TCI2013 Industries and Clusters in the European Regions

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By Antoni Soy, University of Barcelona, presented at the 16th TCI Global Conference, Kolding 2013.

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TCI2013 Industries and Clusters in the European Regions

  1. 1. Industries and Clusters in the European Regions Antoni Soy Breakout Session: Clusters and smart specialisation strategies: analytical tools 5 September 2013
  2. 2. Industries and Clusters in the European Regions Antoni Soy University of Barcelona, Catalonia
  3. 3. 3 • 1.- Which European Regions (NUTS 2) are Industrial? – Manufacturing – Advanced Producer Services – New Industry or Servo-Industry
  4. 4. 4 • Methodology: • 1.- 78 regions: all the regions NUTS 2 0f EU 27 with a GDP at current prices PPS above 50.000 milions Euros in 2010. • 2.- The regions with= – a ratio Employed in the sector per 1.000 inhabitants in the region above the EU-27 average – AND a ratio Employed in the sector related to the Total Employed in the region -productive specialisation- above the EU-27 average.
  5. 5. 5 • Specialisation in Manufacturing • 15 very specialized: – 8 from Germany (Sttutgart, Tubingen, Freiburg and Karlsruhe – Baden-Wuttenberg-, Schwaben and Mittelfranken –Bayern-, Arnsberg and Detmold –North Rhine-Westphalia-); – 4 from North of Italy (Veneto, Emilia-Romagna, Lombardia, Piemonte); – and 1 from Poland (Wielkopolskie-Poznan), Portugal (Norte- Porto) and the Basque Country in Spain.
  6. 6. 6 • Specialisation in Manufacturing • 12 with a moderate specialisation: – 5 from Germany (Oberbayern/Bayern-Munich, Rheinhessen- Pfalz – in Rhineland-Palatinate-, Weser-Ems and Hannover –in Lower Saxony-, Dusseldorf –in North Rhine-Westphalia-); – 2 from France (Île de France and Rhône-Alpes); – and 1 from Italy (Toscana), Sweden (Vätsverige - Göteborg), Belgium (Antwerpen), Poland (Slaskie -Katowice) and Catalonia in Spain.
  7. 7. 7 • Specialisation in Advanced Producer Services • 20 very specialized: – 5 regions from Germany (Darmstadt in Hessen, Köln and Dusseldorf in North Rhine-Westphalia, Oberbayern in Bayern and Hamburg); – 3 from Holland (Noord-Holland, Zuid-Holland and Noord- Brabant); – 2 from United Kingdom (Inner London and Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire); – And 1 from France (Île de France), Belgium (Brussels), Portugal (Lisboa), Txèquia (Praha), Sweden (Stockolm), Spain (Comunitat de Madrid), Romania (Bucaresti-Ilfov), Denmark (Hovedstaten), Hungary (Közep-Magyarorszäg) and Austria (Wien).
  8. 8. 8 • Specialisation in Advanced Producer Services • 25 with a moderate specialisation: – 9 regions from United Kingdom (Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and Bristol/Bath area, Surrey East and West Sussex, Hampshire & Isle of Wight, Greater Manchester, Outer London, East Anglia, West Yorkshire, South Western Scotland, West Midlands); – 5 from Germany (Mittelfranken, Berlín, Stuttgart, Karlsruhe, Hannover); – 2 from Italy (Lazio and Lombardia) and Spain (Catalonia and Basque Country); – And 1 from France (Rhône-Alpes), Belgium (Antwerpen), Holland (Gelderland), Finland (Etelä-Suomi), Greece (Attiki), Ireland (Southern and Eastern), and Poland (Mazowiecke).
  9. 9. 9 • Specialisation in New Industry • 23 very specialised: – 11 from Germany (Sttutgart, Tubingen and Karlsruhe –Baden- Wuttenberg-, Oberbayern, Schwaben and Mittelfranken – Bayern-, Detmold, Köln and Dusseldorf in North Rhine- Westphalia, Darmstadt in Hessen, and Hamburg); – 3 from Italy (Veneto, Emilia Romagna, Lombardia); – 2 from the United Kingdom (Inner London, Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire); – And 1 from France/Île de France, Txèquia/Praha, Portugal/Lisboa, Sweden/Stockolm, Romania/Bucaresti-Ilfov, Hungary/ Közep-Magyarország, Spain/Basque Country.
