KEA – 11 years ago Experience in policy making in the field of culture for the last 20 years - advising ministry of culture or cultural agencies throughout the world – expertise in comparative analysis. Objectives are often the same – promote access to culture (elevate people) – education – means are different. But means remain marginal and cultural policy is not perceived as fundamental (lobby for the cultural industries – lack of evidence on the eco.importance of the sector) Culture deserves better in term of policy making and ressources Investment in culture is justified for wide areas of reasons (support to innovation, to smes, to local development) New trends in Europea to take cultural sector more seriously in policy making
Two studies for the ec – policy objectives – ec to develop competence in culture and creative industries at a time of globalisation and increased concentration Economy of culture in Europe 2006 – mapping The impact of culture on Creativity (2009) Influence leading to a green paper on creative industries and ecia
Definition of Culture – activities – industrial output Include core art field - understand the economic value of the sector – its economic dimension Creative Britain – Blair Cultural exception – France – protectionists Cultural diversity – Canada – leading UNESCO convention
Findings are recent Policy aspects ?
Between 2003-2008, annual growth rate 3.1%, 1.9 including 2009 Share of CCIs in the overall value added in 2007 amounts to EUR 63 billion , 2.6% of GDP The sector could grow 2.5% every year up to 2020 , reaching EUR 175 bn in 2020.
Employment and labour growth compared to manufacturing The turnover rate took a negative trend of only -3.5 %, whereas for the manufacturing sector it was of -18%.
Employment – comparison with the overall economy Until 2009, the number of employees has risen by 7 % since 2003. Labour market situation in the CCIs has grown by 1.8 % between 2008 and 2009, showing a stronger positive trend than the overall economy.
Technical assistance programme Increasing interest from Chinese authorities: Priority sector in the China’s 11th Five Year Plan (2005-2010). China no real policy since 2002 – MOFCOM vs Min of culture – liberalisation vs censorship How to develop creativity without enabling individual freedom? Market forces pushing for openess – centralised party rule controll – find the balance
The added value of cultural investment - you are investing in social cohesion, in local expression, in the spiritual, the irrational . Preservation of the heritage , memories – encourage disruptive vision – Life is more than economic wealtht and consumption – it is about shared value and this is the role of cultural policy to substitute for what market forces cannot guarantee. Cultureinvestment is about risk taking and great talents get discovered thanks to public investment – no almodovar, luc besson without support to cinemat
Second study : Brief is to esbalish a link between creativity and culture. Creativity as a motor of innovation in the economy and society Can cultural production or art stimulate creativity which in turn will generate jobs and wealth? Creativity is everywhere – a catchphrase – epitomises success/^progress – attractive / children Culture is the expression of humans’creativity – knowledge, talents, civilisation - – creativity is not the monopoly of cultural activities – not culture as a motor of artistic creativity Extracts from the elements of creativity – personality , social contexts, psychology what comes from culture and then characterise culture based creativity -
Culture based creativity is linked to the ability of people notably artists to think imaginatively, to challenge the conventional to call on the symbolic or the affective – ability to communicate at a different level , to call on aesthetic, , emotions and values or ethic. To emerge it requires personal abilities(imagination) , technical skills (often artistic skills) , social environment ( society , industries , schools) Importance for cultural policy to nurture the environment A Make available cinema, theaters, operas , cultural amenities Support artistic visions – will enable differentiation , standing out (Beatles for the UK , Abba for Sweden, damien hirst , andy warhol , picasso etc.
The creative class – artists and creative professionals – move away from the romantic definition of artists People who originates cultural based creativity are « artists » - define - common characteristics artists and creative professionals – designers, advertisting Polymath ( leonardo da vinci, copernic, goethe)
The impact and value of culture based creativity on the economy – the experience, knowledge economy – sharing networking economy It enables the different , disruption – innovation is about improving from the existing , creativity is about redefining the existing A feature of post industrial economy - manufacturing, technology, functionality of products – economy requires strong brand, motivated staff, design , ability to create an experience that is socially or ethically satisfying – give sense to the act of consumption to consumers that are more critical - industry is more user centered requires culture based creativity.
