegrating pastoral populations more fullyinto the national economy will strengthenself-sufficiency. In good years Kenya hasthe capacity to produce enough food for itspopulation, now over 35 million. As timepasses, the challenges posed by climatechange will be harder to bear. There isno shortcut to finding solutions to allàìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí ýäèéí çàñãèéí ¿ð ÷àìáàé òºëºâëºëòººñ ººðººð ýäãýýð ñîðèëòäàãàâðûã òóñãàæ áàéõ íü ç¿éòýé. áýðõøýýëèéã øèéäâýðëýõ äºò çàì ¿ã¿é Óñíû àñóóäàëä íýí òýðã¿¿í àíõààðâàë áèëýý. çîõèíî. Óñíû õàéãóóëü, àøèãëàëòàäõºðºí㺠îðóóëàõ íü îé ìîäûã ñ¿éòãýäýã,íîãîîí á¿ðõ¿¿ëèéã óñòãàäàã ÿâäëûã òàñëàí Ýíý ºã¿¿ëýëä èëýðõèéëñýí ¿çýë áîäîë ÀÍÓ-ûí çàñãèéí ãàçðûí áàéð ñóóðü áóþó áîäëîãûí òóñãàë áàéõ àëáàã¿é.çîãñîîæ, á¿õ ò¿âøèíä áàéãàëü îð÷íûèë¿¿ ñàéí ìåíåæìåíòèéã áèé áîëãîõáºãººä ÷èíãýõ íü óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòäààìæèðàõûã ñààðóóëíà. Êåíè óëñ îëîíóëñûí òàâöàíä áóñàä óëñòàé õàìòðàíàæèëëàñíààð àøèã òóñûã íü õ¿ðòýõ áîëíî.¯íäýñíèé áîëîí îëîí óëñûí õýìæýýíäòåõíèêèéí äàìæóóëàëò, õàíãàëòòàéñàíõ¿¿æèëò íü óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòºäýìçýã áàéäëûã áàãàñãàæ, áîäèò áàéäàëääàñàí çîõèöîõ ÷àäâàðûã íýìýãä¿¿ëíý.Áýë÷ýýð íóòãèéã èë¿¿ ¿ð àøèãòàéõýðýãëýæ, áýë÷ýýðèéí ìàë àæ àõóéã íèéòýäèéí çàñãèéí íýãýýõýí õýñýã áîëãîõ íü áèåäààñàí áàéäëûã áàòàòãàí áýõæ¿¿ëíý. Öàãàãààð òààëàìæòàé æèë¿¿äýä òóñ óëñ ººðèéí35 ñàÿ ãàðóé õ¿í àìûã õàíãàõóéö õ¿íñ¿éëäâýðëýõ áîëîìæòîé. Óóð àìüñãàëûíººð÷ëºëòººñ ¿¿äýëòýé ñîðèëò áýðõøýýëöàã õóãàöàà ºíãºðºõèéí õýðýýð äàâàíòóóëàõàä àìàðã¿é áîëíî. Óóð àìüñãàëûíõÿìðàëûã ãýòëýí äàâàõ øèíý àðãà çàìóóäûãçàñãèéí ãàçàðò îëãîõ ýäèéí çàñãèéí e Journal USA 67 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • Critical Issues: A n International Tour RussiaGood Domestic Efforts, Underestimated Threat Alexey KokorinRussian climate expert Alexey Kokorin including Coalitions for the Futureheads the Climate and Energy Program of (Strategies of Russian Development in 2008-the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF- 2016), and in the development of long-termRussia). He guides and implements climate Russian Energy Strategy for 2020 and 2030.changerelated educational projects for Here Kokorin evaluates the climate changecommunities and other groups to promote impact sustained by Russia, the likely future,energy efficiency. He has worked on and the steps the government is taking todevelopment of a domestic and international adapt and mitigate the effects of climategreenhouse gas inventory system and change domestically and in cooperation witheconomic mechanisms under the United international partners.Nations Framework Convention on ClimateChange (UNFCCC) Kyoto Protocol. Hehas participated in key domestic studies,Íîöòîé àñóóäëóóä: Îëîí óëñûí àÿëàë ÎðîñÄîòîîäûí ñàéí õ¿÷èí ÷àðìàéëò, äóòóó ¿íýëýãäñýí àþóë çàíàë Àëåêñåé ÊîêîðèíÎÕÓ-ûí óóð àìüñãàëûí ìýðãýæèëòýí ÎÕÓ-ûí ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé 2020 -2030 îíûÀëåêñåé Êîêîðèí áàéãàëü îð÷íû Äýëõèéí óðò õóãàöààíû ñòðàòåãèéã áîëîâñðóóëàõÑàí (WWF-Russia)-ãèéí Óóð àìüñãàë, ýð÷èì çýðýã äîòîîäûí ãîë ñóäàëãààíû àæëóóäàäõ¿÷íèé õºòºëáºðèéã òýðã¿¿ëäýã. Òýð ýð÷èì îðîëöñîí.õ¿÷íèé õýìíýëòèéã äýìæèõ çîðèëãîîð Êîêîðèí ÎÕÓ-ä óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòîðøèí ñóóã÷èä, õ¿í àìûí áóñàä õýñýã õýðõýí íºëººëæ áàéãàà, èðýýä¿éí òºëºâ,á¿ëãèéí äóíä óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòòýé Çàñãèéí ãàçðààñ óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòºäõîëáîîòîé ñóðãàëòûí òºñë¿¿äèéã çîõèöîõ, ¿ð íºëººã áóóðóóëàõààð äîòîîääîîóäèðäàí õýðýãæ¿¿ëäýã áºãººä Êèîòîãèéí áîëîí ãàäààä ò¿íø¿¿äòýé õàìòðàíïðîòîêîë áóþó Óóð àìüñãàëûí àñóóäëààðõ àæèëëàõ ÷èãëýëýýð õýðýãæ¿¿ëæ áàéãààͯÁ-ûí Åðºíõèé õ¿ðýýíèé êîíâåíö ( àëõìóóäàä ¿íýëãýý ºãñºí áàéíà.ÓÀªÀͯÁÅÕÊ )-èéí õ¿ðýýíä ¿íäýñíèéáîëîí îëîí óëñûí ò¿âøèíä õ¿ëýìæèéíõèéã òîîöîõ ñèñòåì, ýäèéí çàñãèéíìåõàíèçìûã áîëîâñðóóëàõ ÷èãëýëýýðàæèëëàñàí. Èðýýä¿éí òºëºº Ýâñë¿¿ä (ÎÕÓ-ûí 2008-2016 îíû õºãæëèéí ñòðàòåãè), e Journal USA 68 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • A s a northern country, Russia has Currently there seems to be sort of a balance, experienced, so far, a very modest and people still think that an overwhelming climate change impact. Local but negative impact may become a reality onlytemporary positive climate change impacts in the second half of the 21st century, nothave occurred in agriculture and the in the near future. The minister of Naturalopening up of northern shipping routes. Resources and Ecology announced, in AprilNegative impacts are melting permafrost and 2009, that current Russian losses fromflooding in susceptible areas, public health emergencies created by weather events costthreats from the spread of diseases, winter the country 1 to 2 billion dollars per year.transportation in the north, and the impact Top Russian officials still do not recognizeon wildlife, particularly the polar bear. greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction as a great value itself, although the level of recognition Courtesy of Alexey Kokorin is gradually growing. They do recognize now the anthropogenic causes and global threat of climate change, but they do not yet see that danger is here now in Russia. It is rather critical already and will be more so after 2010. On the other hand, officials recognize the concerns and the climate change-related losses suffered by other countries. As an important international power, Russian leadership wants to share in shouldering the responsibilities in dealing with the ñ¿¿ëèéí õàãàñò ë ìýäðýãäýíý ãýæ òºñººëæ áàéíà. Öàã àãààðààñ ¿¿äýëòýé îíöãîé áàéäëûí óëìààñ ÎÕÓ-ä ó÷èðñàí õîõèðëûí õýìæýý îäîîãîîð æèëä 1-2 òýðáóì àì. äîëëàðààð õýìæèãäýæ áàéãààã òóñ óëñûí Áàéãàëèéí áàÿëàã, ýêîëîãèéí ñàéä 2009 îíû 4 ä¿ãýýð ñàðä ìýäýãäñýí. Îðîñûí äýýã¿¿ð àëáàíû õ¿ì¿¿ñ õ¿ëýìæèéí õèéã áóóðóóëàõûã à÷ Alexey Kokorin õîëáîãäîëòîé ãýæ ¿çäýãã¿é õýâýýð áàéãàà Àëåêñåé Êîêîðèí áîëîâ÷ òèéíõ¿¿ îéëãîæ ìýäðýõ ò¿âøèí ààæìààð äýýøèëæ áàéíà. Òýä õ¿íèé õ¿÷èí ç¿éëèéí íºëºº, óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòººñÓ ìàðäûí îðíû õóâüä ÎÕÓ óóð äýëõèé äàõèíä ó÷èðàõ àþóëûã îéëãîäîãã¿é àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí íºëººã áºãººä îäîîãîîð òèéì àþóë ýíä Îðîñò îäîîãîîð òóí áàãà ìýäýð÷ áàéãàà áàéãàà ãýæ ¿çäýãã¿é þì. Ãýòýë ýíý áàéäàëþì. Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòººñ õºäºº àæ ìýäýãäýõýýð õýìæýýíä íýãýíò õ¿ðñýí áºãººäàõóéä îðîí íóòãèéí øèíæòýé çàðèì íýã 2010 îíîîñ öààø óëàì íýìýãäýõ áîëíî.íààøòàé íºëºº àæèãëàãäàõûí ñàöóó íóòàãäýâñãýðèéí õîéä õýñãýýð óñàí òýýâðèéí ͺ㺺òýéã¿¿ð, òýä óóð àìüñãàëûíçàìóóä íýýãäýæ áàéíà. ̺íõ öýâäýã õàéëæ, ººð÷ëºëòèéí óðøãààð áóñàä îðîí ñýòãýëçàðèì ýìçýã ãàçàð ¿åðò àâòàæ ºâ÷èí òàðõàõ ò¿ãøèæ, õîõèðîë ¿çýæ áàéãààã õ¿ëýýíçýðãýýð íèéãìèéí ýð¿¿ë ìýíäýä àþóë çºâøººðäºã. Îëîí óëñûí òîìõîí ã¿ðíèéòóëãàð÷, õîéä íóòàãò ºâëèéí óëèðàëä õóâüä Îðîñûí óäèðäàã÷èä äýëõèé íèéòýäòýýâýðëýëò çîãñ÷, çýðëýã àìüòàä, ÿëàíãóÿà óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéã øèéäâýðëýõöàãààí áààâãàéä ìóóãààð íºëººëºõ çýðýã òàëààð áóñàä óëñòàé õàìòðàí õàðèóöëàãàñºðºã íºëºº ¿¿ñ÷ áàéíà. Ýåðýã, ñºðºã ¿¿ðýõèéã ýðìýëçýæ áàéíà. Îðîñ óëñûíòàëóóä îäîîãîîð òýíöýæ áàéãàà áîëîëòîé çàñãèéí ãàçàð Êèîòîãèéí ïðîòîêîëûí îðîíäòóë õ¿ì¿¿ñ íèéòèéã õàìàðñàí ñºðºã òàëûã Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëààðõîéðûí èðýýä¿éä áóñ, õàðèí 21 ä¿ãýýð çóóíû ͯÁ-ûí Åðºíõèé õ¿ðýýíèé êîíâåíöèéí e Journal USA 69 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • global climate situation along with other or only 5 to 10 percent above 2007 levels.nations. Evidently, the Russian government Other climatefriendly steps includeis looking at the competitiveness of the studies and reporting, education, andRussian economy in the context of new preparations for adaptation measures in thecarbon emissions rules, taxes, and measures most vulnerable regions, for example, inthat may be adopted internationally in permafrost and flood-risk areas.negotiations under the United NationsFramework Convention on Climate Change • Russian Assessment Report, similar to(UNFCCC) to replace the Kyoto Protocol. Volumes 1 and 2 of the IPCC 4AR, has Russia has set some important climate-friendly goals: • Reduce energy intensity of GDP by 40 Negative impacts are melting percent by 2020 permafrost and flooding • Achieve associated gas utilization by 95 in susceptible areas, public percent by 2014-2016 • Increase share of renewable sources health threats from the from 0.9 