November 27, 2012Smart Materials forConformable Electronicsand Photonics Margreet de Kok Holst Centre Mikrocentrum 23 nove...
10 november 2011                            Presentation                               overviewContents1. Holst Centre2. I...
© Holst Centre                                                                          4Holst Centre FingerprintWho we ar...
© Holst Centre                                                                                5   Large Area Electronics m...
© Holst Centre                                                         6Important Enabler:Organic Semiconductors          ...
© Holst Centre                                                      7Access to Unique Set of Infrastructures and Process L...
© Holst CentreIndustrial partners from across the value chain
10 november 2011Contents1.Holst Centre2.Introduction OLED3.Application of OLED4.Lifetime of OLEDs5.Conformable technology6...
© Holst Centre                                         10OLED BasicsTwo types of OLEDs:                    cathode        ...
© Holst Centre                                             11OLED: Electroluminescence                                   (...
© Holst Centre                                                            12OLED: Injection scheme                        ...
© Holst Centre                                                                                                            ...
© Holst Centre                                                      14Application in OLED144 cm2 white PLED without ITO us...
10 november 2011Contents1.Holst Centre2.Introduction OLED3.Application of OLED4.Lifetime of OLEDs5.Conformable technology6...
© Holst Centre                               16OLED Applications & Expectations                 Signaling         Signage ...
© Holst Centre                             17  But also:Company logo       Automotive   Healthcare                   Add-V...
© Holst Centre                                  18Flexible OLEDs•     Only prototypes, no commercial products         Add-...
© Holst Centre                                     19Next Application for OLED: Solid State Lighting                      ...
© Holst Centre                                           20Solid State Lighting                                       Smal...
© Holst Centre                                                                    21 Comparison Inorganic – Organic LEDs• ...
© Holst Centre                                                     22Organic light sources and detectors:  opportunities a...
© Holst Centre                                                                    23Why flexible?• Enhanced functionality ...
© Holst Centre                   24State-of-the-art in white OLED
© Holst Centre                                                                                       25OLED Trends        ...
10 november 2011Contents1.Holst Centre2.Introduction OLED3.Application of OLED4.Lifetime of OLEDs5.Conformable technology6...
© Holst Centre     27OLED Degradation
© Holst Centre     28OLED Degradation
© Holst Centre                                                        29 OLED Degradation: black spots •     Intrinsic: ho...
© Holst Centre                                                          30Standard Encapsulation      State-of-the-art enc...
© Holst Centre                                 31    Requirements for (TF) barrier/encapsulation•     Intrinsic WVTR < 10-...
© Holst Centre                                                                                    32      Multilayer appro...
© Holst Centre                                                       33State of the Art for encapsulation• Wvtr: 10-6 g/m2...
© Holst Centre                                         34Advanced systems by combined functionalities in Foil•     Organic...
© Holst Centre                                                                                                            ...
© Holst Centre                                           36   36Printed devices•     Foil          Single side processing ...
© Holst Centre                    37   37Foil Integration•     Modular approach•     Distribute functions over      differ...
© Holst Centre                                                                               38      38First Organic Devic...
10 november 2011Contents1.Holst Centre2.Introduction OLED3.Application of OLED4.Lifetime of OLEDs5.Conformable technology6...
© Holst Centre                     40 Rigid –> flexible -> conformableGlass based OLED   Flexible OLEDPhilips Lighting   H...
© Holst CentreThe vision: conformable electronic and photonic  systems•     Featuring          Conformable, stretchable/fl...
© Holst Centre  Applications for wearable electronics & photonics                           furniture                     ...
© Holst Centre                                   43Healing power of sunlight: wearable phototherapy   TBC treatment by sun...
© Holst Centre                                                                 44     Example - jaundice treatment of neon...
© Holst Centre                                             45Other options for applications•     Light in safety (traffic,...
© Holst CentreConformability by segmented approach      46
© Holst Centre                                                      47Conformable electronicsT. Sekitani, T. Someya et al....
