Alpha defense System Alpha ElectricMilitary computer Adapt its weapon-components for use in systems technology tohighly sophisticated manufacture for high-weapons system tech communications system They are moving into an - - extremely competitive business environment where product life cycles are short and innovation, customer orientation, - high quality, and cost-effectiveness are necessary to succeed.
Redesign Manufacturing Process1. Assembly-line jobs will be relatively similar to those in the old manufacturing process.2. Warehousing, shipping and receiving, and most other jobs within the plant will be converted to a team-based approach.3. The organizational structure will be flattened, and employees will be given more responsibility and broader powers to do their jobs. Problems that Alpha Faces 1. What jobs will have to be performed in the new plant environment? 2. Who does what job? 3. Do traditional jobs still exist? (as many areas of work)
Chapter 3Human Resource Planning Fisher and Shaw Human Resource Management Fifth Edition
Traditional Job Analysis:Definition- “is the process of obtaining information about jobs.”A job has been using four concepts that have a hierarchical relationship to one another, are-* Tasks – A task is “a meaningful unit of work activity generally performed on the job by one worker within some limited time period.” It is a discrete unit of activity and represents a composite of methods, procedures, and techniques.* Duty – A duty is a loosely defined area of work that contains several distinct tasks that are performed by an individual.* Position – A position is the set of tasks and duties performed by a single individual in an organization. Each person in an organizations has a position.* Job – A job is a group of positions that are identical with respect to their major or significant tasks and sufficiently alike to justify their covered by a single analysis 4
The Job Analysis ProcessJob Analysis is the process by which the duties of a position andthe characteristics of the people to hire for that position aredetermined.Job Analysis procedures information is used for written-Job Descriptions (a list of what the job entails) and-Job Specifications (what kind of people to hire for the job). Job Analysis Job Descriptions Job Specifications
The Job Analysis Process:The basic job analysis process consists of ten steps, which can be grouped into four major phases as follows Phase-1 Scope of the project Phase-2 Methods of job analysis Phase-3 Data collection and analysis Phase-4 Assessing job analysis methods 6
Phase-1: The Scope of Job Analysis1. Uses of Job Analysis:Research showed that there are direct links between the duties and the KSAs that are assessed in selection procedures.Job analysis data provide information-a. about what jobs will be like. (studies showed that realistic job previews reduce applicants unrealistically high expectations about jobs and thus reduce dissatisfaction and turnover.)b. needed to develop job-relevant training programs and performance appraisal systems.c. to determine the similarity of jobs and thus the feasibility of transfers between jobs.d. to determine the relative worth of jobs.e. to design jobs for maximum efficiency. 7
Phase-1: The Scope of Job Analysis2. Determine which jobs to analyze: critical to the success of an organization. difficult to learn and perform and thus require extensive training. organization is constantly having to hire new employees. that have few minority or female employees. (to make sure that illegal discrimination is not occurring in hiring process.) when new technology or other circumstances to be change when completely new jobs are added when some jobs are eliminated and their duties distributed to other jobs within the organization 8
Phase-2: The Methods of Job Analysis3. The types of data to collect:Data that are related to-various work activities and human abilities, and - information about the equipment used on the job.J.W. Cunningham identified three levels of work activities are- Foundation work activities are free of technological content and applicable to wide range of occupations. Ex. How much responsibility for people do you have on your job? Intermediate work activities have some technological content but are applicable across a reasonably wide range of occupations. Ex. How much of your time is spent teaching people? Area work activities are technologically oriented and quite specific to particular occupational groups. Ex. How much time do you spend cleaning surgical equipment? 9
Phase-2: The Methods of Job AnalysisTaxonomies of human abilities that are widely used in job analysis- Psychomotor abilities, such as manual dexterity and arm/hand steadiness Physical abilities, such as strength and stamina Cognitive abilities, such as intelligence and verbal comprehension Situational abilities, such as ability to work under time pressure and the ability to work aloneData to be collected- -Qualitative data are narrative descriptions of the work activities, and -Quantitative data are numerical values that indicate the extent to which the work activities are involved. 10
Phase-2: The Methods of Job Analysis4. The sources of information Job incumbent Supervisors Subject matter expert (SMEs) Other job experts Non-human sources- Job descriptions Equipment maintenance records Films of employees working Architectural blueprints 11
Phase-2: The Methods of Job Analysis5. Job Analysis Proceduresa. Narrative Job Descriptions:It is the simplest form of job analysis. It includes- job title; job identification number; name of the department or division; name of the job analyst; Brief written summary of the job; list of the jobs major duties; description of the skills, knowledge (including education), and abilities; list of the machines, tools, and equipment used on job; explanation of the job relates to other jobs in the organization (promotion from and promotion to) 12
Phase-2: The Methods of Job Analysis5. Job Analysis Proceduresb. Engineering Approach:It involves an examination of the specific body movements and/or procedural steps that are used to perform a particular task. job analyst collects data by observing actual employees on the job, films of employees working. Develop an operation chart to show the actions of an employee performing a task. The chart uses symbols to represent the worker’s specific actions and sequence in which they occur. 13
Phase-2: The Methods of Job Analysis5. Job Analysis Proceduresb. Engineering Approach (Micromotion Study):Micromotion (time and motion study) studies are used to analyze very short-cycle, repetitive tasks. job analyst develops a list of basic body motions and uses it to analyze all the tasks included in the study. example: search, select, grasp, hold, position, inspect, assemble, disassemble, etc. job analyst then identify the time required (in quantitative data) to complete each motion. the data are particularly useful for the design of equipment to be used on the job. 14
Phase-2: The Methods of Job Analysis5. Job Analysis Proceduresc. Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ):Designed by E. J. McCormick to analyze a wide variety of jobs. It consists of 187 items characterize the worker oriented activities and 7 items deals with pay issues, are grouped into six divisions. (see table 4.4) These are- sources of information, mental processes, work output, relationships with other persons, job context, and other job characteristics. Job analyst uses six scales to rate PAQ items are- i) extent of use, ii) importance to the job, iii) amount of time, iv) possibility of occurrence, v) applicability, and vi) special code. 15
Phase-2: The Methods of job analysisd) Managerial Job Analysis Procedures: Management position description questionnaire (MPDQ), is a 208-item questionnaire that is used to describe manager’s jobs. MPDQ is completed by incumbent managers, who use a six-point scale to rate each item. Professional and managerial position questionnaire (PMPQ), consists of 93 items, divided into three major sections:Job activities Planning and scheduling activities, Processing information and ideas, Exercising judgment, Communicating, interpersonal activities and relationship, and Technical activities.Personal Education, training, and experience.requirementsOther Personnel supervised by the employee, member of Professionalinformation organizations, professional license or certification, and salary of the employee. 16
Phase-3: Data Collection and AnalysisI. Collecting Job Data:a. Getting the Organization Ready make sure that members of the organization understand and are committed to the project Top management should be involved closely in the development of the project There must be a clearly stated rationale and set of goals for the project that is provided who participate in the project.b. Sources of Bias: job data must be accurate, up-to date, and representative picture of work activities. Data can be bias because of- -Sampling procedures (example –methods, types of people) -Time factor (example –farmer) -Technology or other situational factor (example –architectural design) 17
Phase-3: Data Collection and AnalysisI. Collecting Job Data:c. Job Analysis Interviews: interviewing is a skill that must be developed through practiceII. Analyzing Job Data:III. Reporting and Rechecking Job Data 18
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