• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Perl Memory Use 201209
 

Perl Memory Use 201209

on

  • 2,475 views

Slides for my Perl Memory Use talk at YAPC::Asia in Tokyo, September 2012. ...

Slides for my Perl Memory Use talk at YAPC::Asia in Tokyo, September 2012.

(This uploaded version includes quite a few slides from the OSCON version that I skipped at YAPC::Asia in order to have more time for a demo.)

Statistics

Views

Total Views
2,475
Views on SlideShare
2,302
Embed Views
173

Actions

Likes
4
Downloads
18
Comments
0

5 Embeds 173

http://yapcasia.org 154
https://twitter.com 10
https://si0.twimg.com 6
http://leapf.org 2
http://www.linkedin.com 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

CC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike LicenseCC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike LicenseCC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Perl Memory Use 201209 Perl Memory Use 201209 Presentation Transcript

    • Perl Memory Use Tim Bunce @ YAPC::Asia 2012 1
    • ありがとう 2
    • 撃たないで!私はテーブルです! 3
    • Scope of the talk...✦ Not really "profiling"✦ No VM, page mapping, MMU, TLB, threads etc✦ Linux focus✦ Almost no copy-on-write✦ No cats 4
    • Goals✦ Understand Process Memory✦ Identify key issues✦ Show useful tools✦ Demonstrate new software 5
    • Ouch! $ perl some_script.pl Out of memory! $ $ perl some_script.pl Killed. $ $ perl some_script.pl $ Someone shouts: "Hey! My process has been killed!" $ perl some_script.pl [...later...] "Umm, whats taking so long?" 6Have you experienced one of these?
    • Process Memory 工場出荷時のメモリイメージ 7
    • C Program Code int main(...) { ... } Read-only Data eg “String constants” Read-write Data un/initialized variables Heap (not to scale!) Shared Lib Code Shared Lib R/O Data repeated for each lib Shared Lib R/W Data // C Stack (not the perl stack) System 8Segments
    • $ perl -e system("cat /proc/$$/stat") # $$ = pid 4752 (perl) S 4686 4752 4686 34816 4752 4202496 536 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 0 1 0 62673440 123121664 440 18446744073709551615 4194304 4198212 140735314078128 140735314077056 140645336670206 0 0 134 0 18446744071579305831 0 0 17 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4752 111 111 111 $ perl -e system("cat /proc/$$/statm") 30059 441 346 1 0 160 0 $ perl -e system("ps -p $$ -o vsz,rsz,sz,size") VSZ RSZ SZ SZ 120236 1764 30059 640 $ perl -e system("top -b -n1 -p $$") ... PID USER PR NI VIRT RES SHR S %CPU %MEM TIME+ COMMAND 13063 tim 20 0 117m 1764 1384 S 0.0 0.1 0:00.00 perl $ perl -e system("cat /proc/$$/status") ... VmPeak:! 120236 kB VmSize:! 120236 kB <- total (code, libs, stack, heap etc.) VmHWM:! 1760 kB VmRSS:! 1760 kB <- how much of the total is resident in physical memory VmData:! 548 kB <- data (heap) VmStk:! 92 kB <- stack VmExe:! 4 kB <- code VmLib:! 4220 kB <- libs, including libperl.so VmPTE:! 84 kB VmPTD:! 28 kB VmSwap:! 0 kB ... Further info on unix.stackexchange.com 9How to find memory usage (on Linux)Only top and /proc/$$/status are user friendly.
    • $ perl -e system("cat /proc/$$/maps") address perms ... pathname 00400000-00401000 r-xp ... /.../perl-5.NN.N/bin/perl 00601000-00602000 rw-p ... /.../perl-5.NN.N/bin/perl 0087f000-008c1000 rw-p ... [heap] 7f858cba1000-7f8592a32000 r--p ... /usr/lib/locale/locale-archive-rpm 7f8592c94000-7f8592e1a000 r-xp ... /lib64/libc-2.12.so 7f8592e1a000-7f859301a000 ---p ... /lib64/libc-2.12.so 7f859301a000-7f859301e000 r--p ... /lib64/libc-2.12.so 7f859301e000-7f859301f000 rw-p ... /lib64/libc-2.12.so 7f859301f000-7f8593024000 rw-p ... ...other libs... 7f8593d1b000-7f8593e7c000 r-xp ... /.../lib/5.NN.N/x86_64-linux/CORE/libperl.so 7f8593e7c000-7f859407c000 ---p ... /.../lib/5.NN.N/x86_64-linux/CORE/libperl.so 7f859407c000-7f8594085000 rw-p ... /.../lib/5.NN.N/x86_64-linux/CORE/libperl.so 7f85942a6000-7f85942a7000 rw-p ... 7fff61284000-7fff6129a000 rw-p ... [stack] 7fff613fe000-7fff61400000 r-xp ... [vdso] ffffffffff600000-ffffffffff601000 r-xp ... [vsyscall] 10/proc/$$/maps has more detail. One line per ‘segment’.Permissions indicate code (x) vs read-only data (r) vs writable-data/stack/heap (rw).