© Holst Centre                                                      48    Stretchable systems•      OLED structuring on ri...
© Holst Centre                                                                  49Structured deposition of active material...
© Holst Centre                                  50Ink & substrate interaction  •      Pinning and de-wetting              ...
© Holst Centre                                51Solvents selective layer formation          A 100%   A:B=50:50         B 1...
© Holst Centre                                        52Inkjet printed OLED active layer development            2007      ...
© Holst Centre     53State of the art
© Holst CentreLevel of integration into textile for wearable  systems•     Textile:         In textile as fiber         On...
© Holst CentreCIMTEC 2012 M. de Kok         55
© Holst Centre                             56                 Stencil printing of ICA
© Holst Centre                              57                 Bonded OLED onto textile
© Holst CentreFoil components on textile      58
© Holst CentreStretchable systems in rubber (meander)                                             •   Light homogeneity   ...
© Holst Centre                    60        Platform for Large Area        Conformable Electronics        by InTegration  ...
10 november 2011Contents1.Holst Centre2.Introduction OLED3.Application of OLED4.Lifetime of OLEDs5.Conformable technology6...
© Holst Centre                                              62Conclusions•     Organic electronics on textile have a brigh...
Visit us atwww.holstcentre.com
Margreet de Kok - Holst Centre
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Margreet de Kok - Holst Centre

  1. 1. November 27, 2012Smart Materials forConformable Electronicsand Photonics Margreet de Kok Holst Centre Mikrocentrum 23 november 2012
  2. 2. 10 november 2011 Presentation overviewContents1. Holst Centre2. Introduction OLED3. Application of OLED4. Lifetime of OLEDs5. Conformable technology6. Conclusions
  3. 3. © Holst Centre 4Holst Centre FingerprintWho we are Independent research organization co-founded by IMEC (1300 fte, Belgium) and TNO (4500 fte, the Netherlands) in 2005 Global network of industrial and academic partners 150 researchers and 60 resident researchers from industry and universityWhat we do Creating generic technologies, time to market 3..10 years Research Focus on wireless, autonomous micro-systems and flexible electronicsHow we work Open Innovation through precompetitive research programs Roadmaps defined along with partners Day to day interaction with industrial residents Results are shared between partners
  4. 4. © Holst Centre 5 Large Area Electronics market applications Flexible displays Plastic solar cells Touch screens Plastic batteries Smart packaging SignageRFID tags OLEDs Sensors Disposable bio-sensors Smart bandage Electronic textiles
  5. 5. © Holst Centre 6Important Enabler:Organic Semiconductors New ways of MicroDrop processing Inkjet printing Soluble Semiconductors Roll to Roll coating
  6. 6. © Holst Centre 7Access to Unique Set of Infrastructures and Process Labs High Tech Campus, Eindhoven Amsterdam Netherlands Eindhoven Düsseldorf Aachen Leuven Belgium
  7. 7. © Holst CentreIndustrial partners from across the value chain
  8. 8. 10 november 2011Contents1.Holst Centre2.Introduction OLED3.Application of OLED4.Lifetime of OLEDs5.Conformable technology6.Conclusions
  9. 9. © Holst Centre 10OLED BasicsTwo types of OLEDs: cathode Organic layers anodePolymer LED Small molecule LED
  10. 10. © Holst Centre 11OLED: Electroluminescence (Fluorescent emitter) Typical Light Emitting Polymers: PPV (polyphenylene vinylene) PF (polyfluorene)
