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  • J Ber 2:5

Archaeology ofthefourgospels.latest Archaeology ofthefourgospels.latest Presentation Transcript

  • Archaeology of the Four Canonical Gospels.Digging for Jesus In Each Gospel "Tell"
  • What is a Tel/Tal/Tell? Repeated,Renewed Building on Older Sites Tel Jericho, Israel – One of the Oldest Cities in the World Evidence of Earliest Occupation, ca. 5000 BCE
  • Working Tel Jericho
  • For Good Work Down a TelAttention to Every Detail is EssentialDestroy Nothing Before Records are Made
  • Stratify the Finds Aided by Geology and Pottery
  • Southern Israel
  • Locate and Measure Finds
  • Carefully Sift for Finds
  • Process Even the Smallest Finds
  • What Archaeologists Do With theEarth, Biblical Scholars Do with Texts – Carefully Dig Into Them!
  • The Four Canonical Gospels The Oldest Sources to Dig Through To The Jesus of HistoryHeld in the Metropolitan Museum of Fine Art, New York, NY Ivory Codex CoverDated 1000 – 1050 CE
  • Agnus Dei?The Lamb of God? Beltex Ram, Northern Italy (From Sudan?)
  • Other Beltex
  • TEXT CRITICISM Collect all the Available Manuscripts (Hand Written Texts, and there are five thousand for the New Testament) Prior to the Introduction of Moveable Type which, thereby, Assured Identical Printed Copies Thereafter. Date the Manuscripts On the Basis of Calligraphy and, if Possible, on the Basis of Carbon 14 Analysis. Create "Families" of Manuscripts on the Basis of Comparing Quotations of the Scriptures by Church Fathers, Known to Be Living in Particular Regions, with MSS with Same Readings. Dont "Count" Manuscripts but "Weigh" Them. Give Priority to Older and More Difficult Readings and A Number of Other Text Critical Principles.
  • Other Selected Text Critical Principles Assume that Mark was the Earliest Gospel to be Written. Harmonistic Readings are Later Readings. The More Difficult Reading is the More Original. The More Semitic Reading is the More Original. The Reading Which Could Have Given Rise to the Others is the More Original. The Reading Most in Accord with the Style of the Author is the More Original
  • Two of the Most Significant Text Critical Problems are in the Gospels The Endings of Mark (Mk 16:9-20, and Two Others, following Mk 16:8) The Pericope of the Woman Caught in Adultery (John 7:53-8:1) In some other MSS, this story follows Jn 7:36, rather than 7:52. In still others, it follows Jn 7:44 and it is even found in Lukes Gospel following Lk 21:38 or, according to a corrector of one MS, following Lk 24:53, i.e. at the very close of Lukes gospel.
  • Some Gospel FragmentsThe Manuscript Evidence ∏45. Example Here has Parts of Luke13-14 Dated ca. 250 CE, Acquired by Sir ChesterBeatty of London in 1930-31 and Now in theBeatty Museum in a suburb of Dublin, Ireland
  • ∏52 The Oldest Fragment of the Greek New Testament, Dated ca. 125 CE, (3 ½ X 2 ½ inches) Parts of John 18:31-33, 37-38 Bought in Egypt by Bernard P. Grenfell and eventually given to the University Library, Manchester , UK and placed among a collection of manuscripts known as the JohnRecto Rylands Papyri Verso
  • One of the Oldest Complete Greek Bibles: Old and New Testaments a = Codex Sinaiticus Some Leaves First Found ca. 1850 by Constantin von Tischendorf In a Bin Being Used to Start the Fire in the Kitchen at the Greek Orthodox monastery of St. Catherine at the base of a traditional
  • A Page of Codex Sinaiticus One of Two Oldest Complete Copies of NTProbably Prepared in Alexandria, along with Codex B (Vaticanus) DATED TO FOURTH CENTURY CE Now on Display in the British Museum, London, along with A = Alexandrinus
  • B = Codex Vaticanus, Uncial, 4th Century CE Probable Provenance: Held in theAlexandria, Egypt, Vatican Library Perhaps Even since the 15th from the Same CenturyScriptorium Which Produced Codex Sinaiticus
  • Constantines Letter to Eusebius (ca. 325 CE) Victor Constantinus, Maximus Augustus, to Eusebius. It happens, through the favoring providence of God, our Savior, that great numbers have united themselves to the most holy church in the city which is called by my name [Constantinople]. It seems, therefore, highly requisite, since that city is rapidly advancing in prosperity in all other respects, that the number of churches should also be increased. Do you, therefore, receive with all readiness my determination on this behalf. I have thought it expedient to instruct your Prudence to order fifty copies of the sacred Scriptures, the provision and use of which you know to be most needful for the instruction of the Church, to be written on prepared parchment in a legible manner, and in a convenient, portable form, by professional transcribers thoroughly practiced in their art.The Bishop of the diocese has also received instructions by letter from our Clemency to be careful to furnish all things necessary for the preparation of such copies; and it will be for you to take special care that they be completed with as little delay as possible. Eusebius, Life of Constantine IV.36
  • Eusebius on the Delivery of these Codices Such were the emperor‘s commands, which were followed by the immediate execution of the work itself, which we sent him in magnificent and elaborately bound volumes of a threefold and fourfold form. [NOTE: It may well be that Codices and B were two "first draft" experimental copies for those 50 ordered by the Emperor Constantine, but, because of their preliminary nature (note, e. g., the 3 columns per page of Vaticanus with modest illumination and the four columns per page of Sinaiticus without illumination), they were never circulated or used, so they managed to survive from antiquity.] Eusebius, Life of Constantine IV.37
  • Gospel Harmonies One Gospel Harmony Seems to Have Been Used by Justin Martyr (103-165 CE) in His Writings (See the Harvard Dissertation by Arthur J. Bellinzoni, The Sayings of Jesus in the Writings of Justin Martyr. Supplements to Novum Testamentum (Leiden: Brill, 1967). Original Thesis defended in 1963. Another harmony was composed by a Roman Christian, Tatian (ca. 120 – 180 CE), and titled Diatessaron ("One Through Four"). It survives today in an old Syriac version and a few other more recent translations, such as Arabic. A third harmony in commentary form was also produced in Rome by St. Augustine (13 November 354 – 28 August 430 CE). See his de Consensu Evangelistarum ("Concerning the Harmony/Consensus of the Evangelists").
  • The Best Work on Tatian (ca. 110-180 CE) in English by William L. Peterson
  • If Marks Gospel Is a Conflation of Mt and Lk, Then…There seems to be a tradition of conflation in Rome from The Gospel of Mark (1st century CE), Through a conflated text of the gospels used by Justin Martyr (ca. 103 – 165 CE) And the Diatessaron of Tatian (110 – 180 CE). To Saint Augustine of Hippo Regius and, later, Rome, (354- 430 CE).
  • Source Criticism What is the relationship between and among the Synoptic Gospels (Mt, Mk, Lk)? Did One of the Synoptics Use One or More of the Other Synoptics? Which of the Synoptics wrote First? Second? Third? What Other Sources Did the Synoptic Evangelists Also Likely Use?