to 4.5 percent (excluding large spread of diseases, winter hydro) by 2020 Growth of GHG emissions by 1 to 2 percent transportation in the north,per year is expected, but these measures can and the impact on wildlife,slow down GHG growth and provide a stablelevel of emissions by about 2020. The level particularly the polar bear.could be 25 to 30 percent below 1990 levels Ѻðºã ¿ð äàãàâàð íü ìºíõ öàñ õàéëæ, îéðõ¿ðýýíä ÿâàãäàõ ÿðèà õýëýëöýýíèéí îð÷ìûí ãàçðóóä ¿åðò¿ð ä¿íä îëîí óëñûí õàìòûí ñàíàëààð àâòàæ, õàëäâàðò ºâ÷èíáàòëàãäàõ í¿¿ðñ õ¿÷ëèéí õèéã ÿëãàðóóëàõøèíý ä¿ðýì, ò¿¿íä îíîãäóóëàõ òàòâàð, òàðõñàíààñ íèéãìèéí ýð¿¿ëàâàõ àðãà õýìæýýí¿¿äòýé õîëáîãäóóëàí òóñóëñûí ýäèéí çàñãèéí ºðñºëäºõ ÷àäâàðûã ìýíäýä àþóë ó÷èð÷, óìàðãîëëîí àíõààð÷ áóé íü èëýðõèé áàéíà. ç¿ãò ºâëèéí òýýâýð, îíãîí ÎÕÓ óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí áàéãàëü, ÿëàíãóÿà òóéëûíàñóóäëààð çàðèì ÷óõàë çîðèëòûãäýâø¿¿ëýýä áàéíà. Òóõàéëáàë: öàãààí áààâãàéä íºëººëæ •Äîòîîäûí íèéò á¿òýýãäýõ¿¿íèé ýð÷èì áóé ÿâäàë þì. õ¿÷íèé çàðäëûã 2020 îí ãýõýä 40 õóâü áóóðóóëàõ, •Õèéí àøèãëàëòûã 2014-2016 îíä 95 õýìæýýíèé äîòîð ñóäàëãàà, ìýäýýëýë, õóâüä õ¿ðãýõ, ñóðãàëò, æèøýý íü ìºíõ öýâäýã, ¿åð çýðýãò •Ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé ñýðãýýãäýõ ýõ ¿¿ñâýðèéã ºðòºìòãèé èõýíõ íóòàãò àâàõààð áýëòãýæ òîìõîí óñàí öàõèëãààí ñòàíöóóäûã áàéãàà äàñàí çîõèöîõ àðãà õýìæýýí¿¿ä îðîëöóóëàëã¿éãýýð õýìæýýã 2020 áàãòàíà. îí ãýõýä 0.9-4.5 õóâüä õ¿ðãýæ •Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëààð íýìýãä¿¿ëýõ. çàñãèéí ãàçðóóä õîîðîíäûí õýñãèéí Æèëä 1-2 õóâü ºñºõººð áàéãàà õ¿ëýìæèéí áýëòãýñýí 4ÀЖèéí íýã, õî¸ðäóãààðõèéí õýìæýýã äýýð äóðäñàí àðãà õýìæýý áîòüòîé òºñòýé Îðîñûí ¿íýëãýýíèéáóóðóóëæ, óëìààð 2020 îíû îð÷èìä òàéëàíã áîëîâñðóóëæ ãàðãàñàí íüòîãòâîðòîé ò¿âøèíä áàðèõ áîëíî. Óã õèéí àþóëûã õ¿ëýýí çºâøººð÷ òîäîðõîéëîõõýìæýý 2007 îíûõîîñ 5-10 õóâü íýìýãäýõ ÷, ¿íäñèéã á¿ðä¿¿ëñýí. Ãýâ÷ ýäèéí çàñàãò1990 îíûõîîñ 25-30 õóâü áóóðàõ áîëíî. ó÷èðàõ ¿ð äàãàâðûã òîîöñîí äàðàà÷èéí ãóðàâäàõü áîòü ãàðààã¿é áºãººä Óóð àìüñãàëûí ÷èãëýëýýð àâàõààð ¿¿ñýõ íºõöºë áàéäàëä çîõèöîõ áîëîíòºëºâëºæ áàéãàà íààøòàé áóñàä àðãà õ¿ëýìæèéí õèéã áóóðóóëàõ çàðäàëòàé e Journal USA 70 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • been prepared and provides a basis for displays its goodwill to work together toward recognition of the threat. But economic a new climate change agreement at the Volume 3 has not been started, and United Nations Climate Change Conference the question about scale of losses in (COP15) in Copenhagen in December 2009. comparison with cost of adaptation and At the recent G8 meeting in Italy, Russia GHG reduction is still open. agreed to a 2-degree C global goal, as • Russian Climate Doctrine is ready to defined by the G8, meaning that global be signed by the president, proclaiming temperature increase should be limited to mitigation, adaptation, and contribution 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) to global efforts as key tasks. It in comparison with the preindustrial era, is not yet supported by plans and and to a very ambitious goal of 80 percent implementation but has great value to emissions reduction by 2050 for developed increase public awareness by rolling out countries as a whole, but only a 50 percent educational efforts. reduction for Russia itself. In international fora of the UNFCCC,G8, and Major Economies Forum, Russia © GORDON WILTSIE/National Geographic Society A polar bear rests on a small ice floe in the Arctic Ocean north of Franz Josef Land, Russia. Îðîñûí Õîëáîîíû Óëñûí íóòàãòÔðàíç ¨îçèôèéí ãàçðààñ õîéä ç¿ãò Àðêòèêèéí òýíãèñò õºâæáóé õýñýã ìºñºí äýýðõ òóéëûí öàãààí áààâãàé. õàðüöóóëàõàä ó÷èð÷ áîëçîøã¿é ͯÁ-ûí Åðºíõèé áàãà õóðàë (COP15)- õîõèðëûí õýìæýý ÷óõàì õýäèé õýð ààð óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí øèíý áîëîõ íü òîäîðõîé áóñ áàéíà. õýëýëöýýðò õ¿ðýõèéí òºëºº õàìòðàí •Áóóðóóëàõ, çîõèöîõ, äýëõèé íèéòèéí àæèëëàõ ýðìýëçýëýý Óóð àìüñãàëûí õ¿÷èí ÷àðìàéëòàä õóâü íýìýð îðóóëàõ ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëààðõ çàñãèéí ãàçðóóäûí ÿâäëûã ¿íäñýí çîðèëòîî õýìýýí õýñýã, Àæ ¿éëäâýð õºãæñºí 8 óëñ, Òîì òóíõàãëàñàí ÎÕÓ-ûí Óóð àìüñãàëûí ýäèéí çàñàãòàé óëñóóäûí ÷óóëãàí çýðýãò ¿çýë áàðèìòëàëä Åðºíõèéëºã÷ ãàðûí èëýðõèéëñýýð áàéíà. Èòàëèä ñàÿõàí áîëñîí ¿ñýã çóðàõàä áýëýí áîëîîä áàéíà. òîì 8 îðíû äýýä õýìæýýíèé óóëçàëòààð Ãýâ÷ õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõ òºëºâëºãºº, àâ÷ àæ ¿éëäâýðæèëòèéí ºìíºõ ¿åèéíõòýé õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõ àðãà õýìæýýã òîäîðõîé õàðüöóóëàõàä àãààðûí õýìèéí ºñºëòèéã çààãààã¿é ÷ òýð íü ñóðãàëòûí ¿éë æèëä öåëüñèéí 2 õýì (Ôàðàíõåéòèéí 3.6 àæèëëàãààã ýð÷èìæ¿¿ëæ, îëîí õýì)-ä òîãòîîí áàðèõ, õ¿ëýìæèéí õèéí íèéòèéí îéëãîëòûã íýìýãä¿¿ëýõýä õýìæýýã 2050 îí ãýõýä õºãæèíã¿é óëñóóä èõýýõýí à÷ õîëáîãäîëòîé áàéõ áîëíî. 80 õóâü, ÎÕÓ ººðºº 50 õóâü áàãàñãàõ èõýýõýí øàõóó çîðèëòûã äýëõèé äàõèíû ÎÕÓ 2009 îíû 12 äóãààð ñàðä Êîïåíãàãåí íèéòëýã çîðèëò õýìýýí òîäîðõîéëñíûã òóñõîòíîî áîëîõ Óóð àìüñãàëûí àñóóäëààðõ óëñ õ¿ëýýí àâñàí. e Journal USA 71 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • Burden Sharing stated that Russia is ready to support the Multilateral Fund proposed by Mexico. In Russia emphasizes the equity of burden the Russian case, the source of funding willsharing, with special attention to the largest be mainly the state budget, which allocatesGHG emitters. The general view of Russian funding for foreign aid.officials and the public is the same: Even Russia is still out of the global carboncountries with relatively smaller GDP per market and does not take part in jointcapita should determine equal levels of implementation or emissions tradingcommitments, which has to be fixed in mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol. Butan international agreement together with there are many projects and ideas that haveRussian commitments. the support of potential foreign carbon Without a positive reply from all of the investors. Russian business would like to seelargest global emitters, Russia announced carbon trading more seriously pursued. Theonly very weak mid-term goals by 2020: law on joint implementation participation10 to 15 percent below 1990 levels or 20 was signed two years ago, but no project hasto 25 percent above the current levels (in been implemented to date. Although in Junepercentage points of 1990). It is a very 2009 the prime minister issued an order todisappointing decision, which I hope may be accelerate and simplify procedures, therecorrected if the largest GHG emitters adopt is no clear progress yet. The main reasonmore ambitious goals. is that the government does not consider joint implementation or emissions trading Burden sharing includes financial important because the potential scale ofcontributions, and after the recent Major these mechanisms is negligible for the stateEconomies Forum, President Medvedev budget.Õàðèóöëàãûã õàìòäàà õ¿ëýýõ íü Åðºíõèéëºã÷ Ìåäâåäüåâ Õºãæèíã¿é ýäèéí çàñàãòàé óëñóóäûí ñàÿõíû ÷óóëãàíû Õ¿ëýìæèéí õèéã èõýýð ÿëãàðóóëäàã äàðàà ìýäýãäñýí. Îðîñûí õóâüä ò¿¿íèéóëñóóäûí õóâüä õàðèóöëàãûã õàìòäàà ñàíõ¿¿æèëòèéí ýõ ¿¿ñâýð ¿íäñýíäýý áóñàäõ¿ëýýõèéã Îðîñ îíöîëæ áàéãàà þì. Íýã îðîíä ¿ç¿¿ëýõ òóñëàìæèéí ñàíõ¿¿æèëòèéãõ¿íä íîãäîõ äîòîîäûí íèéò á¿òýýãäýõ¿¿íèé õóâààðèëäàã óëñûí òºñºâ áàéõ þì.¿éëäâýðëýë õàðüöàíãóé áàãàòàé îðíóóä ÎÕÓ ºíºº õýð íü í¿¿ðñ õ¿÷ëèéí çàõ÷ õýðäýý òààðñàí õàðèóöëàãà õ¿ëýýõ, çýýëèéí ãàäíà áàéãàà áºãººä ò¿¿íèéãò¿¿íèéã íü ÎÕÓ-ûí õ¿ëýýõ õàðèóöëàãàòàé õàìòðàí õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõ, Êèîòîãèéíõàìòðóóëàí îëîí óëñûí õýëýëöýýðò òóñãàõ ïðîòîêîëä çààñàí í¿¿ðñ õ¿÷ëèéí¸ñòîé ãýäýã áàéð ñóóðèéã òóñ óëñûí õèéã õàðèëöàí õóäàëäàõ ìåõàíèçìä ÷àëáàíû õ¿ì¿¿ñ áîëîí îëîí íèéò íèéòëýã îðîëöäîãã¿é. Ãýâ÷ í¿¿ðñ õ¿÷ëèéí õèéíáàðèìòàëæ áàéíà. ñàëáàðò õºðºí㺠îðóóëàõ áîëîìæòîé ÎÕÓ õ¿ëýìæèéí õèéã õàìãèéí èõýýð ãàäààä óëñóóäûí äýìæëýãèéã õ¿ëýýñýíÿëãàðóóëäàã óëñóóäààñ íààøòàé õàðèó òºñºë, ñàíààíóóä îëîí áàéãàà áèëýý.õ¿ëýýëã¿éãýýð 2020 îí ãýõýä 1990 îíûõîîñ Îðîñûí áèçíåñèéíõýí í¿¿ðñ õ¿÷ëèéí10-15 õóâü, îäîîãèéíõîîñ 20-25 õóâü õèéã õóäàëäàõ ¿éë ÿâöûã òóóøòàé ¿ðãýëæë¿¿ëýõèéã õ¿ñýæ áàéíà. Õàìòðàí (1990 îíûõòîé õàðüöóóëñàí õóâü õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõ ¿éë ÿâöàä îðîëöîõ òóõàéõýìæýýãýýð) áóóðóóëàõ äóíä õóãàöààíû õóóëü õî¸ð æèëèéí ºìíº áàòëàãäñàí áîëîâ÷òèéì ÷ øàõóó áèø çîðèëòûã äýâø¿¿ëñýí. ºíººã õ¿ðòýë ÿìàð íýã òºñºë õýðýãæñýíã¿é.