  11. 11. © Holst Centre 12OLED: Injection scheme SrO BaO Cs LiF GdB6 2 Ba Li,K Work function (eV) Ca TiN 3 Mg Hf 4 In 4 Al Ag 5 PEDOTNi Au ITO Pt Se TiO 6 2 High workfunction Low workfunction anode materials cathode materials
  12. 12. © Holst Centre 13IVL• Vbi ~Vturnon 10000 BL102• Dependent on band gap material 1000• Dependent on work function 100 10 difference of the contacts J (A/m ) 2 1 0.1• Blue and white 20- 50 lum/W 0.01 1E-3• Record: 100 lum/W 1E-4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 Bias (V) 2 BL102 Ba/Al LUMOPF (2.2 eV) (2.7 eV) PEDOT: Efficacy (lm/W) PSS 1 (5.1 eV) HOMOHT (5.2 eV) 0 -2 0 2 4 6 8 Energies with respect to the vacuum Bias (V) level
  13. 13. © Holst Centre 14Application in OLED144 cm2 white PLED without ITO using high conductivity PEDOT withAg printed shunting linesAGFA
  14. 14. 10 november 2011Contents1.Holst Centre2.Introduction OLED3.Application of OLED4.Lifetime of OLEDs5.Conformable technology6.Conclusions
  15. 15. © Holst Centre 16OLED Applications & Expectations Signaling Signage Lighting Displays
  16. 16. © Holst Centre 17 But also:Company logo Automotive Healthcare Add-VisionAdvertising Automotive
  17. 17. © Holst Centre 18Flexible OLEDs• Only prototypes, no commercial products Add-Vision Sony Samsung Novaled/Assilor-Mital UDC GE• Showstopper: barrier films
  18. 18. © Holst Centre 19Next Application for OLED: Solid State Lighting LED (SM/P)OLED
  19. 19. © Holst Centre 20Solid State Lighting Small-molecular Inorganic Organic Macromolecular OSRAM
  20. 20. © Holst Centre 21 Comparison Inorganic – Organic LEDs• Inorganic LEDs • Organic LEDs• Products on the market with • First lighting products on high efficiency and long the market lifetime • Large area possible and• Small area and high therefore low luminance luminance (no large area enough possible) • Thin• Thermal management needs • Thermal management less attention problematic• (Colour stability of • Colour better controllable production leads to binning • Cost per area effective of LEDs) Application and design freedom (and price) make the difference
  21. 21. © Holst Centre 22Organic light sources and detectors: opportunities and challenges• Form freedom• Large area possible• Flexibility (bendability)• Very thin features• Fine tuning of optical properties possible• Integration with multiple functionalities possible in foil• Production technology versatile• Cost aspect positive• Challenges:• Processing thin layers - shorts• Encapsulation and intrinsic lifetime• Efficiency• Current density distribution• Design of combination of building blocks
  22. 22. © Holst Centre 23Why flexible?• Enhanced functionality for the end user: bendable, rollable devicesBut also• Integration of foil devices in products & systems: conformal application?; convenient feeding into assembly system• Efficient large area production of foil devices (e.g. roll-to-roll; no manual assembly) -> cost aspect Source: GE Source: Metsuo
  23. 23. © Holst Centre 24State-of-the-art in white OLED
  24. 24. © Holst Centre 25OLED Trends Materials Substrates: flexible plastic or metal substrates combined with R2R processing Barrier: strong focus on developing flexible thin film barriers (Holst Centre, Vitex, General Electrics, Dow, ..) with WVTR < 10-6 g/m2.day Emitters: phosphorescent emitters (UDC, Sumation, Merck, Novaled, ..) Transport layers: doping of transport layers (Novaled, ..) Cathodes: top emitting/transparent OLEDs with transparent cathodes Anodes: high conductive organic materials and/or or introduction of support structures (evaporated or other) (GE, OLLA, Holst Centre, ..) Processing: Roll-to-roll processing on flexible plastic or metallic substrates Printing or coating of functional materials in general (as opposed to spin-coating) Printing or coating of small molecules (Dupont, UDC, ..) Devices: Innovative OLED designs / Intelligent Lighting >100 cm2 lighting tiles (Lumiotec, GE, Philips, OSRAM, UDC, Konica Minolta, ..) OLED display driving: AMOLED as opposed to PMOLED (SDI, LGE, SONY, ..) TFT towards oxide TFT as opposed to OTFT / LTPS (Dai Nippon Printing) Place-it: conformable electronic systems comprising OLEDs