Apple illustrate a company that is making use of culture based creativity – design , fun , logo, branding , steve job, Jonathan Ives So it is not only the music that enables IPod (and make the technology relevant) – culture based creativity goes beyond as an intrinsic value on its own. – it enables the product to stand out , to be loved , to create emotions, it is about the experience ( shops) the aesthetic etc.
Measurement – policy makers need statistica evidence that such creativity brings values – creativity is more difficult to measure How to measure pleasure, attractivity (number of tourists ?) – accounting standards do not value intangibel (goodwill) – interbrand value brands _ studies on the impact of design. Politicians managing cities knows the impact (in particular the power of culture in cities have experienced industrial decline - however we found two examples – from Eusebio to contemporary artist
Aalto university Break the barriers , the silos across the disciplines Santral Istanbul – Science and Art
Creativity is seen as an organisation ressource – how to simulate? Google , Pixar , cultural industries (trust and respect) Creative people do not like rules – characteristics of culture based creativity – can be inimical to business organisation? How to kill creativity? Industries integrate creative people in management board – designer ( stefano marzano) Business managers head cultural institutions – the reverse is less true. Creative industries can provide some lessons on the way of working with artists and creative ( Lagerfeld and chanel – Yves st laurent and bergé – coen brothers and working title etc)
The study considers the EU creativity policy – it cannot develop an innovation strategy without reflecting on culture based creativity. Focus is on R&D and technology – Lisbon – 3% of GDP – in general non technology innovation is not looked at.
There is hope – DG enerprise – staff working paper on design – ECIA DG regio – structural funds ( ECCE – pilot ) DG Dev – Relex
Probl for policy makers – difficult to capture this economy and implement traditional policy instruments Voucher schemes Access to finance DG EntrepriSE ECIA Easier to implement at local level.
Policy is really important as the social context influence creativity – we value creativity – do we value culture and art as tool for creativity? Need to redesign cultural policy and mainstream culture in other policy areas Art and culture stimulate creativy – imagination / intelligence –
Essentially we call on mainstreaming cultural policy in regional and technlogy policy. Innovation flagship initiative … Culture based creativity index – the importance of the environment to stimulate creativity ( in Annex ) Differences are not a bottleneck – enable distinction, the different – that contribute to make Europe a success (cultural dialogue and interactions – this is narrative that should be developped. How to make the best globalisation – transcend the local identities.
Risk of compromission with economic ends – french cultural ministiry opposed to this vision Nordic countries are pushing the boundaries - miniistry of economic and finance At Eu level – DG Entrepr – ECIA – Stuctural funds , tecnhical assistance programme ( china – turkey – request support as part of accession funding
Creative Europe on Facebook and Linkedin
Cultural Policy: A New Deal For Ireland Dublin June 2011
Culture as a source of economic growth and employment
Culture as a source of innovation and creativity
Redesigning cultural policy
CORE ARTS FIELDS CULTURAL INDUSTRIES CREATIVE INDUSTRIES AND ACTIVITIES RELATED SECTORS Visual Arts Heritage Performing Arts Books and Press Television and Radio Music Video Games Film and Video Advertising Architecture Design Consumer Electronics Telecommu-nications Industrial Design Software Tourism Education Fashion Design User Generated Content Luxury brands
“ Creative people do not get the backing they deserve because you can’t put a figure on creative value”.
Ian Livingston, Creative Director Eidos
Evolution CCIs in the EU economy Sources: KEA, The Economy of Culture 2006, European Competitiveness Report 2010 TURNOVER More than €654 billion in 2003 VALUE ADDED TO GDP 2.6 % of EU GDP in 2003 3.3% of EU GDP 2006 CONTRIBUTION TO GROWTH 12.3% higher than the growth of the general economy in 1999-2003 EMPLOYMENT In 2004 5.8 million people employed. = 3.1% of total employed population in EU25. In 2008 6.7 million people employed in EU-27 3% total people employed in 2008
Creative industries in Germany National Development Source: Cultural and creative industries: Growth Potential in Specific Segments, Deutsche Bank research, April 29, 2011
Creative Industries in Germany Source: Cultural and creative industries: Growth Potential in Specific Segments, Deutsche Bank Research, April 29, 2011, p. 2.