Ýíý áîë óðàì õóãàëñàí øèéäâýð áºãººä Åðºíõèé ñàéä 2009 îíû 7 äóãààð ñàðäõ¿ëýìæèéí õèéã èõýýð ÿëãàðóóëäàã îðíóóä æóðàì ä¿ðìèéã õºíãºâ÷èëæ ¿éë ÿâöûãèë¿¿ øàõóó çîðèëò äýâø¿¿ëáýë çàëðóóëæ õóðäàñãàõ çàðëèã ãàðãàñàí õýð íü òîäîðõîéáîëíî ãýæ íàéäàæ áàéíà. àõèö ãàðñàíã¿é. ¯¿íèé ãîë øàëòãààí Õàìòäàà õàðèóöëàãà õ¿ëýýõ íü õºðºí㺠íü óëñûí òºñºâòýé íü õàðüöóóëàõàäñàíõ¿¿ãèéí õóâü îðîëöîîã ÷ õàìàð÷ áàéãàà ýäãýýð ìåõàíèçìûí öàð õ¿ðýý áàãà ó÷èðþì. Ìåêñèêèéí ñàíàë áîëãîñîí Îëîí òàëò çàñãèéí ãàçàð õàìòðàí õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõ áîëîíñàíã äýìæèõýä ÎÕÓ áýëýí áàéíà õýìýýí e Journal USA 72 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • In a new climate agreement, Russia would this is considered a national concern, which like to keep joint implementation in balance should not be under international agreement. with the Clean Development Mechanism Domestically, Russia is going to implement outlined by the UNFCCC. Officials appear climatefriendly steps even though the full open to domestic emissions trading systems implications and value of climate protection in a sector or sectors of the economy, but measures may not be fully acknowledged or understood. Internationally, Russia certainly Flooding of the Neva River in downtown St. Petersburg, Russia, would like to be a “good guy” in global is an unusual occurrence in mid-winter. Flooding and permafrost climate efforts and take a leadership role, melt have increased in recent years. but the realization of the given goodwill requires more effort in developing and© AP Images/Dmitry Lovetsky applying effective remedies to meet the very real challenge of climate change.  The opinions expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. government. ÎÕÓ äîòîîääîî óóð àìñüãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòººñ õàìãààëàõ àðãà õýìæýýíèé à÷ õîëáîãäîë, ¿íý öýíèéã õàðààõàí õ¿ëýýí çºâøººð÷, ã¿éöýä îéëãîîã¿é áàéæ áîëîõ áîëîâ÷ óóð àìüñãàëä ýýëòýé àðãà õýìæýýí¿¿äèéã àâ÷ õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõýýð çàâäàæ ãàäààäàä óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí òàëààðõ äýëõèé äàõèíû õ¿÷èí ÷àðìàéëòàä “õàðèóöëàãàòàé òàë” áîëæ õîøóó÷ëàõ ¿¿ðýã ã¿éöýòãýõèéã õ¿ñýæ áàéãàà áîëîâ÷ ñàéí ñàíààã õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõýä óóð àìüñãàëûí ÎÕÓ Ñàíò Ïåòåðáóðã õîòûí òºâººð óðñäàã Íèâà ìºðºí ººð÷ëºëòèéí ¿íýõýýðèéí áîäèòîé ñîðèëòûã ¿åðëýñýí íü ºâëèéí äóíä ñàðä ¿çýãäýýã¿é õîâîð òîõèîëäîë äàâàí òóóëàõ ¿ð íºëººòýé àðãà çàìûã áîëîâ. ̺íõ öàñ õàéëæ ¿åðëýõ ÿâäàë ñ¿¿ëèéí æèë¿¿äýä áîëîâñðóóëàõ, áîëîí õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõýä èë¿¿ íýìýãäýâ. õ¿÷èí ÷àðìàéëò øààðäàãäàõ áîëíî.  õ¿ëýìæèéí õèéã õóäàëäàõûã ÷óõàëä òîîöîõã¿é áàéãààä îðøèíî. Ýíý ºã¿¿ëýëä èëýðõèéëñýí ¿çýë áîäîë ÀÍÓ-ûí çàñãèéí ÓÀªÀÇÕÕ-ò äóðäñàí õàìòðàí ãàçðûí áàéð ñóóðü áóþó áîäëîãûí òóñãàë áàéõ àëáàã¿é. õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõ àñóóäëûã Öýâýð õºãæëèéí ìåõàíèçìûí õàìò óóð àìüñãàëûí øèíý õýëýëöýýðò òóñãàõûã ÎÕÓ õ¿ñýæ áàéíà. Í¿¿ðñ õ¿÷ëèéí õèéã äîòîîääîî ýäèéí çàñãèéí àëü íýãýí ñàëáàðò áîëîí ñàëáàðóóäûí õîîðîíä õóäàëäàõ àñóóäàëä àëáàíû õ¿ì¿¿ñ íýýëòòýé õàíäàæ áàéãàà áîëîâ÷ ýíý áîë îëîí óëñûí õýëýëöýýðò ¿ë õàìààðàõ òóñ óëñûí äîòîîä õýðýã ãýæ ¿çýæ áàéíà. e Journal USA 73 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • Critical Issues: A n International Tour United States International Youth: Fired Up About Climate Change Richard GravesRichard Graves, a young activist focused telling the world about it, person-to-personon climate change issues, is the blogger and and on the Internet.online campaigner with the Global Campaignfor Climate Action, project director and Tfounder of Fired Up Media, an associate he most important meeting of the 21stproducer for LinkTV’s EarthFocus, and a century is happening this Decembercontributing editor for It’s Getting Hot in in Copenhagen, yet those who haveHere. the most to gain, or lose, are left on the sidelines. Global warming will define thisGraves says the generations who will inherit century, just as the struggle betweenthe burden of global warming want bold totalitarianism and democracy defined theenvironmental leadership, responsible climate last one. The decisions that senior officialspolicies, and green jobs — and they are make today will shape the kind of worldÍîöòîé àñóóäëóóä: Îëîí óëñûí àÿëàë ÀÍÓ Äýëõèéí çàëóó ¿åèéíõýí: Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí òàëààð Ðè÷àðä Ãðåéâñ 2Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòºä ãîëëîí 1 ä¿ãýýð çóóíû õàìãèéí ÷óõàë óóëçàëòàíõààðäàã çàëóó èäýâõòýí Ðè÷àðä Ãðåéâñ ýíý 12 äóãààð ñàðä Êîïåíãàãåíä áîëæáîë óóð àìüñãàëûí ñýäâýýð áëîã õºòºëæ, áàéõàä ¿ð øèìèéã íü èõýýð õ¿ðòýõäýëõèé íèéòèéí êàìïàíè ºðí¿¿ëäýã ýñâýë õîõèðîõ õ¿ì¿¿ñ ò¿¿íèé ãàäíà ¿ëäýæ“Õýâëýë ä¿ðýëçýæ áàéíà” ãýäýã òºñëèéã áàéíà. Äàðàíãóéëàë áîëîí àðä÷èëëûíñàíàà÷èëæ áàéãóóëààä, ºä㺺 çàõèðëààð íü òýìöýë ºíãºðºã÷ çóóíû ºíãèéã òîäîðõîéëæàæèëëàäàã, ËèíêÒÂ-èéí Äýëõèéí òóñãàë áàéñíû íýãýí àäèë äýëõèéí äóëààðàëõºòºëáºðèéí òóñëàõ ïðîäþñåð, “Ýíä õàëæ ýíý çóóíûã òîäîðõîéëíî. Äýýã¿¿ð àëáàíáàéíà” õºòºëáºðèéí çîõèîã÷ ðåäàêòîð àæ. òóøààëòíû ºíººäºð ãàðãàæ áóé øèéäâýðÄýëõèéí äóëààðëûí ¿ð äàãàâðûã ºâëºí äýëõèéí õ¿í àìûí áàðàã òýí õàãàñûãàâàõ õîé÷ ¿åèéíõýí áàéãàëü îð÷íû ýçýëäýã çàëóóñûí ºâëºí àâàõ äýëõèéíàñóóäëààð çîðèìîã ìàíëàéëàë, óóð ºí㺠òºðõèéã òîäîðõîéëîõ áîëíî. Ôèçèêàìüñãàëûí õàðèóöëàãàòàé áîäëîãî, íîãîîí áîëîí óëñ òºð ñîíèí õà÷íààð ñ¿ëýëäñýíýýðàæëûí áàéðóóäûã õ¿ñýæ ýíý òóõàéãàà õîæìûí çàñãèéí ãàçðóóä õèéãýýä íèéãìèéíäýëõèé íèéòýä, õ¿í á¿ðä èíòåðíýòýýð îðøèí àìüäðàõ íºõöºë áàéäàëä ºíººäºðºã¿¿ëæ áàéíà õýìýýí òýð ÿðüæ áàéíà. ñîíãîãäîæ áàéãàà óëñ òºð÷èä èõýýõýí íºëººëºõ áîëíî. Êîïåíãàãåíä õóðàí ÷óóëàõ e Journal USA 74 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • that young people, representing nearly half for those excluded from the dirty-energythe world’s population, will inherit. In a economy, and responsibility on a global scalestrange intersection of physics and politics, for the United States’ historical emissions.politicians elected today have the most say In the end, 24 million voters under the ageover the conditions that future governments of 30 showed up last November, supportingand societies will have to live with. The the candidate who promised change andworld leaders gathering in Copenhagen would action on global warming.do well to look to young people for a timely However, it is past time for demandingexample in leadership. change; we have to work for it. Twelve Young people in the United States thousand young people gathered inhave made clear that they want bold Washington, D.C., in spring 2009 to meetenvironmental leadership, with 64 percent of with every member of Congress and demandyoung voters saying the environment is very bold action on global warming at the Powerimportant to their vote. And we haven’t just Shift conference, which continues as abeen demanding change from our politicalleaders: We fought to change the political Courtesy of Richard Graves/Photo by Christine Irvinelandscape when we weren’t being heard.Every presidential candidate in 2008 facedhard questions about global warming andthe environment when they visited collegecampuses, held town hall meetings, or hadany other event where you didn’t have to payhundreds of dollars to get in. We demandedfair climate policies, including green jobsäýëõèéí óëñ îðíóóäûí óäèðäàã÷ íàðººðñäèéí ìàíëàéëëûã öàã ìº÷ àëäàëã¿éõàðóóëàõûí òóëä çàëóóñ ðóó íýã õàðâàëçîõèíî. Çàëóó ñîíãîã÷äûí 64 õóâü òýäíèéñîíãîëòîä áàéãàëü îð÷íû àñóóäàë íýí ÷óõàëãýæ ºã¿¿ëñýíýýð ÀÍÓ-ûí çàëóóñ áàéãàëüîð÷íû àñóóäëààð çîðèìîã áàéð ñóóðü Richard Graves Ðè÷àðä Ãðåéâñáàðèìòàëäàã óäèðäàã÷èéã õ¿ñýæ áóéã òîäõàðóóëñàí. Áèä óëñ òºðèéí óäèðäàã÷äààñººð÷ëºëòèéã øààðäàæ áàéãàà òºäèé áóñ äóëààðëûí òàëàà𠺺ð÷ëºëò ãàðãàíà,áèäíèéã ¿ë ñîíñîõ òîõèîëäîëä óëñ òºðèéí àæèëëàíà õýìýýí àìëàñàí íýð äýâøèã÷èéãíºõöºë áàéäëûã ººð÷èëíº õýìýýí òýìöýæ äýìæèæ, 30 õ¿ðòýëõ íàñíû 24 ñàÿ ñîíãîã÷áàéíà. 2008 îíû åðºíõèéëºã÷èéí ñîíãóóëüä ºíãºðºã÷ 11 ä¿ãýýð ñàðä öóãëàñàí áèëýý.íýð äýâøèã÷ íàð êîëëåæóóäûí õîòõîíîîðî÷èæ, õîòóóäûí çºâëºëèéí õóðàëäààíû Çóðãèéí òàéëáàð: Ýíýòõýãèéí áàéãàëüòàíõèìä áîëñîí öóãëààíä áîëîí îðîëöîõûí îð÷íû èäýâõòí¿¿ä óóð àìüñãàëûíòóëä îëîí çóóí ìÿíãàí àì äîëëàð òºëºõ ººð÷ëºëòèéí äîõèîã õ¿ðãýõèéí òóëä íàðíûøààðäëàãàã¿é áóñàä ¿éë ÿâäàëä îðîëöîõäîî ýð÷èì õ¿÷ýýð àæèëëàäàã àâòîìàøèíûäýëõèéí äóëààðàë, áàéãàëü îð÷íû öóâààãààð õºäºº îðîí íóòàãò î÷èæ áàéãàààñóóäëààð àìàðã¿é àñóóëòóóäòàé í¿¿ð íü.òóëñàí áèëýý. Ãýâ÷ ººð÷ëºëò õèéõèéã øààðääàã ¿å Áîõèð ýð÷èì õ¿÷ õýðýãëýäýã ýäèéí çàñãààñ óëèðàí àðä õîöîð÷ áèä ò¿¿íèé òºëººõàñàãäñàí õ¿ì¿¿ñò íîãîîí àæëûí áàéð øàðãóó àæèëëàõ õýðýãòýé áîëæ áàéíà.