How are drugs developed? - Tools' information

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In this guide you will information and suggestions on how to use each of the tools developed by Xplore Health. …

In this guide you will information and suggestions on how to use each of the tools developed by Xplore Health.

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  • 1. Educator’s guide on Drug development (Tools’ information)AUTHORS FUNDED BY:
  • 2. Table of contentsI. Introduction 3II. The tools 3 1. Virtual experiment - Produce a drug target 4 2. Virtual experiment – Develop a drug! 5 3. Game – How are drugs developed? 6 4. Video - The long and incredible story of a tablet 7 5. Video – New drugs against new threats 8 6. Video – Drug development and ethics 9 7. Discussion Continuum games 10 8. Decide game 11 Drug development - 2 – Tools’ information
  • 3. I. IntroductionThis document provides information on the tools that are available on the Xplore Healthportal for the first module. For each tool, we provide an ID table and explanation on how touse the tool in class and interact with the curriculum.II. Lesson plansThe tools that have been created for the use of teachers and students in order to help themin their familiarization process of drug development are listed and explained below.In the table that describes each tool, information on the link is given, as well as suggestionson how the tool can be implemented in class: pre-, during, and post-exercisesThe tools are the following: 1. Game- How are drugs developed? 2. Virtual experiment 1 - Produce a drug target 3. Virtual experiment 2 – Develop a drug! 4. Video 1- The long and incredible story of a tablet 5. Video 2 - New drugs against new threats 6. Video 3 – Under development 7. Video 4 – Drug development & Ethics 8. Discussion continuum: Game 1 (Access to treatment) and 2 (Who pays for drug development) 9. Decision game: Orphan drugs Drug development - 3 – Tools’ information
  • 4. 1. Virtual experiment - Produce a drug targetTool name Virtual experiment - Produce a drug targetLink to the tool http://www.xplorehealth.eu/en/media/produce-drug-targetDescription Activities in which this tool can be usedKey messages: Pedagogical objectives: Students will learn about : • Most of the drugs work fitting with a target. • How drugs work • To investigate a new drug scientists The research involoved in the inital stages of the usually first produce its target to devlopment of a new drug investigate latter the drug that will better fit with it. Time needed: 50 minutes • Most of the targets are proteins, the chemicals that build cells and control the jobs cells do, which in the lab are Process: produced using bacterial DNA. • Teacher leads discussion during theConcepts that appear: introduction of the Virtual Experiment (10 • Drug fitting with a target minutes) • What is an enzyme and specifically a • Short demonstration showing students how restriction enzyme to use the Virtual Experiment software, eg • Introduce DNA inside a plasmid drag’n’drop (5 minutes) • Introduce a plasmid inside bacteria to • Student activity – Virtual Experiment 1 (25 produce protein minutes) • Resistance of bacteria to antibiotics Teacher leads class discussion to summariseManipulation of bacteria lesson (10 minutes) Outcomes: Students will now have knowledge of: • How a drug works • The different processes involved in the inital stages of the development of a new drug • The laboratory equipment required • The laboratory techniques used • How bacteria are used in the development of a new drug Bacterial resistance to antibiotics Drug development - 4 – Tools’ information
  • 5. 2. Virtual experiment – Develop a drug!Tool name Virtual experiment – Develop a drug!Link to the tool http://www.xplorehealth.eu/en/media/develop-drugDescription Activities in which this tool can be usedKey messages: Pedagogical objectives: • Scientists have to investigate the 3-D Students will learn about : structure of a protein before they can identify and design molecules which will • Investigating the 3-D structure of a protein interact with it. • Identifying a drug which will react with the • Scientists use a wide range of protein techniques such as centrifugation, liquid • The synthesis of a new drug chromatography and NMR to separate, • Testing if the new drug reacts with the isolate and investigate the structure of protein as it is should proteins. • Candidate drugs have to pass many tests before they become commercially Time needed: 50 minutes available. Process:Concepts that appear: • Centrifugation (separate bacteria from • Teacher leads introduction to the lesson, growth medium) including a recap of the last lesson where • Osmosis (salt added to bacteria in order