  10. 10. 10 • Specialisation in New Industry • 25 with a moderate specialisation: – 5 from Germany (Freiburg, Arnsberg, Rheinhessen-Pfalz, Weser-Ems i Hannover); – 4 from the United Kingdom (Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and Bristol/Bath area, Greater Manchester, West Yorkshire, West Midlands); – 3 from Holland (Noord-Holland, Zuid-Holland, Noord-Brabant); – 2 from Belgium (Brussels, Antwerpen), Italy (Piemonte, Toscana) and Spain (Comunitat Madrid i Catalunya); – and1 from Sweden/Vätsverige, Denmark/Hovedstaden, Finland/Etela- Suomi, Austria/Wien, Portugal/Norte, France/Rhône-Alpes and Greece/Attiki.
  11. 11. 11 • 2.- Is there a correlation among regional industrial specialisation and type of clusters?
  12. 12. 12 • Benchmarking Case Studies: • Basque Country, Emilia- Romagna, Veneto, • Lombardia, Catalonia, Rhône-Alpes, • Baden Württemberg.
  13. 13. 13 • Hypothesis clearly confirmed: • In the framework of a general trend of growth of clusters specialized in the advanced producer services and in the new industry, and with different speeds, • continues to be a clear correlation between the productive specialization of the region and the main type of existing clusters in each region: manufacturing, producer services, mixed.
  14. 14. 14 • Basque Country, Emilia-Romagna, Veneto: strong specialisation in manufacturing clusters and lower in advanced producer services and mixed clusters. • Lombardia, Catalonia, Rhône-Alpes: important specialisation in manufacturing clusters and increasing development in advanced producer services and mixed clusters. • Baden Württemberg: strong specialisation in both manufacturing clusters and advanced producer services and mixed clusters.
  15. 15. 15 • 3.- Is there a trend of increasing Emerging Industries and of their clusters in European Regions?
  16. 16. 16 • Emerging industries set up an entirely new value chain, or make a radical reconfiguration of an existing value chain from an idea (or a convergence of ideas) of a disruptive nature, resulting in creating new products and services with high added value (Heffernan, P., Phaal, R., 2009).
  17. 17. 17 Emerging Industries and Clusters Changes in Market Demand New Skills & Competences New Business Models New Technologies Innovation New Framework Conditions •Entrepreneurial Culture •Territorial Culture •Social Capital •Physic Capital •Economy: macro and micro •Policy Competitiveness Productivity Life Quality
  18. 18. 18 • Hypothesis clearly confirmed: • There is a general increase of clusters in Emerging Industries in all type of productive specialisation regions – manufacturing, producer services, mixed-.
  19. 19. 19 • Hypothesis clearly confirmed: • The increase is bigger in the regions were the advanced producer services are more developed: more in Baden- Württemberg than in Lombardia, Catalonia and Rhône-Alpes and quite more than in Veneto, Emilia-Romagna and Basque Country.
  20. 20. 20 • The more important Emerging Industries Clusters in these regions are: – Biotech and Medical Engineering, – Health Industries, – Aereoespacial, – Knowledge Economy and Producer Services, – Mechatronics, – Nanotechnology, – Creative and Cultural Industries, – Sports industries – Optics and Photonics – Renewable Energies – Etc.
  21. 21. 21 • Research in progress • Next steps: –Maps –Time data series –Correlations and causal relations among variables
  22. 22. 22 • Thank you very much • asoy@ub.edu

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