îëãîõ, ò¿¿õèéí òóðøèä ÀÍÓ-ûí ÿëãàðóóëæ Õ¿÷íèé øèëæèëò áàãà õóðàëä Êîíãðåññûíèðñýí õèéí òºëºº äýëõèéí õýìæýýíä ãèø¿¿í á¿ðòýé óóëçàõ, äýëõèéí äóëààðëûíõàðèóöëàãà õ¿ëýýõ çýðýã óóð àìüñãàëûí àñóóäëààð çîðèìîã áîäëîãî ÿâóóëàõûãàñóóäëààð øóäàðãà áîäëîãî ÿâóóëàõûã øààðäàõààð 2009 îíû õàâàð Âàøèíãòîíáèä øààðäñàí þì. Ýöñèéí á¿ëýãò äýëõèéí Ä.Ñ. õîòíîî 12 ìÿíãàí çàëóóñ öóãëàðñàí e Journal USA 75 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • campaign on campuses and as an online climate negotiations in Bali, Indonesia. Weadvocacy network. More than 100 youth had all scraped together the resources toleaders from other countries, including the travel to this event, as we were desperateUnited Kingdom, China, Australia, India, to be heard. Youth leaders from countriesand other major emitting countries, were all around the world met for the firstthere to strategize about how to make our time. Whether we came from Kiribati,governments work together to solve this India, Australia, or the United States, weglobal problem. were unified in what we wanted from our Two years ago, I represented the leadership. We partnered with UNICEF tointernational youth delegation to the U.N. tell our stories, and every speaker was united in calling for a fair, ambitious, and binding Courtesy of Indian Youth Climate Network climate treaty to protect our future. Once again, world leaders are gathering to finally forge a climate treaty. However, things will be different this time around. Youth from the United States who organized the Power Shift conference are working with young people in the United Kingdom to hold their own conference, while the Australian Youth Climate Coalition had 3,000 participants at their Power Shift conference, in Sydney, last fall. Indian youth who were in Bali launched the Indian Youth Climate Network and worked with colleges, óã àðãà õýìæýýíä ÿâæ î÷èõûí òºëºº õàìòðààä õºðºí㺠áîñãîñîí. Êèðèáàòè, Ýíýòõýã, Àâñòðàëè, ÀÍÓ-ààñ î÷ñîí áèäýíä óäèðäàã÷äààñàà õ¿ñýõ ç¿éë èæèë áàéñàí. Áèä ººðñäèéí ÿðèàã äóóëãàõûí òóëä ÞÍÈÑÅÔ-òýé ò¿íøëýñýí áºãººä èðýýä¿éãýý àâðàí õàìãààëàõûí òºëºº øóäàðãà, øàõóó,Indian environmental activists bring the climate change message to rural areas in solar-powered caravans. çààâàë õýðýãæèõ óóð àìüñãàëûí ãýðýý Ýíýòõýãèéí áàéãàëü îð÷íû èäýâõòí¿¿ä óóð àìüñãàëûí áàéãóóëàõûã ¿ã õýëñýí õ¿ì¿¿ñ ñàíàë ººð÷ëºëòèéí òóõàé èëãýýëòèéã íàðíû ýð÷èì õ¿÷ýýð íýãòýéãýýð óðèàëñàí.àæèëëàäàã àâòîìàøèíû öóâààãààð õºäºº îðîí íóòàãò õ¿ðãýæ áàéíà. Á¿õèé ë èðýýä¿é ºìíº íü áàéãàà, óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòººñ ýðäýìòýä þóã õ¿ëýýæ áóéã îéëãîäîã Êèðèáàòè, Áàíãëàäåøèéí çàëóóñòàé Òà õýðýâ ÿðüæíü ýä¿ãýý èõ ñóðãóóëèóäûí õîòõîíä, ¿çâýë áîäîë òàíü ººð÷ëºãäºõ áîëíî. Áèäóõóóëãà ñóðòàë÷èëãàà îíëàéí ñ¿ëæýýíä ýäãýýð ÿðèàã ýìõýòãýæ, äýëõèé äàõèíä¿ðãýëæèëæ áàéíà. Äýëõèéí õýìæýýíèé ñîíñãîõîîð àæèëëàæ áàéíà. Õºãæèæ áàéãààýíý áýðõøýýëèéã øèéäâýðëýõèéí òºëºº óëñóóäûí òåõíèêò äóð ñîíèðõîëòîé çàëóóñ,çàñãèéí ãàçðóóäàà õàìòðàí àæèëëàäàã ººðñä人 òîõèîëäñîí ÿâäëûã âýá õóóäàñ,áîëãîõ ñòðàòåãè áîëîâñðóóëàõààð Íýãäñýí áëîã, ìýäýýëëèéí øèíý õýðýãñë¿¿äèéãÂàíò Óëñ, Õÿòàä, Àâñòðàëè, Ýíýòõýã àøèãëàí äàìæóóëàõààð çàëóó÷óóäûíáîëîí í¿¿ðñ õ¿÷ëèéí õèéã èõ õýìæýýãýýð óäèðäàã÷èäòàé õàìòðàí àæèëëàæÿëãàðóóëäàã áóñàä óëñûí çàëóó÷óóäûí 100 áàéíà. Óóð àìüñãàëä þó òîõèîëäîâ?ãàðóé óäèðäàã÷ íàð òýíä öóãëàñàí. Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòòýé òýìöýæ áóé Õî¸ð æèëèéí ºìíº Èíäîíåçèéí Áàëè ñàëáàð òèâèéí äóó õîîëîé [http://www.àðàëä áîëñîí óóð àìüñãàëûí ͯÁ- whatswiththeclimate.org], Çàëóóñ áà óóðûí õýëýëöýýíä ìèíèé áèå îëîí óëñûí àìüñãàë [http://youthclimate.org] çýðýãçàëóó÷óóäûã òºëººëºí îðîëöñîí. Áèä âýá õóóäñûã ýõëýí àæèëëóóëàõàä íü áè人ðñäèéí äóó õîîëîéã ñîíãîõûí òóëä äýìæëýã ¿ç¿¿ëñýí. Õºãæèíã¿é îðíû çàëóóñ e Journal USA 76 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • Nobel Prize-winning scientists, and civil Grappling with Climate Change [http://www.society groups to bring messages of change whatswiththeclimate.org] and Youth Climate.and renewable energy to the countryside in org [http://youthclimate.org]. Young peoplesolar-powered caravans. from the developed world are moved by how If you have ever talked to young people similar young people are from the developingfrom Kiribati or Bangladesh, who have world and how we face a common challenge.their whole future in front of them and The overwhelming election margin providedunderstand what the scientific community to President Obama by young people firedhas predicted from global warming, it up about global warming has inspiredchanges you forever. We are working to a worldwide explosion of youth climategather these stories and tell them to the activism. Youth leaders in the United Statesworld. Tech-savvy youth from the developing and abroad are expecting great things fromworld are working new leadership inwith youth leaders the United States,in developing If you have ever talked to but they are alsocountries to use working to changeWeb sites, blogs, young people from Kiribati political reality atand new media totell their stories. or Bangladesh, who have home. When worldWe have helped their whole future in front of leaders gatherlaunch sites likeWhat’s with the them and understand what in Copenhagen, let’s hope that theClimate? Voices the scientific community has representatives ofof a Subcontinent predicted from global warming, the United States it changes you forever.õºãæèæ áóé Èðýýä¿éí õàìàã àìüäðàë áàéíà. Àâñòðàëèéíîðíû çàëóó÷óóä Çàëóó÷óóäûí óóðòýäýíòýé õý÷íýýí ºìíº íü áàéãàà Êèðèáàòè àìüñãàëûí ýâñýëèæèë òºñòýé, ÿìàðíèéòëýã àñóóäàëòàé þìóó Áàíãëàäåøèéí ºíãºðºã÷ íàìàð Ñèäíåéä Ýðõòóëãàð÷ áàéäãèéã çàëóó÷óóäòàé õýðýâ Òà ÿðüæ ìýäëèéí øèëæèëò¿çýõýýð ¿íýõýýðñýòãýë äîãäîëäîã. ¿çâýë äýëõèéí äóëààðëûã áàãà õóðëàà õèéõýä 3 ìÿíãàí Äýëõèéí ýðäýìòýí òºñººëæ áàéãààã õ¿í îðîëöñîí.äóëààðàëä ñýòãýë îéëãîæ, ¿íäñýýðýý ººð÷ëºãäºõ Ýíýòõýãèéí ìºí çàëóóñ Áàëèäò¿ãøñýí çàëóóñûíäýìæëýãýýð áîëíî. óóð àìüñãàëûíñîíãóóëüä àñóóäëààðõ¿íýìëýõ¿é ººðñäèéí ñ¿ëæýýãÿëàëò áàéãóóëñàí Åðºíõèéëºã÷ Á.Îáàìà ¿¿ñãýí áàéãóóëæ,óóð àìüñãàëûí àñóóäàëä çàëóóñûí óðàì ººð÷ëºëò, ñýðãýýãäýõ ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé óðèàçîðèãèéã äýëõèé äàÿàð ºðí¿¿ëñýí. ÀÍÓ-ûí äóóäëàãûã íàðíû ýð÷èì õ¿÷ýýð àæèëëàäàãáîëîí áóñàä îðíû çàëóó÷óóäûí óäèðäàã÷ àâòîìàøèíààð îðîí íóòàãò õ¿ðãýõýýðíàð òóñ óëñûí øèíý óäèðäëàãààñ èõýýõýí êîëëåæóóä áîëîí Íîáåëèéí øàãíàëòç¿éëèéã õ¿ñýí õ¿ëýýæ, äîòîîääîî óëñ ýðäýìòýä, èðãýíèé íèéãìèéí á¿ëã¿¿äòýéòºðèéí áîäèò áàéäëûã ººð÷ëºõèéí òºëºº õàìòðàí àæèëëàæ ýõëýâ.àæèëëàæ áàéíà. 12 äóãààð ñàðä äýëõèéí óäèðäàã÷èä Äýëõèéí óäèðäàã÷èä óóð àìüñãàëûí Êîïåíãàãåíä õóðàí öóãëàõàä ÀÍÓ-ûíàñóóäëààð ãýðýý áàéãóóëàõààð áàñ äàõèí òºëººëºã÷èä äýëõèéí äóëààðëûí àñóóäëààðõóðàí ÷óóëàâ. Ýíý óäàà áàéäàë ººð÷ëºãäºõ Àìåðèêèéí çîðèìîã çàëóó óäèðäàã÷èéíáîëíî. Ýðõ ìýäëèéí øèëæèëò áàãà õóðëûã ¿ëãýð äóóðàéëëààñ ñóðàëöàíà ãýæ íàéäàæçîõèîí áàéãóóëñàí ÀÍÓ-ûí çàëóóñ Íýãäñýí áàéíà. ªºðñäèéã íü àæèãëàí õàðæ, ýðãýíÂàíò Óëñûí çàëóóñòàé õàìòðàí ººðñäèéí òîéðîíä íü çîãñ÷ áàéãàà çàëóó÷óóäûãáàãà õóðëûã çîõèîí áàéãóóëàõààð àæèëëàæ òîéðóóëàí õàðàõûã äýëõèéí óäèðäàã÷äààñ e Journal USA 77 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • are inspired by the bold leadership of youngAmericans on global warming. I ask thatthose world leaders look around them, asyoung people will be there, watching, on thesidelines. However, don’t expect them to staythere for long. If this political reality willnot assure us a livable world, be advised thatnearly half the world’s population will notallow an inconvenient political situation tostand between us and our very survival.  For more information, see the GlobalCampaign for Climate Action [http://tcktcktck.org]; Fired Up Media [http://firedupmedia.com]; LinkTV: Earth Focus[http:// www.linktv.org/earthfocus%5d”];It’s Getting Hot in Here [http://itsgettinghotinhere.org].The opinions expressed in this article do not necessarilyreflect the views or policies of the U.S. government.áè õ¿ñýõ áîëíî. Ãýõäýý òýäíèéã ýíýáàéäëààð óäààí õ¿ëýýíý ãýæ íàéäàõûíõýðýãã¿é. Õýðýâ óëñ òºðèéí ýíý áàéäàëäýëõèéã àÿòàé òîõèòîé áîëãîõã¿é àâààñäýëõèéí õ¿í àìûí áàðàã òýí õàãàñ íü óëñòºðèéí òààëàìæã¿é áàéäàë áèä á¿õíèéîðøèí àìüäðàõàä ñààä ó÷ðóóëàõ ó÷èðã¿éãòýäýíä îéëãóóëàõ áîëíî.  Óóð àìüñãàëûí òºëººõ äýëõèéí êàìïàíèòàæëèë [http://tcktcktck.org], Fired UpMedia, LinkTV:Earth Focus [http://www.linktv.org/earthfocus%5d”], ìºí It’s gettingHot in Here [http://itsgettinghotinhere.org]–ýýñ äýëãýðýíã¿é ìýäýýëëèéã ¿çíý ¿¿.