the students learned about the different to burst them and get the POP protein processes involved in the initial stages of they’ve synthesized) the development of a new drug (10 • Liquid chromatography (another minutes) separation technique, to isolate POP protein from the rest of bacterial • Explanation of how to use the software for proteins) the Virtual Experiment (5 minutes) • NMR – nuclear magnetic resonance – • Student activity – Virtual Experiment 2 (25 technique used to determine 3D minutes) structure of proteins • interaction between inhibitor and target Teacher leads class discussion to summarise (POP protein ) lesson (10 minutes) • Synthesis of peptide (inhibitor)Biological assay – to test the POP inhibitor Outcomes: Students will now have knowledge of :(chemical reaction & fluorescence) • The laboratory techniques used to investigate the 3-D structure of a proteín • How to identify a drug which will react with the proteín • The laboratory techniques used to synthesise a new drug • How to test if the new drug does the job it was designed to do The laboratory equipment used for the above processes Drug development - 5 – Tools’ information
  • 6. 3. Game – How are dugs developed?Tool name Develop a drug in this race against time!Link to the tool http://www.xplorehealth.eu/en/media/develop-drug-race-against-timeDescription Activities in which this tool can be usedKey messages: Pedagogical objectives: • Discovering and developing new drugs is a long, expensive and risky process. Describe in a step by step way all the stages needed for developing a drug from fundamental • It can take on average 10-15 years and research to drug production at a larger scale (final 800–1000 million dollars to convert an commercialisation) idea into a drug that is commercially available. Time needed: 2 hours (more depending on material • Antiviral drugs are being developed to being made available for this activity) help combat infections caused by viruses. Process:Concepts that appear: • Material needed: videoprojector and • Virus – antiviral-virus outbreak • How drugs work in the body interative board • Sequencing (virus genome) Activity should be carried out when the whole • X-ray crystallography (to determine 3D subject has been covered. structure of proteins) • Animal testing Outcomes: • Clinical trials: phase 1 (healthy humans), phase 2 (few patients, with • Understand what it takes for a drug to be the double blind) and phase 3 developed before it is made available over (increased amount of patients) the counter (pharmacy shelf) or forRegistration/approval of the drug by regulatory prescription by a Doctor.body • Understand all the technical aspects to view drug at a molecular level and all the concepts underlying these techniques • Get a glance at some of the basic molecular biology routines (genetic engineering, DNA sequencing method, purification of protein of interest…) Raising awareness on some bioethical issues associated with manipulating viruses, drug testing on animal and human Drug development - 6 – Tools’ information
  • 7. 4.Video – The long and incredible story of a tabletTool name The long and incredible story of a tabletLink to the tool http://www.xplorehealth.eu/en/media/long-and-incredible-story-tabletDescription Activities in which this tool can be usedConcepts that appear: Pedagogical objectives: • Drug development process • Research to find candidate molecules Describe in a step by step way all the stages • Animal testing needed for developing a drug, from fundamental • Clinical trials – phase 1, phase 2, phase research to drug production at a larger scale (final 3 commercialisation)Approval by regulatory body Time needed: 1 hour (more if students produce a PPT Process: - Material needed : video projector and interactive board & woofers for the material to be heard by the entire classroom - Activity good to be carried out at the beginning of the module to introduce the main concept, stage, phase behind the story of the tablet A slide can be produced by the students in order to exhaustively sum up all the chronological stages associated with a screen capture of the video next to each stage. ICT use is recommended. Outcomes Get further acquainted with the process of developing a drug from scratch or from a natural occurring living organism. Understand that drug development requires the involvement of many disciplinary fields (chemistry, pharmaceutical industry, biology, doctors…) Understand all the requirement needed for a drug to comply with the drug agency guidelines Drug development - 7 – Tools’ information
