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Jan Kroon - ECN-Solliance

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Jan Kroon - ECN-Solliance

  1. 1. Solliance OPV  Towards Low Cost, Efficient and Stable Organic Presentation Photovoltaic Modules • Introduction • Solliance Jan Kroon, ECN • (O)PV j.kroon@ecn.nl • Current status OPV • Solliance OPV • Outlook  2 Solliance: thin film PV competence center  Local government investment € 28 million • Move of thin film PV activities of ECN to Eindhoven  Investment in new Solliance building  Investment of new infrastructure • CIGS: S2S vacuum  R2R “ambient” Artist impression • a-Si: R2R • OPV: S2S and R2R  “ambient”2012-02-15 Solliance OPV Program
  2. 2. Generic Technologies PV Demonstrators per Technology 1. 2. 3. TF-Si TF-CIGS TF-OPV A. Transparent Conductive Layers B. Barriers and Encapsulation C. Interconnection D. Light Management E. Manufacturing Technologies: Vacuum F. Manufacturing Technologies: Wet Chemical G. Modeling & Characterisation H. Modules & Integration I. Equipment Design & Engineering  4 PV Technologies - Status and Prospects CPV Multi Junction, SpectroLab Intermediate Band Gap Plasmonics, FOM-Amolf DSC, Dyesol Polymer PV, Konarka IMEC mc-Si, Sunweb, Solland tf-Si, Helianthos/NUON CIS, HMI CdTe, First Solar, Juwi Solar2012-02-15 Solliance OPV Program IEA – Technology Roadmap - Solar Photovoltaic Energy, 2010
  3. 3.  5 What is OPV? Solution processed Bulk heterojunction General device structure e - collecting electrode Photoactive layer +- h + transport layer front transp. electrode (ITO) electrode J. van Duren et al., Adv. Funct. Mater. substrate 12, 2002, 665.Reference materials O Me O O OMe )n O ( MDMO-PPV P3HT C70PCBM O C60PCBM2012-02-15 Solliance OPV Program  6 What is OPV ? (II) Vacuum evaporation of organic molecules TU Dresden2012-02-15 Solliance OPV Program
  4. 4.  7 Why would we want (flexible) OPV?Opportunities• Allows (ultra-fast & low temp, low-cost/low capex) roll-to-roll solution processing (printing, coating)• Flexible, Light-weight, Semi-transparent product (or semifabricate)• Multi-color design• Excellent sustainability (low Energy Pay Back Times)• Integration in a variety of structures and objects2012-02-15 Solliance OPV Program  8 Challenges (flexible) OPV? • High module efficiencies (>10 %) and lifetimes (>10 yr) achievable ? • Develop large specific (& niche) markets • Focus on unique strengths • Demonstrate low manufacturing costs in combination with sufficient efficiency • Compete with other (flexible) PV technologies • Comply with requirements for professional use of PV in buildings, power plants, etc. • Safety • Lifetime & maintenance • Aesthetics2012-02-15 Solliance OPV Program
  5. 5.  9 OPV – efficiency, lifetime & costs Long term target << 0.5 € /Wp • Increase efficiency (>Wp/m2) • Reduce module manufacturing costs (< €/m2) • Extend lifetime to decrease LCOE (€/kWh) €/Wp2012-02-15 Solliance OPV Program  10 Efficiency development laboratory “hero cells”2012-02-15 Solliance OPV Program
  6. 6.  11 Record Efficiencies for “Organic” cells (size ~ 1 cm2) UCSB/ Cambridge Universities Companies Recent announcements of certified values (end 2011-2012):  9.1 % for single junction Polymer OPV (Konarka, Polyera, US)  10.6 % for tandem small molecule OPV (Heliatek, Germany)  10.0 % Mitsubushi Chemical, Japan  10.6 % for tandem polymer OPV (UCLA, Sumitomo) 2012-02-15 Solliance OPV Program  12 From hero lab cell to large area module efficiencies Cell: 8-10 % S2S: 4-8 % R2R: 2 % konarka Several module designs possible, depending on application field Loss in total area efficiency is expected due to: • Monolithic series connection: Ratio [active area/total area] < 1 → Jsc  • Scalability: from spincoating to additive large area printing • Upscaling leads to increase Rseries → FF  → Pmax  • Search for cost effective, robust and environmentally friendly solutions 2012-02-1512 Solliance OPV Program