Creative Industries in Germany Source: Culture and Creative Industries in Germany 2009, Monitoring Report 2010, BMWI, p. 7.
Creative Industries in Germany Source: Culture and Creative Industries in Germany 2009, Monitoring Report 2010, BMWI, p. 8.
Evolution Copyright industries in the US Economy Source: IIPA, Copyright Industries in the U.S. Economy:The 2003-2007 Report, 2009. TURNOVER Films, TV programmes, software, books, music represented USD 819 billion in 2006 USD 889.1 billion in 2007 VALUE ADDED TO GDP 6.6 % of US GDP in 2006 6.44% of US GDP in 2007 CONTRIBUTION TO GROWTH Almost 13% of the overall US growth in 2005 Almost 23% of overall US growth in 2006-2007 EMPLOYMENT In 2005 5.38 million people employed. More than 4% of total US workers In 2007 5.6 million workers More than 4% of total U.S. workers
Yearly benefits increased 26.5% over 2008 and box office revenues (excluding rural market) increased 42,96% over 2008 .
PRESS AND AUDIOVISUAL
In 2009, it imported 18.7% less publication copyrights than in 2008 and exported 71.2% more than in 2008.
Sources: Chinese National Bureau of statistics 2006, China Trade in Services Report 2010, Ministry of Commerce of China, 2010 TURNOVER € 47.6 billion in 2006 VALUE ADDED TO GDP 2.45% of GDP in 2006 CONTRIBUTION TO GROWTH 6.4% higher than the growth of the general economy EMPLOYMENT 11.32 million = 1.48% of total employed population in 2006.
The features of culture-based creativity which generate value are described below. Culture-based Creativity leading to Innovation The features of culture-based creativity leading to innovation: Affect Spontaneity Intuition Memories Imagination Aesthetic Generate values: New vision Differentiation Intangible Disruption Community Values
CONTRIBUTION OF CULTURE-BASED CREATIVITY TO BUSINESS STATEGIES Creativity
CONTRIBUTION OF CULTURE BASED CREATIVITY TO SOCIAL INNOVATION Creativity
Innovation in public services
Creativity CONTRIBUTION OF ART AND CULTURE TO STIMULATE CREATIVITY IN LEARNING
Stimulates divergent thinking
Promotes social integration and mobility
Creativity – Multi-dimensional Creativity” is defined as a cross-sector and multidisciplinary way, mixing elements of “artistic creativity”, “economic innovation” as well as “technological innovation.” A process of interactions and spill-over effects between different innovative processes Economic creativity Cultural creativity Scientific creativity Technological creativity
“ Our strengths in design and creativity must be better exploited….”
“ We must purse a broad concept of innovation, both research-driven innovation and innovation in business models, design, branding and services that add value for users and where Europe has unique talents…. ”.
“ The creativity and diversity of our people and the strength of European creative industries, offer huge potential for new growth and jobs through innovation, especially for SMEs”.
EU support to Creativity and Innovation 2007-2013 (in € billion):
Structural Funds: 87
Culture based Creativity :
Structural Funds: 6
Total : less than 7.1
Structural Funds: € 347 billion
Presidency Conclusions, Brussels European Council, 13-14 March 2008
“ A key factor for future growth is the full development of the potential for innovation and creativity of European citizens built on European culture and excellence in science.”
A strategy for a Creative Ireland The role of cultural policy
Creativity is an essential competitive tool
Creativity is a key component of innovation
Creativity nourishes large sectors of the economy (textile, car, ICT, other industries)
The European cultural and creative sector - Strengths and weaknesses Plenty of individual talent but with limited business skills and attracted to the USA (creativity drain) Some of the largest competitive players at global level but they lack same power and leverage than the US-based creative industries on governments A myriad of creative SMEs with strong local presence market access and undercapitalisation problems Importance of the public sector but a resistance in taking stock of international challenges Sustained consumer demand (growth in demand for content) but poor understanding of consumers’ demand in relation to the digital economy Strong IP laws in the EU but poor enforcement in some countries (piracy levels) and subsidising broadband rollout.