Ýíý ºã¿¿ëýëä èëýðõèéëñýí ¿çýë áîäîë ÀÍÓ-ûí çàñãèéíãàçðûí áàéð ñóóðü, áîäëîãûí òóñãàë áàéõ àëáàã¿é. e Journal USA 78 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • Multilateral Cooperation Is the United Nations Up to the Challenge? Bo KjellénSeasoned diplomat Bo Kjellén brings his Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research,depth of experience in environmental policy UEA, Norwich. He has received prestigiousto this analysis of the role of the United awards for his diplomatic service, includingNations in formulating and implementing the Elizabeth Haub Prize for Environmentalclimate change policy. He joined Sweden’s Diplomacy (1998) and the GEF GlobalMinistry of Environment as chief negotiator Environment Leadership Award (1999).in 1990, heading Swedish delegations inthe Rio process and climate negotiations Auntil 2001. He has been chairman of the lmost 20 years ago, in FebruarySwedish Research Council on Environment, 1991, the negotiations for the UnitedAgricultural Sciences, and Spatial Planning Nations Framework Convention(Formas) and a visiting fellow at the on Climate Change started in Chantilly, Virginia, outside Washington, D.C. ThisÎëîí òàëò õàìòûí àæèëëàãàà Íýãäñýí ¯íäýñòíèé Áàéãóóëëàãà ñîðèëòîä õàðèó ºã÷ ÷àäàõ óó? Áî ÊæåëëåíÒóðøëàãàòàé äèïëîìàò Áî Êæåëëåí ò¿¿íèé äîòîð 1998 îíä áàéãàëü îð÷íûáàéãàëü îð÷íû ñàëáàðò õóðèìòëóóëñàí äèïëîìàò àæèëëàãààíû Ýëèçàáýò Õàóáûíººðèéí àðâèí òóðøëàãûã óóð àìüñãàëûí øàãíàë, 1999 îíä Áàéãàëü îð÷íû äýëõèéíººð÷ëºëòèéí áîäëîãûã òîìü¸îëîõ, ìàíëàéëëûí ÆÈÔ- èéí øàãíàë õ¿ðòñýí.õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõýä ͯÁ-ûí ã¿éöýòãýæ áàéãàà¿¿ðãèéã çàäëàí øèíæëýõýä çîðèóëäàã. ÎÒýðáýýð 1990 îíä Øâåäèéí Áàéãàëü îð÷íû äîîãîîñ 20 øàõàì æèëèéí òýðòýýÿàìàíä ÿðèà õýëöëèéã òýðã¿¿ëýã÷ýýð 1991 îíû 2 äóãààð ñàðä Âàøèíãòîíîðæ, Ðèî-èéí ¿éë ÿâöàä áîëîí óóð Ä.Ñ.-èéí îéðîëöîîõ Âèðæèíààìüñãàëûí õýëýëöýýíä 2001 îíûã Øâåäèéí ìóæèéí Øàíòèëëè õîòîä Óóð àìüñãàëûíòºëººëºã÷äèéã òýðã¿¿ëñýí áºãººä Øâåäèéí ººð÷ëºëòèéí ͯÁ-ûí Åðºíõèé õ¿ðýýíèéÁàéãàëü îð÷èí պ人 àæ àõóéí øèíæëýõ êîíâåíöèéã áàéãóóëàõ õýëýëöýý ýõýëñýíóõààí, Ñàíñðûí òºëºâëºëòèéí ñóäàëãààíû íü ͯÁ-ûí õ¿ðýýíä Óóð àìüñãàëûíçºâëºëèéã òýðã¿¿ëæ, Íîðâè÷ äàõü Óó𠺺ð÷ëºëòèéí çàñãèéí ãàçðóóä õîîðîíäûíàìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí Òèíäàëëûí õýñãèéí ñóäàëãàà øèíæèëãýýíèé ¿ð ä¿íäòºâèéí çî÷èí ñóäëàà÷ààð àæèëëàñàí, ¿íäýñëýñýí öóâðàë îëîí ÿðèà õýëýëöýýíèéäèïëîìàò àëáàíû íýð õ¿íäòýé øàãíàëóóä, ò¿ð¿¿÷ áàéñàí áºãººä 2007 îíä Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí çàñãèéí ãàçðóóä e Journal USA 79 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • was the beginning of a long series of climate the United States decided not to ratify thenegotiations within the U.N. framework, Kyoto Protocol in 2001, European Unionbased on the scientific findings of the leadership became decisive in finally puttingIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change into force the protocol in 2005. And now(IPCC). The importance of this scientific the Obama administration has returnedcontribution was recognized in 2007, when the United States to an active role in theIPCC was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. negotiations, giving new energy to the From the beginning, the United States process.and member states of the European Union We have learned a lot during the decadeshad provided a cooperative leadership, both of negotiation within the United Nations.scientifically and politically. However, when Climate has moved from being an issue for scientists, experts, and nongovernmental organizations into the permanent agenda Courtesy of IISD/Markus Staas of summit meetings of world leaders. And now, in the face of scientific evidence that indicates overwhelming proof of the dangers of human impact on the global climate system, the urgency of reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases is generally recognized. However, we also realize that such global action is difficult. Fossil fuels paved the way for the energy and transport revolution that gave a decisive contribution to living õýëýëöýõ õýðãèéí òºëºâëºãººíä áàéíãà îðäîã áîëîâ. Äýëõèéí óóð àìüñãàëûí ñèñòåìä õ¿íèé õ¿÷èí ç¿éëèéí ó÷ðóóëæ áóé Bo Kjellén àþóëûã èëòãýí õàðóóëñàí øèíæëýõ óõààíû Áî Êæåëëåí íîòîëãîîíû ¿ð ä¿íä õ¿ëýìæèéí õèéã ÿàðàëòàé áóóðóóëàõ øààðäëàãàòàéã íèéòýýð õ¿ëýýí çºâøººðºâ.õîîðîíäûí õýñýãò Íîáåëèéí øàãíàë Ãýõäýý äýëõèé äàõèíûã õàìàðñàí èéì ¿éëîëãîñîí íü ò¿¿íèé øèíæëýõ óõààíû ýë àæèëëàãàà àìàðã¿éã áèä îéëãîæ áàéíà.õóâü íýìðèéã ¿íýëñýí õýðýã áàéëàà. Îðãàíèê ò¿ëø íü àæ ¿éëäâýðæñýí åðòºíöºä ÀÍÓ, Åâðîïûí Õîëáîîíû ãèø¿¿í óëñóóä àìüäðàëûí ò¿âøèíä øèéäâýðëýõ ¿¿ðýãýíý ¿éë ÿâöûí ýõíýýñ àâààä øèíæëýõ ã¿éöýòãýñýí ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé áîëîí òýýâðèéíóõààí áîëîí óëñ òºðèéí õóâüä õàìòûí õóâüñãàëûí òîõèðîîã á¿ðä¿¿ëñýí. Ãýòýëìàíëàéëëààð õàíãàñàí. Ãýâ÷ 2001 îíä ìàíàé ãàðèãèéí òîìõîí õýñýãò îðøèíÀÍÓ Êèîòîãèéí ïðîòîêîëûã ñî¸ðõîí ñóóã÷èä õºãæëèéí òýäãýýð ¿ð øèìèéãáàòëàõã¿éãýýð øèéäýõýä ïðîòîêîëûã 2005 õàðààõàí õ¿ðòýýã¿é áàéíà. Óóð àìüñãàëûíîíä õ¿÷èí òºãºëäºð áîëãîõîä Åâðîïûí àñóóäëààðõ ÿðèà õýëýëöýýíä õºãæèæ áóéÕîëáîîíû ìàíëàéëàë øèéäâýðëýõ ¿¿ðýã îðíóóä óóð àìüñãàëûí íàéìààíû õ¿ðýýíäã¿éöýòãýñýí. Îáàìàãèéí çàñàã çàõèðãàà òåõíîëîãè äàìæóóëàõàä áîëîí ÿäóóðëûíÀÍÓ-ûã ÿðèà õýëýëöýýíä èäýâõòýé ¿¿ðýã ýñðýã òóóøòàé òýìöýõ, äàñàí çîõèöîõã¿éöýòãýõ áîëãîñíîîð óã ¿éë ÿâöàä øèíý ¿éë ÿâöûã óëàì á¿ð ñàíõ¿¿æ¿¿ëýõèéãýð÷ õ¿÷ íýìýâ. øààðääàãò ãàéõàõ ç¿éëã¿é. Íýãäñýí ¯íäýñòíèé Áàéãóóëëàãûí ͯÁ áîë îëîí óëñûí õàìòûíõ¿ðýýíä îëîí àðâàí æèë ¿ðãýëæèëñýí ÿðèà àæèëëàãààíû òºðºë á¿ðèéí ýëåìåíòõýëýëöýýíèé ÿâöàä áèä îëîí ç¿éëèéã ñóð÷ öîãöëîí á¿ðääýã ãàçàð áèëýý. ͯÁ-ûíìýäñýí. Ýðäýìòýä, ìýðãýæèëòí¿¿ä, òºðèéí Åðºíõèé Àññàìáëåéí ÷óóëãàí 2000 îíäáóñ áàéãóóëëàãûíõíû ÿðüäàã ñýäýâ áàéñàí Ìÿíãàíû õºãæëèéí çîðèëòóóäûã áàòàëæ,óóð àìüñãàëûí àñóóäàë ýä¿ãýý äýëõèéí 1972, 1992 îíä áîëîí 2002 îíä áàéãàëüóäèðäàã÷äûí äýýä õýìæýýíèé óóëçàëòûí îð÷íû àñóóäëààðõ òîìõîí áàãà õóðëóóä e Journal USA 80 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • standards in the industrialized world. But a global change: climate, ozone, air pollution, large part of the planet’s population has not biological diversity, desertification, drought, yet benefited from these developments. It is and regulation of toxic chemicals. not surprising that the developing countries But the question has been raised if in the climate negotiations insist on transfer the cumbersome U.N. procedures are of technology and increased financing for good enough for translating normative adaptation and continued combat of poverty as a necessary part of a climate deal. The United Nations is the place where all these different elements of international Climate has moved cooperation come together. It is the U.N. General Assembly that adopted the from being an issue Millennium Development Goals in 2000; it for scientists, experts, is the United Nations that held the major conferences on the environment in 1972, and nongovernmental 1992, and 2002; and it is the United Nations organizations into the that has hosted all negotiating processes on permanent agenda of U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki-moon visits the polar ice rim to summit meetings of world see the impact of climate change firsthand in June 2009, as part of his campaign for a fair, effective agreement at the COP15 in leaders. The United Nations December. is the place where all these different elements ofUN photo/Mark Garten international cooperation come together. Óóð àìüñãàë ýðäýìòýí ìýðãýæèëòí¿¿ä, òºðèéí áóñ áàéãóóëëàãûíõíû õ¿ðýýíä ÿðèãääàã àñóóäàë áàéõàà íýãæ áîëüæ äýëõèéí ͯÁ-ûí Åðºíõèé íàðèéí áè÷ãèéí äàðãà Áàí Êè Ìóí óóð óëñ òºðèéí óäèðäàã÷äûí àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí ¿ð äàãàâàðûã ¿çýõýýð òóéëûí ìºñºíä î÷îîä áàéãàà íü. äýýä õýìæýýíèé óóëçàëòûí õýëýëöýõ õýðãèéí ͯÁ-ä õóðàëäàæ, äýëõèéí õýìæýýíèé ººð÷ëºëò, óóð àìüñãàë, îçîíû äàâõàðãà, òºëºâëºãººíä áàéíãà àãààðûí áîõèðäîë, áèîëîãèéí òºðºë ç¿éë, áàãòäàã áîëîâ. ͯÁ áîë öºëæèëò, ãàí, õèìèéí õîðò áîäèñûí çîõèöóóëàëòûã õýëýëöýõ á¿õèé ë ¿éë îëîí óëñûí õàìòûí ÿâöûã çîõèîí áàéãóóëñàí. àæèëëàãààíû òºðºë á¿ðèéí Íîðìàòèâ çàð÷ìóóäûã ¿ð ä¿íòýé àæèë õýðýã áîëãîí õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõýä òîäîðõîé ýëåìåíò¿¿ä íýãäýí íèéëäýã àðãà õýìæýý øààðäñàí, àìüäðàëûí õýâ òàëáàð áèëýý. ìàÿã, ýäèéí çàñãèéí á¿òöýä øóóä íºëººëºõ íèéãìèéí àìàðã¿é ¿ð äàãàâàðóóä á¿õèé óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëò çýðýã