  25. 25. 10 november 2011Contents1.Holst Centre2.Introduction OLED3.Application of OLED4.Lifetime of OLEDs5.Conformable technology6.Conclusions
  26. 26. © Holst Centre 27OLED Degradation
  27. 27. © Holst Centre 28OLED Degradation
  28. 28. © Holst Centre 29 OLED Degradation: black spots • Intrinsic: homogeneous degradation • Cathode oxidation: local degradation leading to black spots H2O, not O2Right after processing ~10h at 20 °C / 50% RH
  29. 29. © Holst Centre 30Standard Encapsulation State-of-the-art encapsulation using metal or glass lid with cavity containing getters no hermetic seal (getter!) 40,000 hrs at 80 °C without black spot formation cathode getter organics ITO substrateBut, it is not applicable for: Fast production Large area devices Flexible (foil-based) devices
  30. 30. © Holst Centre 31 Requirements for (TF) barrier/encapsulation• Intrinsic WVTR < 10-6 g.m-2.day-1• No black spots >5 years @ 20/50 >504 h @ 60/90• Feasibility for R2R Barriers should be rollable over d=20cm• Low cost High deposition ratesBarrier on foil specific:• Transparency for visible light >90%• Uniform light output Extremely uniform layers over large areas• Light outcoupling• Abrasion resistance, UV protection, etc.
  31. 31. © Holst Centre 32 Multilayer approach • Stacks of inorganic and organic layer used to decouple pinholes and get full coverage => time delay of black spot formation • Holst approach: SiN – OCP – SiN • OCP = organic coating for planarisation 100 SiN SiN-org-SiN planarizationblack spot area (a.u.) 10 4 layer 3 1 1 2 0.1 10 100 1000 10000 time (hrs)
  32. 32. © Holst Centre 33State of the Art for encapsulation• Wvtr: 10-6 g/m2day• >5000 hrs at 20/50 black spot free and still running Side leakage Black spots by pin holes
  33. 33. © Holst Centre 34Advanced systems by combined functionalities in Foil• Organic LEDs• Organic Photodetectors• Organic Photovoltaics• Embedded circuitry• Embedded chips• RFID• Memories• Sensors Electrochemical Optochemical Optical
  34. 34. © Holst Centre 35 35Device Design - laminated foil approach• Foil Double side processing Modular: diodes and LEDs printed on separate foils• Top emissive PLEDs, Bottom receptive OPDs: Photodiode skin LED• Bottom emissive PLEDs, Top receptive OPDs: skin 30 Spectral Radiance (10 W/sr m nm) 2 25 20 -3• Etc. 15 10 5 0 500 550 600 650 700 750 wavelength (nm)
  35. 35. © Holst Centre 36 36Printed devices• Foil Single side processing Diodes and OLEDs via printing Arrays of different devices on one substrate
  36. 36. © Holst Centre 37 37Foil Integration• Modular approach• Distribute functions over different layers µ-via technology combined with lamination• Silicon in Foil embedding
  37. 37. © Holst Centre 38 38First Organic Device Prototype: Proof of Principle• OPD • Works! Total measured current PPG comparable to commercial ca. 10 µA pulse-oximeter (Nelcor N200) Signal ca. 50 nA• PLED I = 80 mA/cm2 V = 5.2 V L = 520 Cd/m2 Signal (a.u.) Organic Nelcor N200 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time (s)
  38. 38. 10 november 2011Contents1.Holst Centre2.Introduction OLED3.Application of OLED4.Lifetime of OLEDs5.Conformable technology6.Conclusions
  39. 39. © Holst Centre 40 Rigid –> flexible -> conformableGlass based OLED Flexible OLEDPhilips Lighting Holst Centre
  40. 40. © Holst CentreThe vision: conformable electronic and photonic systems• Featuring Conformable, stretchable/flexible Thin and light weight Unobtrusive integration Wearable• Applications: Biomedical (sensors, phototherapy) Textile/fashion, Outdoor (biking, road safety) Architecture Displays Interior design (curtains, furniture)• Advantages organics c.t. inorganics: Large area: homogeneity Very thin Temperature management Combination inspiring Margreet de Kok Holst Centre 2011 august SPIE 41