    • $ perl -e system("cat /proc/$$/smaps") # note ‘smaps’ not ‘maps’ address perms ... pathname ... 7fb00fbc1000-7fb00fd22000 r-xp ... /.../5.10.1/x86_64-linux/CORE/libperl.so Size: 1412 kB <- size of executable code in libperl.so Rss: 720 kB <- amount thats currently in physical memory Pss: 364 kB Shared_Clean: 712 kB Shared_Dirty: 0 kB Private_Clean: 8 kB Private_Dirty: 0 kB Referenced: 720 kB Anonymous: 0 kB AnonHugePages: 0 kB Swap: 0 kB KernelPageSize: 4 kB MMUPageSize: 4 kB ... repeated for every segment ... ... repeated for every segment ... 11/proc/$$/smaps has even more detail. One line per ‘segment’Permissions indicate code (x) vs read-only data (r) vs stack/heap (rw).http://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/33381/getting-information-about-a-process-memory-usage-from-proc-pid-smaps
    • Memory Pages 思い出のシート 12
    • Memory Pages✦ Process view: ✦ Single large memory space. Simple.✦ Operating System view: ✦ Memory is divided into pages ✦ Pages are loaded to physical memory on demand ✦ Mapping can change without the process knowing 13
    • C Program Code Read-only Data Memory is divided into pages Page size is typically 4KB Read-write Data Heap ← Page ‘resident’ in physical memory ← Page not resident RSS “Resident Set Size” is how much process memory is Shared Lib Code currently in physical memory Shared Lib R/O Data Shared Lib R/W Data C Stack System 14Pages are: loaded when first usedmay be ‘paged out’ when the system needs the physical memorymay be shared with other processesmay be copy-on-write, where are shared page becomes private when first written to
    • Key Point ✦ Don’t use Resident Set Size (RSS) ✦ It can shrink even while the process size grows. ✦ Heap size or Total memory size is a good indicator. 15Be careful to understand what you’re actuallymeasuring.
    • Modules 16
    • Low-Level Modules✦ BSD::Resource - getrusage() system call (limited on Linux)✦ BSD::Process - Only works on BSD, not Linux✦ Proc::ProcessTable - Interesting but buggy✦ Linux::Smaps - very detailed, but only works on Linux✦ GTop - Perl interface to libgtop, better but external dependency 17
    • Higher-Level Modules✦ Memory::Usage ✦ Reads /proc/$pid/statm. Reports changes on demand.✦ Dash::Leak ✦ Uses BSD::Process. Reports changes on demand.✦ Devel::MemoryTrace::Light ✦ Uses GTop or BSD::Process. Automatically prints a message when memory use grows, pointing to a particular line number. ✦ Defaults to tracking Resident Set Size! 18
    • Other Modules✦ Devel::Plumber - memory leak finder for C programs ✦ Uses GDB to walk internal glibc heap structures. Can work on either a live process or a core file. Treats the C heap of the program under test as a collection of non-overlapping blocks, and classifies them into one of four states.✦ Devel::Memalyzer - Base framework for analyzing program memory usage ✦ Runs and monitors a subprocess via plugins that read /proc smaps and status at regular intervals.✦ Memchmark - Check memory consumption ✦ Memchmark forks a new process to run the sub and then monitors its memory usage every 100ms (approx.) recording the maximum amount used. 19
    • The Heapランダムなものの順不同の杭 20
    • Heap ← Your perl stuff goes here • Heap is managed by malloc() • Memory freed is rarely returned to the operating system • Heap grows but rarely shrinks 21Perl uses malloc() and free() to manage the Heap memorymalloc has its own issues (overheads, bucket sizes, fragmentation etc. etc.)On top of malloc, perl has it’s own layer of memory management (e.g. arenas) for some data types