  • External Patristic Evidence What Can We Learn About the Character of Each of the Synoptic Gospels, Their Interrelationships, and the Sequence of Their Composition from Testimonies of the Some of the Oldest Church Fathers? Papias (60-130 CE) Clement of Alexandria (150-215 CE) Irenaeus (130-200 CE) Origen (185-254 CE) Eusebius of Caesarea (260-340 CE) Jerome (342-420 CE) Augustine (354-430 CE)
  • Fragments of Papias of Hierapolis (60-130CE), Knew the Apostle John and Polycarp, an Early Martyr And, for you, I shall not hesitate also to classify with the Sacred Scriptures whatever at anytime I had both duly learned from the Presbyters and duly remembered, being absolutely confident of their truth. For I was not one to take pleasure, like so may people, in those who talk at great length, but in those whose teaching is true; nor in those who remember the directives of others, but in those who remember the ones given by the Lord to the Faith and that come from the Truth itself.
  • Papias 1 (continued) If then indeed someone who had followed the Presbyters happened to come along, I used to inquire about the words of the Presbyters --- what Andrew or Peter had said, or what Philip, or what Thomas or James or what John or Matthew, or any other disciple of the Lord, --- and what Aristion and the presbyter, John, disciples of the Lord, were still saying. For I reckoned that whatever is taken out of Books is not as useful to me as the (utterances) of a living and abiding voice.  Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 3.39.3-4.
  • Papias 2 And this, the Presbyter [John?] used to say,"Mark, being the recorder (hermeneutes) of Peter, wrote accurately but not in order whatever he (Peter) remembered of the things either said or done by the Lord. For he (Mark) had neither heard the Lord nor followed him but later (heard and followed) Peter, as I said; who used to make his discourses according to the chreias, but not making, as it were, a literary composition of the Lords sayings; so that Mark did not err at all when he wrote certain things, just as he (Peter) recalled them. For he had but one intention, not to leave out anything he had heard nor to falsify anything in them"This is what was related by Papias about the (Gospel) of Mark. Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 3.39.15
  • Papias 3 But about (that gospel) of Matthew, this was said,"For Matthew composed the Logia in a Hebraic style;* but each recorded them as he was in a position to."*Alternatively, the Greek words Hebraisti dialektw could be understood as "in the Hebrew dialect," i. e. Aramaic. Later scholars of the Church, in fact, took these words to mean that Matthew originally wrote his gospel in either Hebrew or Aramaic and Jerome actually claims to have seen a Hebrew version of Matthew, when he was in residence in Bethlehem. Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 3.39.16
  • Clement of Alexandria, (150 – ca 215 CE) Student of Pantaenus, Teacher of OrigenIn the Catechetical School of Alexandria, Egypt  This work is not a writing artfully constructed for display, but my notes stored up for old age as a remedy against forgetfulness, an artless image and a rough sketch of those powerful and animated words which it was my privilege to hear from blessed and truly remarkable men. Clement, Stromateis, 1.11 Quoted in Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 5.11.3
  • Clement 2Of these, the one --- the Ionian --- was in Greece, the other in Magna Graecia; the one of them was from Coele-Syria, the other from Egypt. There were others in the East, one of them an Assyrian, the other a Hebrew in Palestine. But when I met with the last --- in ability truly he was the first --- having hunted him out in his concealment in Egypt, I found rest. These men, preserving the true tradition of the blessed doctrine, directly from the holy apostles, Peter and James and John and Paul, the son receiving it from the fathers --- but few of these were like the fathers --- have come by Gods will even to us to deposit those ancestral and apostolic seeds. Clement, Stromateis 1.1.11 As Quoted in Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 5.11.4-5
  • Clements Sources,Geographically Diverse Magna Ionia Graecia
  • Clement 3 And again in the same books (Stromateis) Clement has inserted a tradition of the primitive elders with regard to the order of the Gospels, as follows. He said that "those gospels were written first which include the genealogies, but that the Gospel according to Mark came into being in the following manner…. John, last of all, conscious that the outward facts had been set forth in the (previous) gospels, was urged on by his disciples and, divinely moved by the Spirit, composed "a spiritual gospel." This is Clements account. Clement as Quoted in Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 6.14.5-7.
  • The Latin Monarchian Prologue to Mark (4 th – 5th Century CE)  Lastly, [Mark], at the outset of his book of the Gospel, strictly understood and starting his preaching of God from the Lords baptism, did not demur to exposing [the Lords] birth in the flesh, as he had already seen it present in both of the preceding [Gospels of Mt and Lk].*  *This testimony also accords with the testimony of Clement, derived from that of "the primitive elders."
  • Sedulius Scottus (9th Century Irish Monk) Matthew and Luke, who, according to some, as the Ecclesiastical History relates, wrote their gospels before Mark.* This is, most likely, a reference to Eusebius Ecclesiastical History 6.14.5-6, i. e. Clement of Alexandrias note quoted in the previous slide about the tradition from the primitive elders that "those gospels with genealogies (including Mt and Lk) wrote before (any others, presumably all those without genealogies, which would include Mark.)
  • Irenaeus of Lyons in Gaul (2nd Century CE) Matthew published his Gospel among the Hebrews in their own language, while Peter and Paul were preaching and founding the Church at Rome. After their exodus, Mark, the disciple and interpreter of Peter, also transmitted to us in writing those things which Peter had preached; and Luke, the attendant of Paul, recorded in a book the Gospel which Paul had declared. Afterwards, John, the disciple of the Lord, who also reclined on His bosom, published his Gospel, while staying at Ephesus in Asia. Irenaeus, as quoted by Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 5.8.2- 4.
  • Origen of Alexandria, Student of Clement (ca. 185 -254 CE) Among the four gospels, which are the only indisputable ones in the Church of God under Heaven, I have learned by tradition that the first was written by Matthew, who was once a tax/toll collector, but afterwards an apostle of Jesus Christ, and it was prepared for converts from Judaism, and published in the Hebrew language. The second is by Mark, who composed it according to the instructions of Peter, who, in his Catholic Epistle (1 Peter) acknowledges him as a son saying, "The church that is at Babylon (i. e. Rome) elected together with you, salutes you, and so does Mark, my son." (1 Peter 5:13) And the third, by Luke, the Gospel commended by Paul, and composed for Gentile converts. Last of all, that by John.Origen, as quoted by Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 6.25.3-6
  • The First Four Great "Doctors" of the Western Church (Named in 1298 CE) St. Ambrose (ca. 337 – 397 CE) [Teacher of Augustine] St. Jerome (ca. 347 – 420 CE) [Patron Saint of Librarians] St. Augustine (354 – 430 CE) Pope Gregory the Great (ca. 540 – 604 CE)
  • Hieronymus = Jerome (ca. 347-420CE), Correspondent with Augustine, Commissioned byPope Damasus to Produce an Official Latin Translation of the Bible Takes up the Evangelists in his Lives of Illustrious Men in this order. # 3 Matthew # 7 Luke # 8 Mark # 9 John
  • Jerome Re: Matthew Lives of Illustrius Men 3 The first evangelist is Matthew, the publican (Mt 9:9), who was surnamed Levi (Lk 5:27-28). He published his Gospel in Judea in the Hebrew language (or style), chiefly for the sake of the Jewish believers in Christ, who adhered in vain to the shadow of the law, although the substance of the Gospel had come.