  • 8. 5. Video – New drugs against new threatsTool name New drugs against new threatsLink to the tool http://www.xplorehealth.eu/en/media/new-drugs-against-new-threatsDescription Activities in which this tool can be usedConcepts that appear: Pedagogical objectives: Students will learn about : ● Examples of research taking place in • How drugs work Europe The research involoved in the inital stages of the ● Emerging viruses – research to find devlopment of a new drug candidate drugs against them ● Research process: isolate gene, integrate it in bacteria, protein Time needed: 5 sessions (50-60 min. each) produced, purified, 3D structure studied. Process: (it could be created in web quest format)Career options in a biomedical research project ● (All) Display video ● (Teacher) Propose some target questions to define the scope of the activity. ● (Pupils) Search information on the Internet. ● (Pupils) Produce some kind of multimedia output (video, presentation, animation, podcast,...) to explain in a new way. ● (All) Show session. Outcomes: Students will now have knowledge of: ● Learn about another research taking place in Europe ● Understanding in-vitro production of human proteins. Understanding the ways for one investigation to be used in humans Drug development - 8 – Tools’ information
  • 9. 6. Video – Drug development and ethicsTool name Drug development and ethics http://www.xplorehealth.eu/en/media/listen-some-experts-opinions-and-Link to the tool let-us-know-what-you-thinkDescription Activities in which this tool can be usedConcepts that appear: Pedagogical objectives: ● Web search skills ● ELSA aspects of drug development ● People in the world do not have equal ● Information processing skills access to treatment ● Critical skills ● Are we making a rational use of drugs in Western Countries? Time needed: 4-5 sessions (50-60 min. each) Process: ● (All) Brain storming ● (All) Display video ● (All) First debate. Contrast between results of brain storming and video information ● (4 persons teams maximum, 1 spokesman) Contrast with Internet Information ● Spokesmen workshop. (Rest hearing, final debate) Outcomes: ● Importance of healthy habits ● Reasonable drug comsumption ● Awareness of social differences Equitable distribution of wealth Drug development - 9 – Tools’ information
  • 10. 7. Discussion Continuum games Discussion continuum Game 1 (Access to treatment) and 2 (Who pays forTool name drug development) http://www.xplorehealth.eu/sites/default/files/Xplore_Health_Discussion _Continuum_game_1_Who_pays_for_drug_development.pdfLink to the tool http://www.xplorehealth.eu/sites/default/files/Xplore_Health_Discussion _Continuum_game_2_Access_to_treatment.pdfDescription Activities in which this tool can be used Concepts that appear: Pedagogical objectives:• Access to treatment: overmedicalisation, ● Describe what is overmedicalisation, vaccination and complementary and vaccination and complementary and alternative medicine alternative medicine• Who pays to develop drugs: drug testing, ● Cover the social and ethical issues marketing and the effects of globalisation surrounding access to medical treatment. ● Investigate ethical, legal and socioeconomic issues around the drug discovery and development process, such as drugtesting, marketing investment, and the effects of globalisation ● Present number of statements and situations surrounding the costs of drug development, and the investment on rare diseases. ● Present own opinions ● Execute tasks according to instruction ● Analyse game in the field of the problem Know rules of team work Time needed: 2 x 45 minutes Process: ● Work with text ● Work in team Panel discussion Outcomes ● Knowledge about farmaceutical market and problems with overmedicalisation Kowledge about social and ethical issues of drugs development Drug development - 10 – Tools’ information
  • 11. 8. Decide gameTool name Decision game: Orphan drugs http://www.xplorehealth.eu/sites/default/files/PlayDecide%20Orphan%2Link to the tool 0Drugs%20-%20english.pdfDescription Activities in which this tool can be used Concepts that appear: Pedagogical objectives :• Access to treatment: overmedicalisation, vaccination and complementary and Pupil can: alternative medicine ● Describe what is orphan drugs• Who pays to develop drugs: drug testing, marketing and the effects of globalisation ● Describe UE Policy for orphan drugs ● Present own opinions ● Describe multiaspect situation according to refunding of such type of drugs ● Execute tasks according to instructions ● Analyse game in the field of the problem Know rules of team work Time needed: 90 minutes Process: ● Work with text ● Work in team Panel discussion Outcomes ● Social sensitivity Term of orphan drugs and UE rules according to orphan drugs Drug development - 11 – Tools’ information
  • 12. FUNDED BY: PROJECT PARTNERSBY:WITH THE SUPPORT OF Drug development - 12 – Tools’ information