    • Your Dataメモリのあなたの貴重なパーツの内側 22
    • Anatomy - 解剖学 Integer (IV) String (PV) Number with a string Head Body Data Illustrations from illguts 23Don’t need to know the detail.Just undrstand that perl data is stored in lots of separate parts with pointers between them.
    • Array (IV) Hash (HV) 24Don’t need to know the detail.Just understand that perl data is stored in lots of separate parts with pointers between them.
    • Glob (GV) Symbol Table (Stash) Sub (CV) lots of tiny chunks! 25Don’t need to know the detail.Just understand that perl data is stored in lots of separate parts with pointers between them.
    • Notes ✦ Heads and Bodies are allocated from ‘arenas’ managed by perl ✦ All variable length data storage comes from malloc ✦ Memory “cost” will be higher than the sum of the sizes. 26Arenas are efficient, with low overhead and no fragmentation.But arena space for a given data type is never freed or used for anything else.Malloc has higher overheads.
    • Arenas$ perl -MDevel::Gladiator=arena_table -e warn arena_table()ARENA COUNTS: 1063 SCALAR 199 GLOB 120 ARRAY 95 CODE 66 HASH 8 REGEXP 5 REF 4 IO::File...arena_table()formats the hash return by arena_ref_counts() whichsummarizes the list of all SVs returned by walk_arenas().See also Devel::Arena 27
    • Devel::Peek• Gives you a textual view of data $ perl -MDevel::Peek -e %a = (42 => "Hello World!"); Dump(%a) SV = IV(0x1332fd0) at 0x1332fe0 REFCNT = 1 FLAGS = (TEMP,ROK) RV = 0x1346730 SV = PVHV(0x1339090) at 0x1346730 REFCNT = 2 FLAGS = (SHAREKEYS) ARRAY = 0x1378750 (0:7, 1:1) KEYS = 1 FILL = 1 MAX = 7 Elt "42" HASH = 0x73caace8 SV = PV(0x1331090) at 0x1332de8 REFCNT = 1 FLAGS = (POK,pPOK) PV = 0x133f960 "Hello World!"0 CUR = 12 <= length in use LEN = 16 <= amount allocated 28
    • Devel::Size • Gives you a measure of the size of a data structure $ perl -MDevel::Size=total_size -le print total_size( 0 ) 24 $ perl -MDevel::Size=total_size -le print total_size( [] ) 64 $ perl -MDevel::Size=total_size -le print total_size( {} ) 120 $ perl -MDevel::Size=total_size -le print total_size( [ 1..100 ] ) 3264 • Is very fast, and accurate for most simple data types. • Has limitations and bugs, but is the best tool we have. 29Makes somewhat arbitrary decisions about what to include for non-data typesDoesnt or cant accurately measure subs, forms, regexes, and IOs.Cant measure everything (total_size(%main::) is the best v0.77 can do)
    • Devel::Size 0.77 perl -MDevel::Size=total_size -we sub foo { my $var = "#" x 2**20; foo($_[0]-1) if $_[0]; 1 } system("grep VmData /proc/$$/status"); printf "%d kBn", total_size(&foo)/1024; foo(50); system("grep VmData /proc/$$/status"); printf "%d kBn", total_size(&foo)/1024; VmData:! 796 kB 7 kB VmData:! 105652 kB 8 kB• VmData grew by ~100MB, we expected ~50MB, extra copy of value.• Devel::Size 0.77 doesnt measure whats in sub pads (lexicals). 30
    • Devel::Size 0.77 + hacks perl -MDevel::Size=total_size -we sub foo { my $var = "#" x 2**20; foo($_[0]-1) if $_[0];1 } system("grep VmData /proc/$$/status"); printf "%d kBn", total_size(&foo)/1024; foo(50); system("grep VmData /proc/$$/status"); printf "%d kBn", total_size(&foo)/1024; VmData:! 796 kB 293 kB VmData:! 105656 kB 104759 kB• Now does include the pad variables.• But note the 293 kB initial value - its measuring too much. Work in progress. 31