  • Jerome Re Mark The second is Mark, the interpreter of the Apostle Peter, and the first bishop of the Church at Alexandria. He did not himself see our Lord and Savior, but he related the matter of his Masters preaching with more regard to minute detail than to historical sequence.
  • Jerome re Luke The third is Luke, the physician (Col 4:14, cf. Philemon 24 and 2 Tim 4:11), by birth a native of Antioch, in Syria, whose praise is in the Gospel. He was himself a disciple of the Apostle, Paul, and composed his book in Achaea. He thoroughly investigates certain particulars and, as he himself confesses in the preface (Lk 1:1-4, cf Acts 1:1- 2), describes what he had heard rather than what he had seen.
  • Jerome re John The last is John, the Apostle and Evangelist, whom Jesus loved most (cf. Jn 13:23, 19:26-27, 20:2, 21:7, 21:20), who, reclining on the Lords bosom (Jn 13:23), drank the purest streams of doctrine and was the only one thought worthy of the words from the cross, Behold, they mother" (Jn 19:26-27). When he was in Asia, at the time when the seeds of heresy were springing up, he was urged by almost all bishops of Asia then living, and by deputations, from many churches, to write more profoundly concerning the divinity of the Savior, and to break trough all obstacles so as to attain to the very Word of God (if I may so speak) with a boldness a successful as it appears audacious. Ecclesiastical history relates that, when he was urged by the brothers to write, he replied that he would do so, if a general fast were proclaimed and all would offer up prayer to God; and when the fast was over, the narrative goes on to say, being filled with revelation, he burst into the heaven-sent Preface: "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God, this was in the beginning with God. All four of the preceding quotations are found in Jerome, Preface to the Gospel of Matthew
  • Leonardo DaVincis Last Supper (Completed 1498 CE) From the Rectory Wall of Santa Maria delle grazie, Milan, Italy
  • The Rectory After WW IIBombing,15 August 1943
  • Augustine of Hippo 1: Harmony of the Gospels, Book 1. 2, 3-4 It would appear that Matthew, Mark, Luke and John had one order determined among them with regard to the matters of their personal knowledge and their preaching, but a different order in reference to the task of giving the written narrative. As far, indeed, as concerns the acquisition of their own knowledge and the charge of preaching, those unquestionably came first in order who were actually followers of the Lord when He was present in the flesh, and heard Him speak and saw him act; and with a commission received from His lips, they were dispatched to preach the gospel. But as respects the task of composing that record of the gospel which is to be accepted as ordained by divine authority, there were only two, belonging to the number of those whom the Lord chose before the Passover, that obtained places, namely the first and last.
  • Harmony of the Gospels, Book 1(continued) was held by For the first place in order (of the NT canon) Matthew and the last by John. And, thus, the remaining two (Mark and Luke), who did not belong to the number (of the twelve disciples/apostles) referred to, but who at the same time had become followers of Christ who spoke in these others (Mt and Jn), were supported on either side (in the canon) by the same, like sons who were to be embraced, and who, in this way, were set in the midst between these two (Mt, Mk, Lk, Jn). And however they may appear to have kept each of them a certain order of narration proper to himself, this is certainly not to be taken as if each individual writer chose to write in ignorance of what his predecessor had done.
  • Harmony (continued) Matthew is understood to have taken in hand to construct the record of the incarnation of the Lord, according to the royal lineage, and to give an account of the deeds and words, as they stood in relation to this present life of men. Mark follows him closely and looks like an attendant (comes) and epitomizer (breviator).
  • Harmony 1.2.6 Whereas, then, Matthew had in view the kingly character and Luke, the priestly, they have at the same time both set forth pre-eminently the humanity of Christ: for it was according to His humanity that Christ was made both King and Priest. And this was one with the purpose that there might be a mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, to make intercession for us. Luke, on the other hand had no one connected to him to act as his summarist in the way that Mark was attached to Matthew. … Luke, whose object contemplated the priestly office of Christ, did not have any one to come after him as a confederate, who was meant in some way to serve as an epitomizer of his narrative.
  • Harmony 1.6.9 Those who have taken the lion to point to Matthew, the man to Mark, the calf to Luke, and the eagle to John, (such as, Augustine, himself) have made a more reasonable application of the figures than those who have assigned the man to Matthew, the eagle to Mark, the ox to Luke and the lion to John (such as Augustines predecessor, Irenaeus).
  • Harmony 4.10.11 Thus, too, it is clearly an admitted position that the first three--- namely, Matthew, Mark and Luke --- have occupied themselves chiefly with the humanity of our Lord Jesus Christ, according to which He is both king and priest. And in this way, Mark, who seems to answer to the figure of the man in the well known mystical symbol of the four living creatures either appears to be preferentially the companion (comes) of Matthew as he narrates a larger number of matters in unison with him whose wont it is, as I have stated in the first book, to be not unaccompanied by attendants; or else, in accordance with the more probable account of the matter, he holds a course in conjunction with both (Mt and Lk).
  • Harmony 4.10.11 For although he is at one with Matthew in the larger number of passages he is nevertheless at one rather with Luke in some others; and this very fact show him to stand related at once to the lion and to the calf, that is to say, to the kingly office which Matthew emphasizes to the sacerdotal which Luke emphasizes wherein also Christ appears distinctively as man, as the figure which mark sustains stands related to both these. On the other hand, Christs divinity, .. Like an eagle, he abides among Christs sayings of the sublimer order in no way descends to earth but on rare occasions.
  • The Four Beasts of EzekielEzek. 1:5 In the middle of it was somethinglike four living creatures. This was theirappearance: they were of human form.Ezek. 1:10 As for the appearance of their faces:the four had the face of a human being, the faceof a lion on the right side, the face of an ox on theleft side, and the face of an eagle;
  • Church Fathers Systems of Assignment of Beasts to the Evangelists (Ezekiels Order) Church Human Lion Ox Eagle Father Irenaeus Matthew John Luke Mark Augustine Mark Matthew Luke John Pseudo- Matthew Luke Mark John Athanasius Jerome Matthew Mark Luke John Among the Old Latin MSS, Some Place the Apostles (Matthew and John) Before the Apostolic Men (Luke and Mark) in an "Order of Dignity" and, Perhaps, Adding a Sub- "Order of Composition" (Matthew Before John and Luke Before Mark). Irenaeus is Here ProbablyConforming His Assignments Both to the pre-Vulgate, Canonical Order and to the Sequence of the Beasts as They Appear in Ezekiel.