àñóóäëóóäààð ͯÁ-ûí àðãà àæèëëàãàà õàíãàëòòàé þó Ýíý àñóóëòûã òàâèõ øààðäëàãà ¿íýõýýð ãýäýã àñóóëò àÿíäàà ãàðíà. ͯÁ-ûí ñèñòåì áèé. Áóñàä ¿éë ÿâö áîëîí Òîì 8, Òîì 20, ¿¿íèéã õýðýãæ¿¿ëæ ¿íýõýýð ÷àäàõ óó? Òîì ýäèéí çàñàãòàé óëñóóäûí ÷óóëãàí (MEF), Ýäèéí çàñãèéí õàìòûí àæèëëàãàà, e Journal USA 81 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • principles into effective action on issues like change: Emissions of greenhouse gases fromclimate change, with its need for concrete all countries accumulate in the commonmeasures and difficult societal effects atmosphere. At the same time, climatedirectly influencing lifestyles and economic change is only part of a broader processstructures. Can the U.N. system really of accelerating change in natural systemsdeliver? caused by human activities. The human The question needs to be raised. And species has now become so numerous andit is quite clear that other processes our technological capacity so overwhelmingand institutions, such as the G8/G20, that common action is needed to counter thethe Major Economies Forum (MEF), the threats of collapse of life-supporting naturalOrganization for Economic Cooperation and systems. There is no other planet to go to.Development (OECD), or the various regional So the problem is really not to buildorganizations, all have a role in translating another United Nations. Instead we have topolitical will to action in their own nations, ask: How can the United Nations be reformedand, jointly, with other nations around the to meet the requirements of today andworld, into common action. The climate tomorrow? Some people would say that thisnegotiations have benefitted greatly from the is unrealistic. So far U.N. reform has alwaysactive presence of NGOs. Their advocacy and stumbled on political difficulties, such asexpertise have certainly impressed many of those that met the proposals of formerthe delegates. Secretary-General Kofi Annan. Despite all But there is no substitute for the United the difficulties, I trust that the ongoingNations when it comes to really global issues. climate negotiations will demonstrate theAnd nothing is more global than climate capacity of the United Nations to provide an efficient framework for cooperative actionõºãæëèéí áàéãóóëëàãà áîëîí á¿ñ íóòãèéí áàéíà. Î÷îîä ñóóðüøèõ îíäîî ãàðèã ãýæáóñàä áàéãóóëëàãà á¿ãä ë óëñ òºðèéí àëãà.ýðìýëçëèéã òóñ òóñûí õýìæýýíä, Òýãýõýýð àñóóäëûí ãîë íü äàõèàä íýãõàìòðààä, äýëõèéí áóñàä óëñòàé íèéëýýä ͯÁ áàéãóóëàõàä áèø. Õàðèí ºíºº,á¿õ íèéòèéí ¿éë àæèëëàãàà áîëãîæ ìàðãààøèéí øààðäëàãûã õàíãàõûí òóëäõýðýãæ¿¿ëýõ ¿¿ðýãòýé. Óóð àìüñãàëûí ͯÁ-ûã õýðõýí ººð÷ëºí çîõèîí áàéãóóëàõàñóóäëààðõ ÿðèà õýëýëöýýí¿¿ä òºðèéí áóñ âý? ãýäýãò îðøèíî. Çàðèì õ¿í ¿¿íèéãáàéãóóëëàãóóäûí èäýâõòýé îðîëöîîíû ¿ð áîäèòîé áèø ãýæ õýëíý. ͯÁ-ûí øèíý÷ëýëøèìèéã èõýýõýí õ¿ðòñýí. Òýäíèé àðãà ºíººã õ¿ðòýë Åðºíõèé íàðèéí áè÷ãèéíòóðøëàãà, óõóóëàí îéëãóóëàõ àæèëëàãàà äàðãà àñàí Êîôè Àíàíû ñàíàà÷èëãóóä øèãòºëººëºã÷äèéí îëîíõèä ¿ëýìæ ñýòãýë óëñ òºðèéí áýðõøýýë¿¿äýä á¿ä÷èæ èðñýí.òºð¿¿ëñýí íü òîäîðõîé. Õýäèéãýýð ýíý ìýò áýðõøýýë áàéäàã ÷ ͯÁ Ãýõäýý ¿íýõýýð äýëõèéí õýìæýýíèé áîë äýëõèé íèéòèéã õàìàðñàí àþóëóóäûíàñóóäàëä ͯÁ-ûã îðëîõ ç¿éë ¿ã¿é áèëýý. ýñðýã õàìòðàí àæèëëàõ ¿ð íºëºº á¿õèéÓóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòººñ èë¿¿ äýëõèéí õ¿ðýý áîëæ ÷àäíà õýìýýí èòãýõèéã áèõýìæýýíèé àñóóäàë ãýæ àëãà. Á¿õ óëñ õ¿ñýæ áàéíà.îðíóóäûí ÿëãàðóóëæ áóé õ¿ëýìæèéí õèé Äýëõèéí íèéòèéã õàìàðñàí óëñ òºðèéíàãààð ìàíäàëä õóðèìòëàãäñààð áàéíà. àñóóäëóóäûã øèíý ìàÿãèéí ýäèéí¯¿íèé çýðýãöýý óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëò çàñàã, áàéãàëü îð÷íû àñóóäëóóäòàéáîë õ¿íèé ¿éë àæèëëàãàà áàéãàëèéí óÿëäóóëàõàä ÷èãëýñýí èë¿¿ ºðãºí õ¿ðýýòýéòîãòîöûã óëàì õ¿÷òýé ººð÷èëæ áóé ºðãºí øèíý÷ëýëèéã õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõ áîëîìæ áèéõ¿ðýýòýé ¿éë ÿâöûí º÷¿¿õýí õýñýã þì. ãýäýãò áè õàòóó èòãýæ áàéíà. Îëîí òàëòÕ¿í ãýã÷ àìüòàí ¿ëýìæ îëøèð÷, òåõíèê õàìòûí àæèëëàãààíû òàëààð Åðºíõèéëºã÷òåõíîëîãèéí õ¿÷èí ÷àäàë íýìýãäýýä Îáàìàãèéí òîäîðõîé èëýðõèéëñýí ñàíàë íüèðýõýýð àìüäðàëûã òýòãýã÷ áàéãàëèéí ìàãàäã¿é Äýëõèéí çàñàãëàëûí êîìèññûíòîãòîëöîîã ñ¿éð¿¿ëýõ àþóëûí ýñðýãõàìòðàí àæèëëàõ øààðäëàãàòàé áîëæ e Journal USA 82 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • on global threats. And I firmly believe thatthere is scope for more general reformsaimed at linking global political issues witheconomic and environmental problems of anew character. I hope that the clearly statedambitions of President Obama with regardto multilateral cooperation would also beinstrumental in moving to U.N. reform,perhaps in the direction of providing theexisting Trusteeship Council with a newagenda on global survival issues, as proposedby the Commission on Global Governance.We will also need more efficient U.N.processes for facing climate-related and othernatural disasters. There is no time to lose. The opinions expressed in this article do not necessarilyreflect the views or policies of the U.S. government.ñàíàë áîëãîñîí÷ëîí ºíººãèéí Òðàñòèøèôçºâëºëä äýëõèéí îðøèõ ýñ îðøèõûíàñóóäëààð øèíý õàðèóöëàãà îíîãäóóëàõçàìààð ͯÁ-ûí øèíý÷ëýëèéã óðàãøóóëàõõýðýãñýë áîëíî ãýæ èòãýæ áàéíà. Óóðàìüñãàëûí õîëáîãäîëòîé áîëîí áàéãàëèéíáóñàä ãàìøãèéí ýñðýã ͯÁ-ûí ¿éë ÿâöûãèë¿¿ øóóðõàé áîëãîõ øààðäëàãà áèäýíäìºí òàâèãäàæ áàéíà. Òàëààð ºíãºð¿¿ëýõöàã õóãàöàà ¿ã¿é áîëëîî. Ýíý ºã¿¿ëýëä èëýðõèéëñýí ¿çýë áîäîë ÀÍÓ-ûí çàñãèéíãàçðûí áàéð ñóóðü, áîäëîãûí òóñãàë áàéõ àëáàã¿é. e Journal USA 83 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • Additional Resources Articles, books, and Web sites on climate change issuesArticles De Boer, Yvo. “Informal Ministerial Meeting: Bali Brunch 2009.” Washington, D.C., Address, April 26, 2009.Brahic, Catherine, David L. Chandler, Michael http://unfccc.int/files/press/news_room/statements/Le Page, Phil McKenna, and Fred Pearce. “The application/ pdf/090426_speech_balibrunch.pdf7 Biggest Myths about Climate Change.” NewScientist, vol. 194, no. 2604 (May 19-May 25, Hasselmann, Klaus, and Terry Barker. “The Stern2007): pp. 34-42. Review and the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report:http://www.newscientist.com/article/ Implications for Interaction Between Policymakersmg19426041.100-the-7- biggest-myths-about-climate- and Climate Experts.” Climatic Change, vol. 89,change.html?full=true nos. 3-4 (August 2008): pp. 219-229. http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/Chen, A. Anthony. “The Climate Studies Group l015464h31267t53/fulltext.pdfMona.” Caribbean Quarterly, vol. 54, no. 3(September 2008): pp. 85-91. Kraemer, R. Andreas. “What Price Energy Transformation?” Survival, vol. 50, no. 3 (June/ July 2008): pp. 11-18. Íýìýëò ýõ ñóðâàëæóóä Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëààðõ íèéòëýë, íîì, áîëîí âýáñàéòóóäÍèéòëýë Hasselmann, Klaus, and Terry Barker. “Ñòýðí òîéì áîëîí ÓÀªÊÃÕÕ-èéí 4 äýõ ¿íýëãýýíèé òàéëàí:Brahic, Catherine, David L. Chandler, Michael Áîäëîãî áîëîâñðóóëàã÷ íàð áîëîí óóð àìüñãàëûíLe Page, Phil McKenna, and Fred Pearce. “Óóð ìýðãýæèëòí¿¿äèéí õàìòûí àæèëëàãààíû ¿ðàìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí òóõàé õàìãèéí òîì 7 íºëºº.” Ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé ººð÷ëºëò ÿìàð ºðòºãòýéäîìîã”.” New Scientist, õýâëýëèéí ãàçàð , 194 âý?, ñýòã¿¿ëèéí. 89 ä¿ãýýð áîòü, 3-4 äýõ äóãààðä¿ãýýð áîòü, äóãààð 2604 ( 2007 îíû 5 äóãààð 2008 îíû 8 äóãààð ñàð): õóóäàñ 219-229.ñàðûí 19-25,): õóóäàñ 34-42. http://springerlink.metapress.com/http://www.newscientist.com/article/ content/l015464h31267t53/fulltext.pdfmg19426041.100-the-7-biggest-myths-about-climate-change.html Kraemer, R. Andreas. “Ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé ººð÷ëºëò ÿìàð ºðòºãòýé âý? What Price EnergyChen, A. Anthony. “Óóð àìüñãàëûí ñóäàëãààíû Transformation?” Survival ñýòã¿¿ëèéí. 50 äóãààðá¿ëýã Moía.” Caribbean Quarterly ñýòã¿¿ëèéí. 54 áîòü, 3 äàõü äóãààð (2008 îíû 6,7 äóãààð ñàð),äóãààð áîòü,. 3 äàõü äóãààð ( 2008 îíû 9 ä¿ãýýð õóóäàñ. 11-18.ñàð): õóóäàñ. 85-91. Luers, Amy Lynd. “Óóð àìüñãàëûí àþóëòàéDe Boer, Yvo. “Ñàéä íàðûí àëáàí áóñ óóëçàëò: ººð÷ëºëòººñ õýðõýí çàéëñõèéõ âý?.” Catalyst,Áàëè áà Áðàí÷ 2009 îí.” Âàøèíãòîí Ä.Ñ., 2009 ñýòã¿¿ëèéí. 6 äóãààð áîòü. 2 äàõü äóãààð ( 2007îíû 4 ä¿ãýýð ñàðûí 26, Õàÿã. http://unfccc.int/ îíû íàìàð): õóóäàñ. 1-5.files/press/news_room/statements/application/ http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/global_pdf/090426_speech_balibrunch.pdf warming/emissions-target-report.pdf e Journal USA 84 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • Luers, Amy Lynd. “How to Avoid DangerousClimate Change.” Catalyst, vol. 6, no. 2 (Fall 2007): Pan, Jiahua, et al. “Environmental Targets andpp. 