    • Devel::Size 0.77 + hacks$ report=printf "total_size %6d kBn", total_size(%main::)/1024;system("grep VmData /proc/$$/status")$ perl -MDevel::Size=total_size -we “$report”total_size 290 kBVmData: 800 kB$ perl -MMoose -MDevel::Size=total_size -we “$report”total_size 9474 kB! [ 9474-290 = + 9184 kB ]VmData: 11824 kB! [ 11824-800 = +11024 kB ]What accounts for the 1840 kB difference in the increases? -Arenas and other perl-internals arent included -Limitations of Devel::Size measuring subs and regexs -Malloc heap buckets and fragmentation 32
    • Malloc andThe Heap 33
    • “Malloc and The Heap” 34
    • malloc manages memory allocationHeap perl data Requests big chunks of memory from the operating system as needed. Almost never returns it! Perl makes lots of alloc and free requests. Freed fragments of various sizes accumulate. 35
    • $ man malloc✦ "When allocating blocks of memory larger than MMAP_THRESHOLD bytes, the glibc malloc() implementation allocates the memory as a private anonymous mapping using mmap(2). MMAP_THRESHOLD is 128 kB by default, but is adjustable using mallopt(3)."✦ Thats for RHEL/CentOS 6. Your mileage may vary.✦ Space vs speed trade-off: mmap() and munmap() probably slower.✦ Other malloc implementations can be used via LD_PRELOAD env var. ✦ e.g. export LD_PRELOAD="/usr/lib/libtcmalloc.so" 36
    • PERL_DEBUG_MSTATS* * Requires a perl configured to use its own malloc (-Dusemymalloc) $ PERL_DEBUG_MSTATS=1 perl -MMoose -MDevel::Size=total_size -we "$report" total_size 9474 kB! [ 9474-290 = + 9184 kB ] VmData: 11824 kB! [ 11824-800 = +11024 kB ] Memory allocation statistics after execution: (buckets 8(8)..69624(65536) 429248 free: 225 125 69 25 18 1 3 6 0 6 1 23 0 0 ! 0 9 26 10 6302120 used: 795 14226 2955 3230 2190 1759 425 112 30 862 11 2 1 2 ! 0 1606 8920 4865 Total sbrk(): 6803456/1487:-13. Odd ends: pad+heads+chain+tail: 2048+70040+0+0 • Theres 419 kB ("429248 free") is sitting in unused malloc buckets. • See perldebguts and Devel::Peek docs for details. Also Devel::Mallinfo. • Note Devel::Size total_size() says 9474 kB but malloc says only 6154 kb allocated! 37by pgfs
    • Key Notes✦ Perl uses malloc to manage heap memory✦ Malloc uses sized buckets and free lists etc.✦ Malloc has overheads✦ Freed chunks of various sizes accumulate✦ Large allocations may use mmap()/munmap()✦ Your malloc maybe tunable✦ Try different malloc implementations 38
    • Alternative Malloc✦ perl -V:usemymalloc✦ system vs internal vs jemalloc vs others✦ show jemalloc and tcmalloc 39
    • Memory Profiling あなたの思い出の形状は何ですか 40
    • What?✦ Track memory size over time?✦ See where memory is allocated and freed?✦ Experiments with Devel::NYTProf✦ Turned out to not seem useful 41
    • Space in Hiding✦ Perl tends to consume extra memory to save time✦ This can lead to surprises, for example: ✦ sub foo { my $var = "X" x 10_000_000; } foo(); # ~20MB still used after return! ✦ sub bar{ my $var = "X" x 10_000_000; bar($_[0]-1) if $_[0]; # recurse } bar(50); # ~1GB still used after return! 42
    • My Plan私の多くのクレイジーなアイデア 43
    • The Plan ✦ Extend Devel::Size ✦ Add a C-level callback hook ✦ Add some kind of "data path name" for the callback to use ✦ Add a function to Devel::Size to return the size of everything ✦ Stream the data to disk ✦ Write tools to visualize the data ✦ Add multi-phase scan 1. scan symbol tables, skip where ref count > 1 2. process the skipped items 3. scan arenas for other values (e.g. leaks) ✦ Write tool to compare two sets of data 44perl_size() - try to get as close to VmData value as possible.
    • The Status✓ Add a C-level callback hook✓ Add some kind of "data path name" for the callback to use✓ Add a function to Devel::Size to return the size of everything.✓ Stream the data to disk✓ Write tools to visualize the data • Will become a separate distribution • “Devel::SizeMeGraph”? • Source repo available by Sunday • Ready to demonstrate 45
    • Demonstration私は、ライブデモをしようとするばかだ 46
    • Questions?あなたの心に何がありますか? Tim.Bunce@pobox.com http://blog.timbunce.org @timbunce 47