  • The Same Four Beasts of Revelation Rev. 4:6 and in front of the throne there issomething like a sea of glass, like crystal. ¶Around the throne, and on each side of thethrone, are four living creatures, full of eyes in front and behind: Rev. 4:7 the first living creature like a lion, the second living creature like anox, the third living creature with a face like a human face, and the fourth living creature like a flying eagle.
  • Church Fathers Systems of Assignment ofBeasts to the Evangelists (Order in Revelation) Church Lion Ox Human Eagle Father Irenaeus John Luke Matthew Mark Augustine Matthew Luke Mark John Pseudo- Luke Mark Matthew John Athanasius Jerome Mark Luke Matthew John Augustines Assignments Conform both to His own "more probable" Order of the Composition of the Gospels and to the Order in Which the Beasts Appear in Revelation.Augustine Implicitly Responds to Irenaeus Whose AssignmentsConform to the Order in which the Beasts Appear in Ezekiel and the Canonical Order of the Gospels in Pre-Vulgate Latin MSS.
  • The Evangelists and Their Symbols on the Book of Kells (Completed ca. 800 CE) Matthew Mark Luke John
  • Man. Jeromes Symbol for Matthew From Lindisfarne Gospels 7th Century CE Now in the British Museum, London, England
  • The Gospel According to Matthew Some Characteristics of the Gospel According to Matthew1. Most "Jewish" of the Canonical Gospels. (cf. Mt 23:5 cf. Lk 20:46//Mk 12:38-39)2. Genealogy is a Royal Line Through David the King (Mt 1:1-17; cf. Lk 3:23-38)3. In the Birth Narratives, Annunciations are Made in Dreams to Joseph (not to Mary through Angels), Magi Visit the Holy Family In A House (not a manger). (Mt 1-2; cf. Lk 1:5-2:51)4. Contains 5 (or 6?) Great Speeches of Jesus (cf. Torah=5 Books of Moses). (Mt 4:23-7:29; 9:35-11:1; 13:1-53; 18:1-19:1; 23:1-26:1)5. Jesus First Sermon is the "Sermon on the Mount." (cf. Moses receiving Torah on Mt. Sinai) Mt 4:23-7:29, cf. Sermon in Nazareth in Lk 4:16-30 and Lk 6:17-7:16. SermonContains the Commonly Used Form of "The Lords Prayer" (Mt 6:9-13 Contrast Lk 11:1-4).7. Uses "Proofs from Prophecy" to Compose and Support the Narrative (Mt 1:22,
  • Phylacteries/Tefillin Tefillin from Qumran 1st Century BCE
  • Kraspedas/Tzitzit
  • Great Speeches in Matthew Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5:1-7:28) Missionary Discourse (Matthew 10:1-11:1) Parables Discourse (Matthew 13:1-53) Church Discourse (Matthew 18:1-19:1) [Anti-Pharisaic Discourse (Matthew 23:1-39)] Eschatological Discourse (Matthew 24:1-26:1)
  • Matthews Lords Prayer From Heaven to Earth Our Father, who art in Heaven, 1a. Let your name be hallowed.} Re: Heavenly Realm. 2a. Let your Kingdom come.} Re: Heavenly Realm 3a. Let your will be done.} Re: Heavenly Realm On earth, as it is in heaven. 1b. Give us this day our daily bread.} Re: Earthly Realm 2b. Forgive us our debts, so* we forgive our debtors.} Re: Earthly Realm 3b. Lead us not into the time of trial, but deliver us from theEvil One.} Re: Earthly Realm Amen*ΩΣ
  • Lukes Lords Prayer Father, 1a. Hallowed be Your Name. 2a. Your Kingdom Come. 1b. Give us each day our daily bread. 2b. And forgive us our sins, for we ourselves forgive everyone indebted to us. 3b. And do not bring us into the time of trial.
  • Ox. Jeromes Symbol for Luke From Lindisfarne Gospels 7th Century CE Now in the British Museum, London, England
  • The Gospel According to Luke Some Characteristics of the Gospel According to Luke1. Begins with a Typical Hellenistic Preface (Lk 1:1-4). Wrote the Two Volume Work, Luke-Acts, Which also Begins with a Typical Hellenistic Preface (Acts 1:1-2)2. Parallel Annunciations, Births and Circumcisions of John the Baptist andJesus (Lk 1:1-2).3. Contains a distinctive "Travel Narrative" (Lk 9:51-19:45?).4. Contains a Priestly Line in Jesus Genealogy (Lk 3:23-38). (cf. Mts Royal line).5. More of a Gentile Oriented Gospel (Lk 20:46-47, cf. Mt 23:2-5 is more Jewish).6. Major Interests Include Jerusalem, Women, the Poor, Samaritans, the Outcast.7. Affirms "Eschatological Reversal" in Numerous Places and Ways. (e.g.Magnificat, Lk 1:46-55)8. Although Luke affirms that Jesus Fulfills Scripture (e.g. Lk 24:27), he does not supply "proof texts," in the way that Matthew does (e.g. Mt 1:22-23).
  • Hellenistic PrefacesLuke 1:1-4 Acts 1:1-2Luke 1:1 ¶ Since many have undertaken Acts 1:1 ¶ In the first book, Theophilus, Ito set down an orderly account of the wrote about all that Jesus did and taughtevents that have been fulfilled among us, from the beginningLuke 1:2 just as they were handed on to Acts 1:2 until the day when he was takenus by those who from the beginning were up to heaven, after giving instructionseyewitnesses and servants of the word, through the Holy Spirit to the apostlesLuke 1:3 I too decided, after investigating whom he had chosen.everything carefully from the very first, towrite an orderly account for you, mostexcellent Theophilus,Luke 1:4 so that you may know the truthconcerning the things about which youhave been instructed.
  • John and Jesus in ParallelAnnunciation of Birth of Annunciation of Birth of John Jesus Lk 1:5-25 Lk 1:26-38 Meeting of Elizabeth and Mary Lk 1:39-56Birth and Circumcision Birth,Circumcision and of John Redemption of Jesus Lk 1:56-80 Lk 2:1-40 Jesus in the Temple with the Elders at Twelve Lk 2:41-52
  • Beginning of Travel NarrativeLuke 9:51 ¶ When the days drew near forhim to be taken up, he set his face to go toJerusalem.Luke 9:52 And he sent messengers ahead ofhim. On their way they entered a village ofthe Samaritans to make ready for him;Luke 9:53 but they did not receivehim, because his face was set toward
  • Lion. Jeromes Symbol for Mark From Lindisfarne Gospels 7th Century CE Now in the British Museum, London, England
  • The Gospel According to Mark Some Characteristics of the Gospel According to Mark1. Mark is a "Bridge Gospel" Between the More Jewish Matthew and the More Gentile Luke.2. Wilhelm Wrede (1859-1906) once described Mark as "A Passion Narrative with an Extended Introduction" (But not too extended! The Passion Narrative Begins in Mark No Later Than Mk 3:6, [for an even earlier hint of trouble for Jesus, see Mk 2:5-7)3. A Fast Moving Narrative, often connected simply by the word, "and," or punctuated by the phrase, "and immediately," (e.g. Mk 1:10, 12, 18, 20, etc.).4. Johann Jacob Griesbach (1745-1812) once stated that Mark was filled with stories drawn from Matthew or Luke or both, except for some 25 verses (Mk 3:7-12, 4:26-29, 7:32-37, 8:22-26, 13:33-36), but this number of 25 discounted a rather large number of words and phrases by which Mark elaborated on stories drawn from Mt, Lk or both. (The Markan Overlay).
