• Job analysis is the process of gathering and analyzing information about the content and the human
requirements of jobs, as well as, the context in which jobs are performed. This process is used to
determine placement of job. This includes the duties and responsibility involved in the performance
the condition un der which task is carried, the nature of the task, the qualification required in the
worker and the condition includes of employment- payment scheme, working hours, opportunity ,and
privileges. This includes the terms of duties and responsibilities ,skills, knowledge etc.
1. Identification of the job
2. Characteristics of the job
3. Operations involved in doing the job
4. Materials and equipment's to be used in doing the job.
5. Personal attributes required to do the job e.g. education ,basic training, mental capability etc.
6. Relation with other jobs.
USES OF JOB ANALYSIS
1. Human resource planning: Job analysis is useful in human resource planning in terms of demand
forecasting. It finds out the requisite knowledge and skills required to perform a job.
2. Recruitment: Job analysis helps in recruitment in terms of finding how and when people should be
hired for new job openings. It makes the recruitment process easier by highlighting the skills,
knowledge and abilities required to perform a job.
3. Selection of personnel: Job analysis helps in selecting the right person by making the employer
understand what is to be done on a job.
4. Training and development: Job analysis eases the training process by identifying the duties and
responsibilities associated with a job. If the candidate doesn’t have enough knowledge, then training
is provided to make him effective
5. Performance and appraisal: In case of performance appraisal the appraiser compares the
performance of the employee with the standard performance based on job analysis. It makes the
process of performance appraisal easy and simple.
6. Safety and health: Through a proper job analysis the analyst can know the health hazards and
accidents associated with a job. By knowing, proper steps can be undertaken to eradicate those
• A Job Description is an organised
factual statement of job contents in
the form of duties and responsibilities
of a specific job.
Details given in Job Description
• IT IS DESIRABLE THAT THE JOB TITLE SHORT AND SUGGESTIVE OF
THE NATURE OF JOB .
• EG: CASHIER , POST MAN.
• IT MEANS THE NAME OF THE DEPARTMENT WHERE THE JOB
• UNDER CONSIDERATION EXISTS.
• THE TOOLS, MACHINE USED IN THE PERFROMANCE OF THE JOB
• SHOULD ALSO BE INCLUDED IN THE JOB DESCRIPTION.
• EACH TASK TO BE PERFORMED SHOULD BE LISTED
The main steps involved in job analysis are as follows:
1. Organisational Analysis. First of all an overall view of various jobs in the organisation is obtained. This
is required to judge the linkages between jobs and the organisational goals, interrelationships among
jobs, and the contribution of various jobs to efficiency and effectiveness of the organisation. For this
purpose, background information is collected in the form of organisation charts, class specifications,
work flow charts, etc. Organisation charts show the relation of the job with other jobs in the
organisation. Class specifications describe the general requirements of the job family. Work flow
charts indicate the flow of activities involved in a job.
2. Organising Job Analysis Programme. It is necessary to plan and organise the programme of job
analysis. The company must decide who will be in charge of the programme and must assign
responsibilities. A budget and a time schedule should be developed.
3. Deciding the Uses of Job Analysis Information. It has been stated above that information generated
by job analysis can be utilised for practically all functions of human resource management.
Nevertheless, it is desirable to focus on a few priority areas in which the job analysis information is to
be used. These areas can be decided on the basis of the need, priorities and constraints of the
particular organisation. How the job information will be used and for what purpose will determine the
extent to which jobs are to be analysed.
4. Selecting Representative Jobs for Analysis. It would be highly time consuming and costly to
analyse all the jobs. It is, therefore, desirable to select a representative sample of jobs for the
purpose of detailed analysis. Priorities of various jobs needing analysis can also be determined.
5. Understand Job Design. The job analyst should obtain information concerning the current design
of the representative job. For this purpose, current job description and job specification,
procedure manual, systems flow charts, etc. can be studied.
6. Collection of Data. In this step, data on the characteristics of the job, and qualifications and
behavior required to do the job effectively is collected. Data may be collected from the
employees who actually perform the job, or from their super- visors or from outsiders called
trade job analysts appointed to watch employees performing the job. Several techniques are
available for job analysis. Care should be taken to use only those techniques which are acceptable
and reliable in the given situation.
7. Developing a Job Description. The information collected in the previous step is used in
preparing a job description. This is a written statement that describes in brief the tasks, duties
and responsibilities which needs to be discharged for effective job performance.
8. Preparing a Job Specification. The last step in job analysis is to prepare a job specification or
employee specification. This is a written statement which specifies the personal attributes in
terms of education, training, experience and aptitude required to perform the job.
A variety of sources and methods are used to collect data relating to a job. The main methods are
1. Job Performance: Under this method, the job analyst actually performs the job under study to obtain a
first hand experience of the actual tasks, physical and social demands and the environment of the job.
2. Personal observation: Here the analyst directly observes the worker or a group engaged in doing the job.
The task performed, the pace at which activities are carried out, the working condition, etc. are observed
during a complete work cycle.
3. Interview: The analyst personally interviews the employee, his supervisor and other concerned persons
and records answers to relevant questions. A standard format is used to record the data so that the data
collected from different employees can be compared to identify the common and critical aspects of the
4. Questionnaire: In this method, properly drafted questionnaire are sent out to jobholders. After
completion these are returned to supervisors. As the data is often incoherent and disorganised, it is
discussed with the jobholders. After due corrections, the same is submitted to the job analyst.
5. Critical Incidents: Jobholders are asked to describe incidents concerning the job on the basis of their past
experience. The incidents so collected are analysed and classified according to the job areas they
6. Log Records: In this method, a diary or logbook is given to each jobholder. The jobholder daily records the
duties performed making the time at which each task is started and finished.