  41. 41. © Holst Centre Applications for wearable electronics & photonics furniture conformable foil – textile technology Camouflage for defense Light therapy Safety on the road Textile for fashion and safety 42
  42. 42. © Holst Centre 43Healing power of sunlight: wearable phototherapy TBC treatment by sun therapy
  43. 43. © Holst Centre 44 Example - jaundice treatment of neonatals • Old treatment Static light sources necessitating eye protection of neonatal Jaundice treatment: photochemical conversion and excretion of bilirubine (yellow colour treatment) • New possibility Wearable light source less interfering with care including bonding with parents Philips BilitXTMSource flickr: 1542122226_5e43a1d008 and 2538039854_e67b67926c Blue LED based
  44. 44. © Holst Centre 45Other options for applications• Light in safety (traffic, working conditions)• Light harvesting (tents, outdoor sports, clothing)• Phototherapy: psoriasis, eczema, jaundice, wound healing, prevention decubitus, pain relief, skin rejuvenation• Camouflage• Textile design – fashion!• Bring light where no light was before
  45. 45. © Holst CentreConformability by segmented approach 46
  46. 46. © Holst Centre 47Conformable electronicsT. Sekitani, T. Someya et al. Nature Materials 8, 2009 p. 494-499R. Kim, J. Rogers, et al. Nature Materials 9, 2010, p. 929-937
  47. 47. © Holst Centre 48 Stretchable systems• OLED structuring on rigid regions: printing technology• OLED / OPV need protection by barrier technology• Interspaces deliver stretchability and should contain electric circuitry: Ag nanoparticles in binder matrix pedot LEP Ba/Al foil anode cathode pedot Ba/Al Top barrier Bottom barrier foil anode cathode
  48. 48. © Holst Centre 49Structured deposition of active materials• Printing: Inkjetable ink formulation (halogen-free solvent): droplet formation Jetting and stable in time & speed Ink & substrate interaction Layer formation and homogeneity Device performance and efficiency
  49. 49. © Holst Centre 50Ink & substrate interaction • Pinning and de-wetting Plasma treatment Temperature treatment
  50. 50. © Holst Centre 51Solvents selective layer formation A 100% A:B=50:50 B 100%
  51. 51. © Holst Centre 52Inkjet printed OLED active layer development 2007 2011
  52. 52. © Holst Centre 53State of the art
  53. 53. © Holst CentreLevel of integration into textile for wearable systems• Textile: In textile as fiber Onto textile by conductive yarns to electronics Iron on self contained system Fibers Fabrics Product 54
  54. 54. © Holst CentreCIMTEC 2012 M. de Kok 55
  55. 55. © Holst Centre 56 Stencil printing of ICA
  56. 56. © Holst Centre 57 Bonded OLED onto textile
  57. 57. © Holst CentreFoil components on textile 58
  58. 58. © Holst CentreStretchable systems in rubber (meander) • Light homogeneity • Bare die for reduced thickness • Density of elements • Thermal managementFrederick Bossuyt Holst Centre / imec Gent 59
  59. 59. © Holst Centre 60 Platform for Large Area Conformable Electronics by InTegration FP7 Place-it 60
  60. 60. 10 november 2011Contents1.Holst Centre2.Introduction OLED3.Application of OLED4.Lifetime of OLEDs5.Conformable technology6.Conclusions
  61. 61. © Holst Centre 62Conclusions• Organic electronics on textile have a bright future• Technology development indispensable• Collaboration between disciplines necessary• Conformable electronics will change the world• Margreet.dekok@tno.nl• www.holstcentre.com• Thank you for your attention
  62. 62. Visit us atwww.holstcentre.com

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