  • The Markan Overlay Pavlin (again) used to unite two contextually separated passages. (Mk 2:1, 2:13, 3:1, 3:20, 4:1- 2, 5:21, 7:14, 7:31, 8:1, 8:13, 10:1bis, 10:10, 10:32, 11:27) Jesus heals or preaches openly and then explains his open activity privately to his disciples who question him in a house. (Mk 4:10-11, 7:17, 9:28-29, 10:10) to; eujaggevlion (the Gospel) used absolutely (Mk 1:1, 1:15, 8:35, 10:29, 13:10, 14:9, [16:15]). Cf. oJ lovgo" (the word) used absolutely (Mk 1:45, 2:2, 4:14, 15bis, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 4:33, 5:36, 7:29, 8:32, 9 :10, 10:22, [16:20]). to; musthvrion (the mystery) used absolutely (Mk 4:11).
  • Eagle. Jeromes Symbol for John From Lindisfarne Gospels 7th Century CE Now in the British Museum, London, England
  • The Gospel According to John Some Characteristics of the Gospel of John1. Clement of Alexandria (150-215 CE) already called John "a spiritual gospel" in distinguishing it from Mt/Mk/Lk. John is a very "reflective" gospel.2. Jesus Ministry Includes 3 Visits to Jerusalem for Passover. Therefore, Jesus Had a Three Year Ministry, rather than the 1 year suggested in Mt/Mk/Lk3. The first half of Johns Gospel is organized by a series of "Signs" = Miracle Stories. (ex. Jn 2:11, 2:18, 2:23, 3:2, 4:48, 4:54, 6:2,6:14, 6:26, 6:30, 7:31, 9:16,10:41, 11:47, 12:18, 12:37, 20:30)4. The Gospel of John Can Be Divided into a "Book of Signs" (Chapters 1- 12) and a "Book of Glory."(Chapters 13-20)5. Jesus Teaches More Like a Greek Philosopher Than a Jewish Rabbi.6. Cleansing of the Temple Takes Place Three Years Before Jesus is Arrested, rather than during Jesus last week prior to his death (Mt/Mk/Lk).
  • The "I am" SayingsVerses "I am" SayingsJn 6:35, 48, "I am the Bread of Life"cf. 6:41, 51Jn 8:12, 9:5 "I am the Light of the WorldJn 10:7 "I am the Gate for the Sheep"Jn 10:9 "I am the Gate"Jn 10:11, "I am the Good Shepherd"14Jn 11:25 "I am the Resurrection and the Life"Jn 14:6 "I am the Way, the Truth and the Life"Jn 15:1 " I am the True Vine"cf. 15:5
  • Exodus 3:13-14Ex. 3:13 ¶ But Moses said to God, ―If Icome to the Israelites and say to them,‗The God of your ancestors has sent me toyou,‘ and they ask me, ‗What is his name?‘what shall I say to them?‖Ex. 3:14 God said to Moses, ―I AM WHO IAM.‖ He said further, ―Thus you shall say tothe Israelites, ‗I AM has sent me to you.‘‖
  • Hebrew for "I am who I am," The Verb, "To Become"and the Divine Name, YHWH
  • From the Gospels To TheHistorical Jesus – Three Common Criteria Seeking the Historical JesusCriterion 1. Double Dissimilarity – Trust That Which is Notin Conformity with the Interests of Either (1) First CenturyJudaism or (2) The Earliest Christian Community.Criterion 2. Coherence – Gather Other Material from theGospels Which Conforms to this Meager Early Layer.Criterion 3. Multiple Attestation – Gather Other Materials
  • An Example of Double Dissimilarity Matt. 5:43 ¶ ―You have heard that it was said, ‗You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.‘ Matt. 5:44 But I say to you, Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, Matt. 5:45 so that you may be children of your Father in heaven; for he makes his sun rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the righteous and on the unrighteous. Matt. 5:46 For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Do not even the tax collectors do the same? Matt. 5:47 And if you greet only your brothers and sisters, what more are you doing than others? Do not even the Gentiles do the same? Matt. 5:48 Be perfect, therefore, as your heavenly Father is perfect.
  • An Example of Coherence Luke 10:30 Jesus replied, ―A man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell into the hands of robbers, who stripped him, beat him, and went away, leaving him half dead. Luke 10:31 Now by chance a priest was going down that road; and when he saw him, he passed by on the other side. Luke 10:32 So likewise a Levite, when he came to the place and saw him, passed by on the other side. Luke 10:33 But a Samaritan while traveling came near him; and when he saw him, he was moved with pity. Luke 10:34 He went to him and bandaged his wounds, having poured oil and wine on them. Then he put him on his own animal, brought him to an inn, and took care of him. Luke 10:35 The next day he took out two denarii, gave them to the innkeeper, and said, ‗Take care of him; and when I come back, I will repay you whatever more you spend.‘ Luke 10:36 Which of these three, do you think, was a neighbor to the man who fell into the hands of the robbers?‖ Luke 10:37 He said, ―The one who showed him mercy.‖ Jesus said to him, ―Go and do likewise.‖
  • An Example of Multiple Attestation Parable of the Lost Sheep Parable of the Lost CoinLuke 15:1 ¶ Now all the tax collectors and Luke 15:8 ¶ ―Or what woman having ten silversinners were coming near to listen to him. coins, if she loses one of them, does not lightLuke 15:2 And the Pharisees and the scribes a lamp, sweep the house, and searchwere grumbling and saying, ―This fellow carefully until she finds it?welcomes sinners and eats with them.‖ Luke 15:9 When she has found it, she callsLuke 15:3 ¶ So he told them this parable: together her friends and neighbors, saying,Luke 15:4 ―Which one of you, having a ‗Rejoice with me, for I have found the coinhundred sheep and losing one of them, does that I had lost.‘not leave the ninety-nine in the wildernessand go after the one that is lost until he findsit?Luke 15:5 When he has found it, he lays it onhis shoulders and rejoices.Luke 15:6 And when he comes home, he callstogether his friends and neighbors, saying tothem, ‗Rejoice with me, for I have found mysheep that was lost.‘