1-5. Policies in China: Effectiveness and Challenges.”http://www.ucsusa.org/publications/catalyst/ Canadian Foreign Policy, vol. 13, no. 2 (2006): pp.dangerousclimate- change.html 133 (13 pages).Malhi, Y., others and Anderson, L. “Comprehensive Pearce, Fred, and Michael Le Page. “The DecadeAssessment of Carbon Productivity, Allocation after Tomorrow,” New Scientist, vol. 199, no. 2669and Storage in Three Amazonian Forests.” Global (August 16-August 22, 2008): pp. 26-30.Change Biology, vol. 15, no. 5 (May 2009): pp.1255-1274. Specter, Michael. “Big Foot.” The New Yorker, February 25, 2008.McKibben, Bill. “Think Again: Climate Change,” http://www.newyorker.com/Foreign Policy, no. 170 (January/February 2009): reporting/2008/02/25/080225fa_ fact_specterpp. 32-38. Swart, Rob, Lenny Bernstein, Minh Ha-Duong,Monastersky, Richard. “Climate Crunch: A Burden and Arthur Petersen. “Agreeing to Disagree:beyond Bearing.” Nature, vol. 458, no. 7242 (April Uncertainty Management in Assessing Climate30, 2009): pp. 1091-1094. Change, Impacts, and Responses by the IPCC.” Climatic Change, vol. 92, nos. 1-2 (January 2009):Nisbet, Matthew C. “Communicating Climate pp. 1-29.Change,” Environment, vol. 51, no. 2 (March/April http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/2009): pp. 12-23. t6m685262gp51k2v/fulltext.pdfMalhi, Y., others and Anderson, L. Pearce, Fred, and Michael Le Page. “Ìàðãààøèéí“Àìàçîíû ãóðâàí îé äàõü í¿¿ðñ õ¿÷ëèéí öààäàõü 10 æèë,” New Scientist, ñýòã¿¿ëèéí. 199¿éëäüýðëýë,õóâààðèëàëò, õàäãàëàëòûí öîãö ä¿ãýýð áîòü. 2669 äýõ äóãààð 2008 îíû 8 äóãààð¿íýëãýý.” Global Change biology ñýòã¿¿ëèéí,. 15 ñàðûí 16-22): õóóäàñ. 26-30.äóãààð áîòü, 5 äàõü äóãààð (2009 îíû 5 äóãààðñàð): õóóäàñ. 1255-1274. Specter, Michael. “Òîì õºëò.” The New Yorker ñýòã¿¿ë, 2008 îíû 2 äóãààð ñàðûí 25McKibben, Bill. “Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí http://www.newyorker.com/òóõàé äàõèí áîäîõóé,” Foreign Policy, ñýòã¿¿ëèéí. reporting/2008/02/25/080225fa_fact_specter170 äàõü äóãààð ( 2009 îíû 1,2 äóãààð): õóóäàñ.32-38. Swart, Rob, Lenny Bernstein, Minh Ha-Duong, and Arthur Petersen. “¯ë çºâøººðñºíººMonastersky, Richard. “Óóð àìüñãàëûí äàðàìò: çºâøººðºõ¿é: Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéíÒýñâýðëýõ àðãàã¿é äàðàìò.” Nature, ñýòã¿¿ëèéí ¿íýëãýýíèé ìýíýæìýíò, ÓÀªÇÃÕÕ-èéí õàðèóëò458 äóãààð áîòü, 7242 äóãààð ( 2009 îíû 4 ä¿ãýýð áà íºëººí¿¿ä.” Climatic Change ñýòã¿¿ëèéí. 92ñàðûí 30): õóóäàñ. 1091-1094. ä¿ãýýð áîòü, 1-2 äàõü äóãààð ( 2009 îíû 1 ä¿ãýýð ñàð): õóóäàñ 1-29.Nisbet, Matthew C. “Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/òàëààð õàðüöàõóé Climate Change,” Environment t6m685262gp51k2v/fulltext.pdfñýòã¿¿ëèéí. 51 ä¿ãýýð áîòü, 2äóãààð ( 2009 îíû3,4 ä¿ãýýð ñàð): õóóäàñ. 12-23. Wirth, Timothy E. “Óóð àìüñãàëûí èäýâõæèë: Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí øèíý áîëîìæ.” The FieldPan, Jiahua, et al. “Õÿòàä äàõü óóð àìüñãàëûí Museum, Chicago, IL ñýòã¿¿ë. Lecture, 2008 îíû 5çîðèëüóóä áà áîäëîãî: ¯ð íºëºº áîëîí ñîðèëòóóä.” äóãààð ñàðûí 14.Canadian Foreign Policy ñýòã¿¿ëèéí. 13 äóãààð http://www.globalproblems-globalsolutions-files.org/áîòü, 2 äàõü äóãààð (2006): õóóäàñ. 133 (13 unf_website/PDF/speeches/ClimateActivism_TheNewõóóäàñ). OpportunitiesofClimateChange_FieldMuseum51408. pdf e Journal USA 85 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
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  • Gore, Albert. An Inconvenient Truth. Emmaus, PA: Our Changing Planet: The U.S. Climate ChangeRodale Press, 2006. Science Program for Fiscal Year 2009. Washington, DC: Climate Change Science Program, 2008.IPCC, 2007: Summary for Policymakers. In http://downloads.climatescience.gov/ocp/ocp2009/Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. ocp2009.pdfContribution of Working Group I to the FourthAssessment Report of the Intergovernmental Pachauri, Rajendra K. et al., eds. Climate ChangePanel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, 2007: Synthesis Report, Summary for Policy Makers.M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, Geneva, Switzerland: Intergovernmental Panel onM.Tignor, and H.L. Miller, eds.]. Cambridge Climate Change, 2007.University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, andNew York, NY, USA. Pew Center on Global Climate Change. Climate Change 101: Understanding and Responding toMann, Michael, and Lee R. Kump. Dire Predictions: Global Climate Change. Arlington, VA: Pew CenterUnderstanding Global Warming. The Illustrated on Global Climate Change, 2009.Guide to the Findings of the IntergovernmentalPanel on Climate Change. New York, NY: DK http://www.pewclimate.org/docUploads/Climate101-Publishing, Inc., 2008. Complete-Jan09.pdfMay, Elizabeth, and Zoë Caron. Global Warming Repetto, Robert. Climate Policy and Economicfor Dummies. Mississauga, ON: J. Wiley & Sons Revitalization. Washington, DC: Climate PolicyCanada, 2009. Center, 2008. http://www.cleanair-coolplanet.org/cpc/documents/ repetto_ report.pdfMarquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor, and H.L. Miller, Repetto, Robert. Óóð àìüñãàëûí áîäëîãî áàeds.]. Cambridge University Press õýâëýëèéí ãàçàð, ýäèéí çàñãèéí ýð÷èìæèëò, Âàøèíãòîí Ä.Ñ. ÓóðÁðèòàíè,Êýìáðèæ ,ÀÍÓ-ûí Íüþ Éîðê ìóæèéí àìüñãàëûí áîäëîãûí òºâ, 2008 îí.Íüþ Éîðê. http://www.cleanair-coolplanet.org/cpc/documents/ repetto_report.pdfMann, Michael, and Lee R. Kump. Äýëõèéíäóëààðëûí àìàðã¿é òºñººëºë:Äýëõèéí äóëààðëûí Spencer, Roy W. Óóð àìüñãàëûí òººðºãäºë. Íüþîéëãîëò. Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëààðõ Éîðê ìóæèéí Íüþ Éîðê õîò: Encounter BooksÇàñãèéí ãàçàð õîîðîíäûí õýñãèéí çóðàãò ä¿ãíýëò. õýâëýëèéí ãàçàð, 2008 îí.Íüþ Éîðê ìóæèéí Íüþ Éîðê: DK Publishing, Incõýâëýëèéí ãàçàð., 2008 îí.May, Elizabeth, and Zoë Caron. Äýëõèéí Stern, Nicholas. ÍÀéäâàðòàé ãàðèãèéí ¿íäñýíäóëààðëûí òàëààð òýíýã¿¿äýä. Mississauga, ON: ÷èãëýë: Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéã õýðõýíJ. Wiley & Sons õýâëýëèéí ãàçàð,Êàíàäà óëñ 2009 óäèðäàõ âý? Õºãóèë äýâøèë, öýöýãëýëòèéí øèíýîí. ýðèí ¿åèéã áèé áîëãîõ íü. Íüþ Éîðê: Random House õýâëýëèéí ãàçàð, 2009 îí.Áèäíèé õóâüñàí ººð÷ëºãäºæ áóé ãàðèã: Óóðàìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí ÀÍÓ-ûí øèíæëýõ Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéã îéëîãîõ, õàðèóóõààíû õºòºëáºð 2009 îíû ñàíõ¿¿ãèéí æèëä. ¿éëäýë õèéõ íü. Âàøèíãòîí Ä.Ñ. DC: ØèíæëýõÂàøèíãòîí Ä.Ñ, DC: Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí óõààíû ¿íäýñíèé àêàäåìè, 2008 îí.øèíæëýõ óõààíû õºòºëáºð, 2008 îí. http://dels.nas.edu/dels/rpt_briefs/climate_http://downloads.climatescience.gov/ocp/ocp2009/ change_2008_final.pdfocp2009.pdfPachauri, Rajendra K. et al., eds. Óóð àìüñãàëûíººð÷ëºëò 2007: ÑÈÍÒÅÇ ÒÀÉËÀÍ,Áîäëîãîáîëîâñðóóëàã÷ íàðò çîðèóëñàí õóðààíãóé,Øâåéöàðü óëñûí Æåíåâ õîò: Óóð àìüñãàëûíººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëààðõ çàñãèéí ãàçàð õîîðîíäûíõýñýã 2007 îí. e Journal USA 87 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • The World Bank World Development IndicatorsSpencer, Roy W. Climate Confusion. New York, NY: Database, 1 July 2009. Gross domestic productEncounter Books, 2008. (2008). http://siteresources.worldbank.org/ DATASTATISTICS/ Resources/GDP.pdfStern, Nicholas. A Blueprint for a Safer Planet:How to Manage Climate Change and Create a New Yale University: School of Forestry andEra of Progress and Prosperity. New York: Random Environmental Studies: Project on Climate ChangeHouse, 2009. http://research.yale.edu/environment/climate/Understanding and Responding to Climate Change. GovernmentWashington, DC: National Academy of Sciences,2008. U.S. Department of Commerce: National Oceanichttp://dels.nas.edu/dels/rpt_briefs/climate_ and Atmospheric Administration: Climatechange_2008_final. pdf http://www.noaa.gov/climate.htmlWeb Sites U.S. Department of Energy: Climate Change http:// www.energy.gov/environment/climatechange.htmAcademic U.S. Department of State: Bureau of Oceans andNational Center for Atmospheric Research: Climate International Environmental and Scientific Affairs:http://www.ncar.ucar.edu/research/climate/ Climate Change http://www.state.gov/g/oes/climate/Âýáñàéòóóä http://www.energy.gov/environment/climatechange. htmÝðäýì øèíæèëãýý ÀÍÓ-ûí Òºðèéí äåïàðòàìåíòûíÄàëàéí áîëîíÀãààð ìàíäëûí ñóäàëãààíû ¿íäýñíèé òºâ Îëîí óëñûí áàéãàëü îð÷èí,øèíæëýõ óõààí, áàéãàëü