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Introducing Natural Light To East Tennessee State University
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Introducing Natural Light To East Tennessee State University

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This is a sample of research that I conducted as a senior project on the benefits of supplementing artificial light with natural light in buildings.

This is a sample of research that I conducted as a senior project on the benefits of supplementing artificial light with natural light in buildings.

Published in: Education, Technology, Business

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  • 1. Introducing Natural Light to ETSU By: Taylor Duncan
  • 2. Challenge: Introducing Natural Light to ETSU Living and Working Spaces
    • D escription of the Challenge
    • A nalysis of the Challenge
    • T heorizing Possible Solutions
    • A ction Recommendations
  • 3. DESCRIPTION OF THE CHALLENGE
  • 4. Lighting practices in the U.S. have varied widely in the last 70 years
    • Prior to 1940, natural lighting was the primary way to light buildings
    • By 1960, electric lighting was used almost exclusively to light interior space
    • Recently, energy issues and environmental concerns have caused the rediscovery of natural lighting
  • 5. A few spaces at ETSU already take advantage of natural light
    • Culp center cafeteria (1976)
    • Culp center atrium (1976)
    • Center for Physical Activity (2002)
    • Library (1998)
  • 6. Many other spaces at ETSU could benefit from natural light
    • Offices (interior and exterior) without windows
    • Basement
    • Computer Labs
    • Classrooms
    • Meeting rooms
    • Hallways and egress spaces
    • Workshops
  • 7. Now is a good time to consider increasing use of natural light in ETSU facilities
    • Energy costs are increasing
    • ETSU budgets are decreasing
    • Increased emphasis on sustainable design for future generations
  • 8. Electricity costs are going up
    • Generation costs are rising – fuel is primary driver
    • Demand is growing – expected to increase 45% by 2030
    • Infrastructure costs are increasing – transmission lines, substations, and distribution systems
    • Environmental compliance costs are high – especially reducing air emissions
    • Johnson City Power Board increased rates by 16% this fall – largest increase in 30 years
  • 9. “ This is going to be the worst year financially (ETSU) has ever seen” -ETSU President, Dr. Paul Stanton
    • As of November 2008, over $7M cut from ETSU budget so far and possibly another $4.6M after the first of the year (2009)
    • Tennessee Board of Regents budget cuts due to State of Tennessee budget shortfall
    • Guidelines issued in November to reduce energy use at ETSU
  • 10. ANALYSIS OF THE CHALLENGE “ Energy management is something we can do and are doing.” – President Dr. Paul Stanton
  • 11. The benefits of natural light have been demonstrated both in terms of energy savings and on how it affects building occupants.
  • 12. Natural light is being used routinely to save energy in many situations
    • Georgia Pacific – 80,000 sq. ft. warehouse – reduced energy consumption 282,844 KWH to 43,369 KWH, saving $33,500 annually
    • Durafeev Furniture – 47,520 sq. ft. warehouse – 3 years return on investment, saving $17,200 annually
    • Stockton Skills Gym and Stockton Unified Distribution Warehouse – removed and replaced 166 high watt HID lamps with 90 daylighting fixtures to illuminate 62,000 sq. ft. of warehouse and gym space
  • 13. Scientific studies on natural light report positive physiological and psychological impact on building occupants
    • Improved mood and morale
    • Less fatigue
    • Reduced eyestrain
    • Improved “connection” with outside environment
  • 14. Benefits of natural light are reported for the many spaces that make up ETSU
    • Offices – Improved productivity, reduced stress, lower absenteeism and turnover
    • Educational space – Improved attendance and academic performance
    • Healthcare space – Reduced strain and fatigue for staff; Improved physiological and psychological well-being for patients
    • Industrial space – Improved safety and productivity
    • Retail space – More customers and increased sales
  • 15. Employees prefer natural light to artificial light
    • Report greater job satisfaction
    • Feel less “cooped up”
    • Like to have a sense of what is happening outdoors
    • Consider natural light to be motivating and calming
  • 16. However, making retroactive modifications to improve natural lighting in existing facilities in challenging
    • Disruptive - space is frequently occupied
    • All but top floors are almost impossible to access with light tubes and skylights
    • More expensive than including in original design
    • Large roof or wall penetrations can affect building structure
    • Routing of fiber optics and lighting tubes through existing infrastructure can be complicated
  • 17. THEORIZING POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