  • The Parables – Triple Tradition (Mt/Mk/Lk1. The Mustard Seed (Matthew 13:31-32; Mark 4:30-32; Luke 13:18-19)2. The Sower (and the Soils) (Matthew 13:1-23; Mark 4:3-20; Luke 8:4-15)3. The Vineyard (Matthew 21:33-46; Mark 12:1-11; Luke 20:9-19)
  • The Parables – Double Tradition (Mt-Lk)1. The Wise Builder (Matthew 7:24-27; Luke 6:47-49)2. The Leaven (Matthew 13:33; Luke 13:20-21)3. The Lost Sheep (Matt 18:12-13; Luke 15:3-7)4. The Banquet (Matt 22:1-14; cf., Luke 14:15-24)5. The Talents or Minas (Pounds) (Matt 25:14-30; Luke 19:11- 27)6. The Wise and Foolish Stewards (Matt 24:45-51; Luke 12:42- 48)
  • The Parables Single Tradition - Matthew1. The Wise Builder (Matthew 7:24-27)2. The Wheat and the Weeds (Matthew 13:24-27)3. The Treasure in the Field (Matthew 13:44)4. The Pearl of Great Value (Matthew 13:45-46)5. The Dragnet (Matthew 13:47-50)6. The Unmerciful Servant (Matthew 18:21-35)7. The Workers in the Vineyard (Matthew 20:1-16)8. The Two Sons (Matthew 21:28-32) cf. Prodigal Son (Luke 15:11-32)9. The Wise Steward (Matthew 24:45-51)10. The Ten Virgins (Matthew 25:1-13)11. The Sheep and Goats (Matthew 25:31-46)
  • The Parables Single Tradition - Luke1. The Two Debtors (Luke 7:41-43)2. The Good Samaritan (Luke 10:25-37)3. Friend at Midnight (Luke 11:5-13)4. The Rich Fool (Luke 12:16-21)5. The Watchful Servants (Luke 12:35-40)6. The Barren Fig Tree (Luke 13:6-9)7. Unprepared Builder (Luke 14:28-30)8. King Going to War (Luke 14:31-32)7. The Lost Coin (Luke 15:8-10)8. The Prodigal Son (Luke 15:11-32)9. The Dishonest Steward (Luke 16:1-8a)10. The Rich Man and Lazarus (Luke 16:19-31)11. The Unjust Judge (Luke 18:1-8)12. The Pharisee & Tax Collector in the Temple (Luke 18:9-14)
  • The Parable Single Tradition - Mark1. The Seed Growing Secretly (Mark 4:26-29, but compare scattered details of Matt 13:24-27)
  • Parable Totals Matthew = 20 Parables Luke = 21 Parables Mark = 4 Parables
  • Parable of Laborers 1A king had a vineyard for which he engaged many laborers, oneof whom was especially apt and skillful. What did the king do?He took this laborer from his work, and walked through thegarden conversing with him. When the laborers came for theirhire in the evening, the skillful laborer also appeared amongthem and received a full days wages from the king. The otherlaborers were angry at this and said, "We have toiled the wholeday, while this man has worked but two hours; why does theking give him the full hire, even as to us?" The king said tothem, "Why are you angry? Through his skill he has done morein the two hours than you have all day."
  • Parable of Laborers 2For the kingdom of heaven is like a landowner who went out early in the morning to hire men to work in his vineyard. 2 He agreed to pay them a denarius for the day and sent them into his vineyard… 6 About the eleventh hour he went out and found still others standing around. He asked them, ―Why have you been standing here all day long doing nothing?‖7 ―Because no one has hired us,‖ they answered. He said to them, ―You also go and work in my vineyard.‖ 8 When evening came, the owner of the vineyard said to his foreman, ―Call the workers and pay them their wages, beginning with the last ones hired and going on to the first.‖ 9 The workers who were hired about the eleventh hour came and each received a denarius. 10 So when those came who were hired first, they expected to receive more. But each one of them also received a denarius. 11 When they received it, they began to grumble against the landowner. 12 ―These men who were hired last worked only one hour,‖ they said, ―and you have made them equal to us who have borne the burden of the work and the heat of the day.‖ 13 But he answered one of them, ―Friend, I am not being unfair to you. Didnt you agree to work for a denarius? 14 Take your pay and go. I want to give the man who was hired last the same as I gave you. 15 Dont I have the right to do what I want with my own money? Or are you envious because I am generous?‖
  • Which Are the Most Likely HistoricalPoints From Which to Begin a Biography of Jesus?1. Jesus Was Baptized by John.2. Jesus Rebuked the Self-Righteousness of Those Who Criticized His Practice of Eating with "Tax-Collectors and Sinners," whom Jesus called "The Lost Sheep of the House of Israel."3. Jesus Was Crucified by Pontius Pilate
  • Orthodox Baptistery Dome,Ravenna, Italy (ca. 4th Century CE)
  • Arian Baptistery Dome,Ravenna, Italy, ca. 4th Century CE
  • Jesus Baptism in MatthewMatt. 3:1 ¶ In those days John the Baptist appeared in the wildernessof Judea, proclaiming,Matt. 3:2 ―Repent, for the kingdom of heaven has come near.‖Matt. 3:3 This is the one of whom the prophet Isaiah spoke when hesaid, ―The voice of one crying out in the wilderness: ‗Prepare the way of the Lord, make his paths straight.‘‖Matt. 3:4 Now John wore clothing of camel‘s hair with a leather beltaround his waist, and his food was locusts and wild honey.Matt. 3:5 Then the people of Jerusalem and all Judea were going outto him, and all the region along the Jordan,Matt. 3:6 and they were baptized by him in the river Jordan,confessing their sins.