îð÷íû ººð÷ëºëòèéí òîâ÷îîhttp://www.ncar.ucar.edu/research/climate/ http://www.state.gov/g/oes/climate/Äýëõèéí Áàíêíû Õºãæëèéí øàëãóóð¿ç¿¿ëýëò¿¿äèéí ºãºãäýõ¿¿íèé ñàí, 2009 îíû 7 ÀÍÓ-ûí Áàéãàëü îð÷íûã õàìãààëàõ àãåíòëàã,Óóðäóãààð ñàðûí 1. Äîòîîäûí íèéò ¿éëäâýðëýë (2008 àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòîí). http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DATASTATISTICS/ Resources/GDP.pdf Îëîí óëñÅýëèéí Èõ ñóðãóóëèéíÎé ìîä, Áàéãàëü Óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëààðõ çàñãèéíîð÷íû ñóäàëãààíû ñóðãóóëü: Óóð àìüñãàëûí ãàçàð õîîðîíäûí õýñý㺺ð÷ëºëòèéí òºñººëºë http://www.ipcc.ch/http://research.yale.edu/environment/climate/ KombikraftwerkÇàñãèéí ãàçàð http://www.kombikraftwerk.de/index.php?id=27ÀÍÓ-ûí Õóäàëäààíû ÿàìíû: Àãààð ìàíäàë,äàëàéí ñóäàëãààíû çàõèðãàà: Óóð àìüñãàë ßàìàéêèéí Öàã óóðûí øèíæèëãýýíèé àëáàhttp://www.noaa.gov/climate.html http://www.metservice.gov.jm/ÀÍÓ-ûí Ýð÷èì õ¿÷íèé ÿàìíû Óóð àìüñãàëûí ÀÍÓ,Åâðîïûí Õîëáîîíû Ñòðàòåãèéí ÿðè຺ð÷ëºëò õýëýëöýý âýá ñàéò http://www.energy-transformation.org/ e Journal USA 88 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Climate OrganizationsChangehttp://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ Ecologic Institute www. ecologic.eu<http://www.ecologic.eu>; www.International ecologicinstitute. us< http:// www. ecologic-institute.Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change us>http://www.ipcc.ch/ Pew Center on Global Climate ChangeKombikraftwerk http://www.pewclimate.org/http://www.kombikraftwerk.de/index.php?id=27 Resources for the Future: Climate ChangeU.S.-E.U. Strategy Dialogue on Energy http://www.rff.org/research_topics/pages/climate_Transformation change.aspxhttp://www.energy-transformation.org Sixth Compilation and Synthesis of Initial National Communications From Parties not Included inUnited Nations Framework Convention on Climate Annex I to the ConventionChange http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2005/sbi/eng/18a02.http://unfccc.int/ pdfÓóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí àñóóäëààðõ ͯÁ-ûí Óóð àìüñãàëûí òàíõèì — Áàéãàëü õàìãààëàõÅðºíõèé õ¿ðýýíèé êîíâåíö ¿íäýñíèé õîëáîîhttp://unfccc.int/ http://www.nwf.org/climateclassroom/Áàéãóóëëàãóóä Ãàë ä¿ðýëçñýí õýâëýë ìýäýýëëèéí õýðýãñýë http://firedupmedia.com/Ýêîëîãèéí õ¿ðýýëýíhttp://ecologic.eu; http://ecologic.eu/washington Óóð àìüñãàëûí ÷èãëýëýýðõ ¿éë àæèëëàãààíû äýëõèé äàõèíû êàìïàíèò àæèëëàãààÄýëõèéí óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòèéí ÏÝÞ òºâ http://gc-ca.org/http://www.pewclimate.org/ Õàëóóí óëñ òºðÓóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëò: Èðýýéä¿éí áàÿëàã http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/http://www.rff.org/research_topics/pages/climate_ hotpolitics/change.aspx “Ýíä õàëæ áàéíà” áëîãÊîíâåíöèéí 1 ä¿ãýýð õàâñðàëòàä íýãäýýã¿é http://itsgettinghotinhere.org/óëñóóäûí àíõíû ìýäýýëëèéí 6 äàõü ýìõýòãýë,íèéëýãæèëò LinkTV: Äýëõèéí òóñãàëhttp://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2005/sbi/eng/18a02.pdf http://www.linktv.org/earthfocusÎþóòíóóäàä çîðèóëñàí Æèíõýíý óóð àìüñãàë: Óóð àìüñãàëûí àñóóäëààðõ ýðäýìòäèéí óóð àìüñãàëûí øèíæëýõ óõààíÀìüäðàë áà Èðýýä¿éä ó÷èðàõ àþóë øèíý ýð÷èì http://www.realclimate.org/õ¿÷- óóð àìüñãàëûí ººð÷ëºëòhttp://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/climatechange/ e Journal USA 89 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • For Students LinkTV: Earth Focus http://www.linktv.org/earthfocusClimate Change: The Threat to Life and a NewEnergy Future Real Climate: Climate Science From Climatehttp://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/climatechange/ Scientists http://www.realclimate.org/Climate Classroom — From the National WildlifeFederation U.N. Environmental Programme: Seal the Deal! —http://www.nwf.org/climateclassroom/ Youth Action on Climate ChangeFired Up Media http://www.sealthedeal2009.org/http://firedupmedia.com/Global Campaign for Climate Action The U.S. Department of State assumes no responsibilityhttp://gc-ca.org/ for the content and availability of the resources from other agencies and organizations listed above. All Internet links were active as of September 2009.Hot Politicshttp://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/hotpolitics/It’s Getting Hot in Here Bloghttp://itsgettinghotinhere.org/ͯÁ-ûí Áàéãàëü îð÷íû õºòºëáºð: Ãýðýýãáàòàëãààæóóëñàí íü:Öàã óóðûí òàëààð Òàíû ¿éëàæèëëàãààhttp://www.sealthedeal2009.org/ÀÍÓ-ûí Òºðèéí äåïàðòàìåíò íü äýýð äóðäñàíáàéãóóëëàãóóäûí õîëáîîñ á¿õèé èíòåðíýò ñàéòóóäûíàãóóëãà, òýäãýýðò áàéíãà íýâòðýõ áîëîìæòîé ýñýõàñóóäëààð õàðèóöëàãà õ¿ëýýõã¿é. 2009 îíû 9 ñàðûíáàéäëààð á¿õ èíòåðíýò õîëáîîñóóä àæèëëàæ áàéñàíáîëíî. e Journal USA 90 Öàõèì ñýòã¿¿ë ÀÍÓ
  • Information Resource Center ÀÍÓ-ûí ÝÑß-íû Ìýäýýëýë Ëàâëàãààíû ÒºâI nformationand reference service foris a research Resource Center (IRC)researchers, journalists, Mongolian Government Ì ýäýýëýëáîëîí ÀìåðèêÒºâ íü: òàëààð Ëàâëàãààíû Ìîíãîëûí ñóäëàà÷ ýðäýìòýä, ñýòã¿¿ë÷èä, òåðèéí àæèëòíóóä óëñûíofficials and anybody with a professional ìýðãýæëèéí ò¿âøèíä ñîíèðõîæ áàéãààinterest in the United States. For example, á¿õèé ë õ¿ì¿¿ñò ìýäýýëýë ºãºõ ÷èãëýëýýðyou can contact us for assistance if you need àæèëëàäàã. Õýðýâ òàíä äàðààõü àñóóäëààðinformation on: ìýäýýëýë õýðýãòýé áîë áèäýíä õàíäààðàé.• U.S. legislation, regulation and treaties • ÀÍÓ-ûí õóóëü æóðàì áîëîí çààâðóóä• U.S. foreign policy • ÀÍÓ-ûí ãàäààä áîäëîãî• The U.S. Congress • ÀÍÓ-ûí Êîíãðåññ• A speech or statement by the U.S. President, • Åðåíõèéëåã÷ áîëîí áóñàä òºðèéí Secretary of State or other U.S. officials àæèëòíóóäûí õýëñýí ¿ã, òàâüñàí èëòãýë¿¿ä• U.S. Government officials and policies • Òºðèéí àæèëòíóóä áîëîí òºðèéí áîäëîãî• Biographical information on American • Óëñ òºð, ñî¸ë óðëàã áîëîí áèçíåñèéí íýðò political, cultural or business leaders ç¿òãýëòí¿¿äèéí íàìòàð• Web sites for official U.S. Government • Òºðèéí áîëîí òºðèéí áóñ áàéãóóëëàãóóäûí policies, statistics, etc. àëáàí àëáàí ¸ñíû õàÿã, âýá õóóäàñíóóä • ÀÍÓ-ûí àëáàí ¸ñíû òîî áàðèìòóóäServices offered by the IRC • Áàòëàí õàìãààëàõ áîëîí àþóëãóé áàéäëûí• ALERT: Offers abstracts of current articles ºíººãèéí áîäëîãî and important Internet sites in major areas • Àìåðèêèéí áèçíåñ áîëîí êîìïàíèóäòàé of U.S. domestic or international affairs. õýðõýí õîëáîãäîõ òàëààðõè ìýäýýëýë Full-text articles are available upon request. Areas of expertise: Äîîðõè ¿éë÷èëãýýã ìàíàé òºâººñ õ¿ëýýí • U.S. politics, society and culture àâààðàé • U.S. federal and state legislation, laws • ÑÓÄÀËÃÀÀÍÛ ÀÆËÓÓÄ: Äàðààõ and regulations ñýäâ¿¿äýýð áýëòãýãäñýí ñóäëàà÷äûí àæèë, • International relations, security, defense òîéìóóäûã òà áóõýíä õ¿ðãýíý. and stability • ÀÍÓ-ûí óëñ òºð, íèéãýì, ñî¸ë óðëàã • Economics, trade development and • ÀÍÓ-ûí òºðèéí áîëîí ìóæóóäûí õóóëü business ýðõ ç¿éí àêòóóä • Civil society, human rights and • Îëîí óëñûí õàðèëöàà àþóëãóé áàéäàë democratization áàòëàí õàìãààëàõûí áîäëîãî áîëîí • Environmental and global issues òîãòâîðòîé áàéäàë • Ýäèéí çàñàã, õóäàëäàà áîëîí áèçíåñ• RESEARCH/REFERENCE SERVICE: • Èðãýíèé íèéãýì õ¿íèé ýðõ àðä÷èëàë Information provided upon request about • Áàéãàëü îð÷íû áîëîí õ¿í òºðëºõòíèé U.S. policies, domestic and international àñóóäàë affairs via phone calls, fax, mail, e-mail and visits by appointment. • ÑÝÒï¯ËÈÉÍ ÍÈÉÒËÝ˯¯Ä: Ìàíàé çàõèàëãàò õýâëýë¿¿äýýñ òà á¿õýí ñîíèðõñîí• TABLE OF CONTENTS SERVICE: TOC íèéòëýë¿¿äýý àâ÷ áîëíî. service of periodicals available in the IRC and full text can be requested via e-mail, fax • ÑÓÄÀËÃÀÀ ÁÎËÎÍ ÕÀÉËÒ ÕÈÉÕ: ÀÍÓ- or phone. ûí òàëààð ñîíèðõîæ áàéãàà õ¿ññýí ñýäâýýð òàíü õàéëò ñóäàëãààã õèéæ ºãíº.Contact Information Please contact our trained staff for inquiries ÕÎËÁÎÎ ÁÀÐÈÕand research by fax or e-mail: Òà ººðèéí ñóäàëãàà áîëîí ìýäýýëýë Information Resource Center Public Affairs øààðäëàãàòàé áàéãàà àñóóëòóóäàà ìàíàéSection, Embassy of the United States of òåâèéí àæèëòàíä óòàñ, ôàêñ áîëîí ýëýêòðîíAmerica, 11 micro district, Big Ring Road, øóóäàíãààð òàâèõààñ ãàäíà óðüäè÷ëàí öàã àâ÷Ulaanbaatar-13 POB 1021 Mongolia ººðèéí áèåýð èðæ óóëçàõ áîëîìæòîé þì.Contact person: Bolormaa D. /IRC Assistant Àñóóäàë õàðèóöñàí àæèëòàí:Ä. Áîëîðìàà/ pasirc@usembassy.mn Ìýäýýëýë Ëàâëàãààíû Òºâèéí Àæèëòàí Phone: (967-11) 312372 Ýëåêòðîí øóóäàí: pasirc@usembassy.mn Fax: (967-11) 312380 Óòàñ: 312372 Ôàêñ: 312-380Please Note: We do NOT answer inquiriesconcerning visa matters. All such inquiriesmust be referred to the Consular Section.