  7. 7.  13 Lifetime: status (almost) commercial OPV products Press release Lowell, Mass. - Feb. 15, 2012 Konarkas Next Generation Organic Photovoltaic Cells First OPV Technology to Pass Set of Individual Critical Lifetime Aging Tests According to IEC 61646 Performed by TÜV Rheinland Passing these Tests at TÜV Rheinland Allows BIPV Glass Application Partners to Facilitate Integration of Konarkas Power Plastic 2012-02-15 Solliance OPV Program  14 How to realise manufacturing costs ~ 50 Euro/m2?• Development of fast and cheap (R2R) printing & coating technology: • Ink jet, screen, flexo, gravure printing, slot die, kiss, curtain coating etc.• Bill of Materials very low (materials, substrates, encapsulants)• Optimization of yield, avoid scrap costs holst 2012-02-15 Solliance OPV Program
  8. 8.  15 Solliance OPV Program  General goals • Creation of a complete technology toolbox for the design, processing, integration and characterization of OPV cells and modules • To unify the extremes of the well-known triangle (for dedicated applications) Efficiency Lifetime Cost • By operating under the open innovation model  i.e. shared research together with companies belonging to the value chain of OPV2012-02-15 Solliance OPV Program  16 Solliance OPV program  All companies belonging to the value chain of OPV are needed in order to bring OPV to a real success  Investment in processing lines (S2S and R2R) and characterization  Focus on both solution processing and evaporated OPV  Program should be pulled by end manufacturers/users  Financial support from industrial fees, EU subsidy projects, TKI SF- Material Equipment Manufac- Products End-users Suppliers Suppliers turers Suppliers2012-02-15 Solliance OPV Program
  9. 9.  17 Solliance Technology Roadmap for OPV OPV now: OPV 2015:  ~ 10 €/Wp (~ 150 €/m2)  < 0.5 €/Wp (< 50 €/m2)  R2R  Foil or film based • Slot-die coating (halogen based?) • Printed/Coated halogen-free  Anode based on:  Anode based on: • Vacuum sputtering of ITO • Direct printing of TC and metal  Cell:  Cell: • ~ 10 % PCE • ≥ 13 % PCE  Module:  Module: • ~ 1,7% PCE • > 5 % PCE • Low production yield • ≥ 20% production yield increase  Low-end packaging via lamination  High-end barrier technology • < 10 % PCE-loss after 1000 hrs @ 65°C/45% RH, 1 sun2012-02-15 Solliance OPV Program  18 WP2 WP1 WP3 WP5 WP42012-02-15 Solliance OPV Program
  10. 10.  19 Current status Solliance OPV Examples of research results of the Solliance partners ECN, Holst, IMEC, TNO2012-02-15 Solliance OPV Program  20 • 8,3% PCE certified & > 9% PCE non-certified polymer single junction cell • 8,24% PCE polymer tandem cell • 5,5% PCE certified polymer single junction module Efficiency Lifetime Cost • Low water sensitive • Low-cost OPV OPV stack design modules • High end barrier • Cost of Ownership & encapsulation and Life Cycle (WVTR 10-6 g/day.m2) Analysis tool2012-02-15 Solliance OPV Program
  11. 11.  21 Power Conversion Efficiency Inverted polymer single junction cell Regular polymer tandem cell PCE = 8,3%2012-02-15 Solliance OPV Program  22 Device engineering 10 standard Current Density (mA/cm )  Low-cost option: ITO free 2 inverted 5 PEDOT/inverted All-Solution Processed PEDOT/inverted solution processed 0 Reference: standard design P3HT/PCBM material deposition d(nm) -5 evaporate 1/100 -10 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 spin coat 150 Voltage (V) spin coat 30 sputter 123 All-solution processed Reference: inverted design material deposition d(nm) material deposition d(nm) screen pr. 17000 evaporate 100 spin coat 1000 Introducing spin coat 180 spin coat 260 Scalable spin coat 250 spin coat 30 Processes spin coat 30 ink jet 70 sputter 123 ink jet 5002012-02-15 Solliance OPV Program