  • Baptism in Matthew (Continued 1)Matt. 3:7 ¶ But when he saw many Pharisees and Sadducees coming forbaptism, he said to them, ―You brood of vipers! Who warned you to fleefrom the wrath to come?Matt. 3:8 Bear fruit worthy of repentance.Matt. 3:9 Do not presume to say to yourselves, ‗We have Abraham as ourancestor‘; for I tell you, God is able from these stones to raise up children toAbraham.Matt. 3:10 Even now the ax is lying at the root of the trees; every treetherefore that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire.Matt. 3:11 ¶ ―I baptize you with water for repentance, but one who is morepowerful than I is coming after me; I am not worthy to carry his sandals. Hewill baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire.Matt. 3:12 His winnowing fork is in his hand, and he will clear his threshingfloor and will gather his wheat into the granary; but the chaff he will burnwith unquenchable fire.‖
  • Baptism in Matthew (continued 2)Matt. 3:13 ¶ Then Jesus came from Galilee to John at the Jordan,to be baptized by him.Matt. 3:14 John would have prevented him, saying, ―I need to bebaptized by you, and do you come to me?‖Matt. 3:15 But Jesus answered him, ―Let it be so now; for it isproper for us in this way to fulfill all righteousness.‖ Then heconsented.Matt. 3:16 And when Jesus had been baptized, just as he cameup from the water, suddenly the heavens were opened to him andhe saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and alighting onhim.Matt. 3:17 And a voice from heaven said, ―This is my Son, the
  • Ravenna Orthodox Baptistery Dome, Detail
  • Jesus Baptism in LukeLuke 3:1 ¶ In the fifteenth year of the reign of EmperorTiberius, when Pontius Pilate was governor of Judea, andHerod was ruler of Galilee, and his brother Philip ruler of theregion of Ituraea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias ruler of Abilene,Luke 3:2 during the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas,the word of God came to John son of Zechariah in thewilderness.Luke 3:3 He went into all the region around the Jordan,proclaiming a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins,
  • Baptism in Luke (cf. Isa 40:3) (continued 2)Luke 3:4 as it is written in the book of the words of the prophet Isaiah,―The voice of one crying out in the wilderness:‗Prepare the way of the Lord,make his paths straight.Luke 3:5 Every valley shall be filled,and every mountain and hill shall be made low,and the crooked shall be made straight,and the rough ways made smooth;Luke 3:6 and all flesh shall see the salvation of God.‘‖
  • Luke (continued 3) (cf. Mt 3:7-10)Luke 3:7 ¶ John said to the crowds that came out to be baptized by him, ―You brood of vipers! Who warned you to flee from the wrath to come?Luke 3:8 Bear fruits worthy of repentance. Do not begin to say to yourselves, ‗We have Abraham as our ancestor‘; for I tell you, God is able from these stones to raise up children to Abraham.Luke 3:9 Even now the ax is lying at the root of the trees; every tree therefore that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire.‖
  • Luke (continued 4) Luke 3:10 ¶ And the crowds asked him, ―What then should we do?‖ Luke 3:11 In reply he said to them, ―Whoever has two coats must share with anyone who has none; and whoever has food must do likewise.‖ Luke 3:12 Even tax collectors came to be baptized, and they asked him, ―Teacher, what should we do?‖ Luke 3:13 He said to them, ―Collect no more than the amount prescribed for you.‖ Luke 3:14 Soldiers also asked him, ―And we, what should we do?‖ He said to them, ―Do not extort money from anyone by threats or false accusation, and be satisfied with your wages.‖
  • Luke (continued 5) (cf. Matt 3:11-12 and Mark 1:7-8)Luke 3:15 ¶ As the people were filled with expectation, and allwere questioning in their hearts concerning John, whether hemight be the Messiah,Luke 3:16 John answered all of them by saying, ―I baptize youwith water; but one who is more powerful than I is coming; I amnot worthy to untie the thong of his sandals. He will baptize youwith the Holy Spirit and fire.Luke 3:17 His winnowing fork is in his hand, to clear histhreshing floor and to gather the wheat into his granary; but thechaff he will burn with unquenchable fire.‖Luke 3:18 ¶ So, with many other exhortations, he proclaimedthe good news to the people.
  • Luke (continued 6) (cf. Mt 14:1-10 & Mark 6:14-29)Luke 3:19 But Herod the ruler, who had been rebuked by himbecause of Herodias, his brother‘s wife, and because of all theevil things that Herod had done,Luke 3:20 added to them all by shutting up John in prison.Luke 3:21 ¶ Now when all the people were baptized, and whenJesus also had been baptized and was praying, the heaven wasopened,Luke 3:22 and the Holy Spirit descended upon him in bodilyform like a dove. And a voice came from heaven, ―You are mySon, the Beloved; with you I am well pleased.‖Luke 3:23 ¶ Jesus was about thirty years old when he beganhis work.
  • Jesus Baptism in JohnThere is none!
  • Jesus Baptism in MarkMark 1:1 ¶ The beginning of the good news of Jesus Christ, the Son of God.Mark 1:2 As it is written in the prophet Isaiah, ―See, I am sending my messenger ahead of you, who will prepare your way;Mark 1:3 the voice of one crying out in the wilderness: ‗Prepare the way of the Lord, make his paths straight,‘‖Mark 1:9 ¶ In those days Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee and was baptized byJohn in the Jordan.Mark 1:10 And just as he was coming up out of the water, he saw the heavens tornapart and the Spirit descending like a dove on him.Mark 1:11 And a voice came from heaven, ―You are my Son, the Beloved; with you Iam well pleased.‖Mark 1:1
  • Jesus Baptism in Mark (Continued 2)Mark 1:4 John the baptizer appeared in the wilderness,proclaiming a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins.Mark 1:5 And people from the whole Judean countryside andall the people of Jerusalem were going out to him, and werebaptized by him in the river Jordan, confessing their sins.Mark 1:6 Now John was clothed with camel‘s hair, with aleather belt around his waist, and he ate locusts and wildhoney.Mark 1:7 He proclaimed, ―The one who is more powerful than Iis coming after me; I am not worthy to stoop down and untie thethong of his sandals.Mark 1:8 I have baptized you with water; but he will baptize youwith the Holy Spirit.‖
  • Jesus Baptism in Mark (continued 3)Mark 1:9 ¶ In those days Jesus came from Nazareth of Galileeand was baptized by John in the Jordan.Mark 1:10 And just as he was coming up out of the water, hesaw the heavens torn apart and the Spirit descending like adove on him.Mark 1:11 And a voice came from heaven, ―You are my Son, theBeloved; with you I am well pleased.‖
  • Some Likely Conclusions to Be Drawn From Evidence Within the Stories Jesus Baptism Within the Canonical GospelsGiven the problematic character of these matters for at least three of the four authors of the later canonized gospels, it seems most likely to be historical, rather than the result of imaginative writing, that(1) Jesus was baptized by John the Baptist for the remission of his sinsand(2) Jesus was, at least for a time, a disciple of John the Baptist.
  • Roman Emperor Nero(13 October 54 – 9 June 68 CE)
  • Annals 15.44.4 by Cornelius Tacitus (55-117 CE) Extra Canonical Evidence of Jesus DeathTherefore, in order to disprove the rumor [that a major fire in Rome had been set bythe Emperor himself], Nero falsely accused culprits and subjected to the mostunusual punishments those whom, hated for their shameful deeds, the populacecalled "Christians." The author of this name, Chrestus, was put to death by theprocurator, Pontius Pilate [actually, his title was "prefect" of Judea, 26-35 CE), whileTiberius was emperor [14 CE - 16 March 37 CE]; but the dangerous superstition,though suppressed for the moment, broke out again not only in Judea, the origin ofthis evil, but even in the city [of Rome itself] where all atrocious and shameful thingsflow together from all sides and are practiced. First, therefore, those were seizedwho confessed [that they were Christians] then, upon their information, a greatmultitude was convicted not so much upon the charge of setting fire [to the city], asfor hatred of the human race. Mockery of every sort was added to their deaths.Covered with skins of wild beasts, they were torn to death by dogs. Or they werefastened on crosses and, when daylight faded, were burned to serve as lamps bynight. Nero offered his gardens for the spectacle, and was exhibiting a show in thecircus, while he mingled with the people in the dress of a charioteer or stood aloft ona cart. Hence, even for criminals who deserved extreme and exemplary punishment,there arose a feeling of compassion; for it was not, as it seemed, for the public good,
  • Floor of the Bath of the CartDrivers Guild, Ostia Antica
  • Cart Drivers
  • The Fire in Rome, 64 CEThe burning of Rome, Robert Hubert (1733-1808), Musée André Malraux, Le
  • The Lepcis Magna Amphitheatre (In Libya, Completed 56 CE)
  • Gladiator Floor Mosaic from Libya
  • Zliten Gladiator Mosaic from Libya (Villa Dar Buc Ammera, Lepcis Magna)
  • Nero Initiates First SystematicPersecution of the Christians in the City of Rome From Floor Mosaic in Magna Lepcis 3rd Century CE, El Dejim Museum, Tunisia
  • Hebrews 11:35-12:1Heb. 11:35 Women received their dead by resurrection. Others weretortured, refusing to accept release, in order to obtain a better resurrection.Heb. 11:36 Others suffered mocking and flogging, and even chains andimprisonment.Heb. 11:37 They were stoned to death, they were sawn in two, they werekilled by the sword; they went about in skins of sheep and goats, destitute,persecuted, tormented—Heb. 11:38 of whom the world was not worthy. They wandered in desertsand mountains, and in caves and holes in the ground.Heb. 11:39 ¶ Yet all these, though they were commended for their faith, didnot receive what was promised,Heb. 11:40 since God had provided something better so that they wouldnot, apart from us, be made perfect.Heb. 12:1 ¶ Therefore, since we are surrounded by so great a cloud ofwitnesses, let us also lay aside every weight and the sin that clings soclosely, and let us run with perseverance the race that is set before us,
  • Which Are the Most Likely HistoricalPoints From Which to Begin a Biography of Jesus?1. Jesus Was Baptized by John. (See the conclusions above.)2. Jesus Rebuked the Self-Righteousness of Those Who Criticized His Practice of Eating with "Tax-Collectors and Sinners," whom Jesus called "The Lost Sheep of the House of Israel."3. Jesus Was Crucified by Pontius Pilate (There is at least one, non-Christian testimony to this fact. (Cornelius Tacitus).