  • 18. A number of options are available to introduce natural light to ETSU buildings
    • A few of these options include:
    • Skylights
    • Atria
    • Light-tubes
    • Fiber-optic sunlight concentrators
  • 19. Pros Vs. Cons Advantages Disadvantages Ability to Retro-fit Skylight
    • Less likely to be obstructed
    • 3X more effective than vertical window
    • More light & heat in summer (strain on HVAC)
    • Less in winter due to lower winter sun
    Fairly easy depending on roofing system Atria Bring light to several different floors
    • Too much to top floors
    • Not enough to lower floors
    Extremely difficult, not practical Light-tubes
    • Diffuse light efficiently
    • Block out harsh light and heat
    Only effective on top floors Relatively inexpensive & easy to install depending on space Fiber-optics Possible to pipe light anywhere you can place a cable with zero added heat Directional, focused light Expensive Easy to difficult depending on space, place into existing lighting systems
  • 20. Skylights are low-technology solutions
    • Challenging to install after construction is completed
    • Limited benefit – do not concentrate natural light
  • 21. Light-tubes have three main components to concentrate natural light
    • Hemisphere daylight collector/concentrator
    • Highly reflective/efficient light conveyor
    • Light diffuser in space
    • Demonstration:
      • http://www.solatube.com/commercial/education.php
  • 22. Advantages of light-tubes over skylights
    • Can be installed where skylights would not fit
    • Easier to install (no special framing and drywall)
    • Greater light output per sq. ft.
    • Light is diffused throughout living space
    • Not as prone to leaking
  • 23. Costs of light-tube technology
    • 10” light tube – Illuminates 10’ x 10’ area – $700 installed (approx.)
    • 14” light tube – Illuminates 14’ x 14’ area – $800 installed (approx.)
    • 21” light tube – Illuminates 21’ x 21’ area – $1,000 installed (approx.)
  • 24. Fiber-optic sunlight concentrators
    • Benefits of natural light with convenience of artificial light
    • Roof-mounted platform with 45’ fiber optic bundle
    • Sunlight “piped” directly into rooms in buildings
    • Hybrid light fixtures automatically regulates ratio of natural/artificial light for consistent lighting
  • 25. Costs of fiber-optic sunlight concentrators
    • Up to $10,000 per lighting fixture
  • 26. Disadvantages of natural light technology for ETSU
    • Needs to be supplemented with artificial light in most areas (overcast days and nights)
    • Johnson City has 56% annual possible sunshine (compare Phoenix, Az – 85%)
    • Requires initial capital investment with long-term payback (2-3 years)
  • 27. ACTION RECOMMENDATIONS
  • 28. The Center for Physical Activity The workout area The basketball court area
  • 29. Potential Savings
    • What kind of Lights? 1000 Watt Metal Halide
    • # of lights? 95 on one circuit
    • # of hrs. on per day? (6:30 am-11:00 pm) 16.5 hr/day
    • # of days per year? 330 days
    • # of hrs on per year? 5445 hr/year
    • # of daylight hours supplemented per year? 3960 hr/year per fixture
    • Electric cost per kilowatt hr.? $0.098/kwh
    • Costs per fixture to upgrade? 100 tubes @ $600 each installed
    • Annual Energy Savings (with proposed Solatube): $36,867.60
    • Current Annual Energy Bill for this set of lights: $55,301.00
    • Total Installation for Solatube: Approximately $60,000 (2 year payback)
    • http://info.graingeremail.com/energycalculator
  • 30. Recommendations for introducing natural light to ETSU facilities
    • Conduct cost-benefit analysis for supplementing existing high-cost lighting (such as CPA) with light-tube technology
    • Place CPA lights on separate circuits
    • Install light tubes in a few internal office spaces (such as counseling center or student resource center) on a trial basis to gauge improvements in quality of work life
    • Evaluate installation of light tubes in internal hallways
    • Evaluate installation of fiber-optic lighting in lower floor or basement labs, offices, and classrooms
    • Incorporate natural lighting into new building design
  • 31. Conclusion
    • Introducing natural light to ETSU is not a quick fix – It is a long-term commitment to improving quality of work and school life and to increase the use of sustainable design
  • 32. Contact Information
    • Jack O’hanlon of The O’hanlon Group
    • -Lighting Consultant
    • -Email: [email_address]
    • -Phone: (865) 546-6735
    • Jerry Harris of Alexander Metals, Inc.
    • -Solatube Representative
    • -Email: [email_address]
    • -Phone: (615) 256-6070
    • Taylor Duncan
        • -Student of ETSU
        • -Email: [email_address]
        • -Phone: (865) 603-0708
  • 33. I would like to thank all involved in this project for their time, support, and assistance…
    • Jeremy Ross
    • Kathleen Moore
    • Gary Bishop
    • Dan O’Brien
    • Diane Godsey
    • Ian Watson
    • Phyllis Cooper
    • Jack O’Hanlon
    • Jerry Harris