  12. 12.  23 From Lab to (semi-) Fab 3X3 R - Benchmark, Material Screening, Novel Concepts S2S R&D - Labscale R2R, Reduce Running Cost, Sample Prep. R2R D - Develop, Test, Prove and Transfer Technology Upscale lab device concepts to S2S and finally R2R production • (Modelling of) module designs, interconnection schemes • Process development formulation (solvents and inks), deposition technology, drying, layer uniformity and morphology • Cost of Ownership calculations/Life cycle analysis to determine cost/environmental drivers 2012-02-15 Solliance OPV Program  24 Cost and upscaling status OPV SollianceR2R (choice is CoO and application related) Slot Die Ink Jet (choice is CoO and application related) R2R 30 cm ink jet Slot die  together with modules nTact: R2R intermittent stripe coating Coatema/Troller/nTact 30 cm modular R2R coat and print lineS2S nTact (partner) OTB Solar/MiPlaza S2S intermittent slot die with shims S2S 6 inch ink jet engine with Direct coating of squares or rectangles integrated dryer 2012-02-15 Solliance OPV Program
  13. 13.  25 Exploration of scalable LA deposition techniques Ink jet printing Slot die coating 3 cm• Stable ink formulation (halogen free)• S2S and R2R compatible• layer uniformity 2012-02-15 Solliance OPV Program  26 Cost and upscaling status OPV Solliance  $/Wp calculations for different OPV device designs and processes for 3 different cell efficiencies 0,5 USD/Wp seems to be feasible already at 12% cell efficiency (9,3 % total module efficiency) 1 PET + barrier + ITO 2 PET + barrier + Printed Ag grid + PEDOT 3 ITO + Ag grid 4 Metal foil + resist + Printed Ag grid + PEDOT 5a PET + barrier + Printed Cu grid + PEDOT 5b Metal foil + Resist + Printed Cu grid + PEDOT 2012-02-15 Solliance OPV Program
  14. 14.  27 Outlook: route towards commercialization Learning effects Fundamental researchEfficiency and lifetime too low for high volume, energy productionChallenge: Large and cheap production potential, but what can/will we do with all the m2 produced?From technology push to market pull:  Where are the applications?  Early involvement end users  What is the added value?2012-02-15 Solliance OPV Program  28 Organic Photovoltaic – Roadmap Version 4/OE-A Stepping stone approach with focus on unique properties Product   15 % Generations Roof top grid > 10 years connected   10 %  10 years Off-grid buildings Facade & BIPV 5% Outdoor recreational  5 years application & remote 3% Consumer  3 years Electronics Maturity existing Short term Medium term Long term © OE-A 2010 (until 2010) (2011-2014) (2015-2019) (2020+)2012-02-15 Solliance OPV Program
  15. 15.  29 Concluding remarks OPV and Solliance General • Progress is impressive, but further improvement of (module) efficiency and stability is neccessary • Stepping Stone approach: First applications will appear in low volume, niche markets for very low cost, new application forms (not for high performance) Find and exploit the uniqueness of (flexible) OPV Solliance • First industrial partners have entered the programme • Bringing all the expertise on OPV together in the ELAT region offers unique chance to accelerate progress via an integrated approach • Develop the concepts and technologies: produce working, robust & unique DEMO’s!2012-02-15 Solliance OPV Program  302012-02-15 Solliance OPV Program
  16. 16. Programme managerSolliance OPVRonn Andriessen (Holst center)ronn.andriessen@tno.nlWWW.SOLLIANCE.EU

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