  • Building on This Outline 1Jesus Was Baptized by John.The Self-Righteous Criticize Jesus Practice of Eating with Tax- Collectors and SinnersJesus Rebuked the Self-Righteousness of Those Who Criticized His Practice of Eating with "Tax-Collectors and Sinners," whom Jesus called "The Lost Sheep of the House of Israel."Jesus Was Crucified by Pontius Pilate
  • Building on This Outline 2Jesus Was Baptized by John.Tax Collectors and Sinners Eat with JesusThe Self-Righteous Criticize Jesus Practice of Eating with Tax- Collectors and SinnersJesus Rebuked the Self-Righteousness of Those Who Criticized His Practice of Eating with "Tax-Collectors and Sinners," whom Jesus called "The Lost Sheep of the House of Israel."Jesus Was Crucified by Pontius Pilate
  • Building on This Outline 3Jesus Was Baptized by John.Jesus Invites Tax Collectors and Sinners to Table FellowshipTax Collectors and Sinners Eat with JesusThe Self-Righteous Criticize Jesus Practice of Eating with Tax- Collectors and SinnersJesus Rebukes the Self-Righteousness of Those Who Criticized His Practice of Eating with "Tax-Collectors and Sinners," whom Jesus called "The Lost Sheep of the House of Israel."Jesus Was Crucified by Pontius Pilate
  • Building on This Outline 4Jesus Was Baptized by John.Jesus Invites Tax Collectors and Sinners to Table FellowshipTax Collectors and Sinners Eat with JesusThe Self-Righteous Criticize Jesus Practice of Eating with Tax- Collectors and SinnersJesus Rebukes the Self-Righteousness of Those Who Criticized His Practice of Eating with "Tax-Collectors and Sinners," whom Jesus called "The Lost Sheep of the House of Israel."The Self-Righteous Do Not Repent, but Their Opposition to Jesus Hardens.Jesus Was Crucified by Pontius Pilate
  • Building on This Outline 5Jesus Was Baptized by John.Jesus Invites Tax Collectors and Sinners to Table FellowshipTax Collectors and Sinners Eat with JesusThe Self-Righteous Criticize Jesus Practice of Eating with Tax-Collectors and SinnersJesus Rebukes the Self-Righteousness of Those Who Criticized His Practice of Eating with "Tax-Collectors and Sinners," whom Jesus called "The Lost Sheep of the House of Israel."The Self-Righteous Do Not Repent, but Their Opposition to Jesus Hardens.Jesus Responds with Harsher CriticismJesus Was Crucified by Pontius Pilate
  • Building on This Outline 6Jesus Was Baptized by John.Jesus Invites Tax Collectors and Sinners to Table FellowshipTax Collectors and Sinners Eat with JesusThe Self-Righteous Criticize Jesus Practice of Eating with Tax-Collectors and SinnersJesus Rebukes the Self-Righteousness of Those Who Criticized His Practice of Eating with "Tax-Collectors and Sinners," whom Jesus called "The Lost Sheep of the House of Israel."The Self-Righteous Do Not Repent, but Their Opposition to Jesus Hardens.Jesus Responds with Harsher Criticism of the Self RighteousThe Opposition Plots to Do Away with Jesus and Lobby to Have Jesus Arrested.Jesus Was Crucified by Pontius Pilate
  • Building on This Outline 7Jesus Was Baptized by John.Jesus Invites Tax Collectors and Sinners to Table FellowshipTax Collectors and Sinners Eat with JesusThe Self-Righteous Criticize Jesus Practice of Eating with Tax-Collectors and SinnersJesus Rebukes the Self-Righteousness of Those Who Criticized His Practice of Eating with "Tax-Collectors and Sinners," whom Jesus called "The Lost Sheep of the House of Israel."The Self-Righteous Do Not Repent, but Their Opposition to Jesus Hardens.Jesus Responds with Harsher Criticism of the Self RighteousThe Opposition Plots to Do Away with Jesus and Lobby to Have Jesus Arrested.Jesus is Arrested and Interrogated by Jewish Religious Authorities, but Tried Only by Roman Officials, certainly the local Roman Prefect, Pontius Pilate, in Jerusalem, but perhaps also by Herod Antipas, the local Roman puppet prince from Galilee.Jesus Was Crucified by Pontius Pilate
  • Conclusions From this Logically Produced Outline1. Jesus Was Baptized by John and Becomes a Disciple of John.2. Jesus Invites Tax Collectors and Sinners into Table Fellowship.3. Tax Collectors and Sinners Respond and Come to Eat with Jesus.4. The Self-Righteous Criticize Jesus Practice of Eating with Tax-Collectors and Sinners.5. Jesus Rebukes the Self-Righteousness of Those Who Criticized His Practice of Eating with "Tax-Collectors and Sinners," whom Jesus called "The Lost Sheep of the House of Israel."6. The Self-Righteous Do Not Repent, but Their Opposition to Jesus Hardens.7. Jesus Responds with Harsher Criticism of the Self Righteous.8. The Opposition Plots to Do Away with Jesus and Lobby to Have JesusArrested.9. Jesus is Arrested and Interrogated by Jewish Religious Authorities, but Tried Only by Roman Officials, certainly the local Roman Prefect, Pontius Pilate,but, perhaps, also by Herod Antipas, the local Roman puppet prince in Galilee.10. Jesus Is Crucified by the judgment of Pontius Pilate.