Threatened Birds of Central India                     by            Girish Jathar             Scientist-In-Charge         ...
Why birds are threatened• Habitat Destruction• Expansion of Agriculture• Rapid Industrialization• Poaching and Trade• Glob...
The Concept of Threatened Birds• BirdLife International and IUCN have categorized the status  of various species and given...
Categories of threatened birds-   Extinct – not seen at least for 50 years-   Critically Endangered – likely to be extinct...
Threatened Birds ScenarioSpecies                 World   IndiaCritically Endangered   181      9Endangered              35...
Indian Perspective• In India BNHS is designated partner of BirdLife  International• With the help of BirdLIfe Internationa...
Endemic Bird Area• In India there are seven  Endemic Bird Areas and  five Secondary Areas• Central Indian Forests  (Second...
Critically Endangered• In Central India we have six species of the  birds which come under this category
White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalensis•   This species is widely distributed in    India•   Till late 1990 it was in abunda...
Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus              •   This species is also widely distributed in                  India       ...
Jerdons Courser Rhinptilus bitorquatus•   This is endemic bird found in south-eastern    Andhra Pradesh. Earlier known fro...
Forest Owlet Heteroglaux blewitti•   This bird is endemic to Satpuda Mountains    known from only from six places in Centr...
Sociable Lapwing Vanellus gregarius               •   It is a migratory bird visits India during                   winter ...
Pallass Fish Eagle Haliaetus leucoryphus•   Very recently included in Critically    Endangered category•   Inhabitant of l...
Endangered• We have only two bird species which come  under this category
Great Indian Bustard Ardeotis nigriceps                •   Historically spread all over Indian                    subconti...
Lesser Florican Sypheotides indica               • This bird is endemic to India and                 Nepal. Historically s...
Vulnerable• We have nine species which come under  this category
Spot-billed Pelican Pelecanus philippensis                      •   The species found all over India in                   ...
Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus                    •   This species is resident species                        in ce...
Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga•   Found all over palearctic region;    winter migrant to India•   Population is decli...
Eastern Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca• Found all over palearctic and in  India. Some population is  winter migrant to Indi...
Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni              •   The Lesser Kestrel is an extremely                  widespread falcon speci...
Sarus Crane Grus antigone            •   Historically widespread all over south                Asia and Australia. Now dec...
Indian Skimmer Rynchops albicollis             •   It was once very common on all large                 river systems in c...
Stoliczka‘s Bushchat Saxicola macrorhyncha                 • Found in a circumscribed area of                   semi-arid ...
Green Munia Amandava formosa          • It is endemic to India where it is distributed            locally from southern Ra...
Near Threatened• We have seven species which fall under this  category
Darter Anhinga melanogaster            • Widespread resident in South Asia.              The species is generally uncommon...
Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala                •   Widespread and locally common                    resident in South ...
Lesser Flamingo Phoeniconaias minor                •   Found only in Asia and African                    Continent        ...
Oriental White Ibis             Threskiornis melanocephalus•   Mainly occur in South and South    East Asia•   It inhabits...
Lesser Grey Headed Fish eagle    Ichthyophaga humilis            • Found mainly in South Asia.            • Population is ...
Pallid Harrier Circus macrorus•   It breeds primarily in the steppes of    Palearctic region and Winters in India•   Mainl...
Malabar Pied HornbillAnthrococeros coronatus         • It is restricted to central and southern           India         • ...
Thank You!• www.bnhs.org                girishjathar@bnhs.org
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Threatened birds of india

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Threatened birds of india

  1. 1. Threatened Birds of Central India by Girish Jathar Scientist-In-Charge ENVIS-Center B o m b a y N a tu ra l H i s to ry S o c i e ty
  2. 2. Why birds are threatened• Habitat Destruction• Expansion of Agriculture• Rapid Industrialization• Poaching and Trade• Global Warming and Climate Change
  3. 3. The Concept of Threatened Birds• BirdLife International and IUCN have categorized the status of various species and given them the current status• The term “Red Data Book” came into existence in the early 1960s when IUCN–The World Conservation Union, in conjunction with ICBP (the International Council for Bird Preservation, now BirdLife International)• In 1963, International Red Data Book were conceived by the late Sir Peter Scott as “ a register of threatened wildlife that includes definition of degree of threat”• In 1980 the first bird ‘Red Data Book’ was published by the International Council for Bird Preservation (ICBP)• In 2000 ‘Threatened Birds of the World’ was published by BirdLife International
  4. 4. Categories of threatened birds- Extinct – not seen at least for 50 years- Critically Endangered – likely to be extinct- Endangered – high risk of extinction- Vulnerable – risk of extinction- Near threatened – close to vulnerable- Least Concern – not qualify any of the above- Data deficient – no information available
  5. 5. Threatened Birds ScenarioSpecies World IndiaCritically Endangered 181 9Endangered 351 12Vulnerable 674 59Near Threatened 795 58Total 2001 138
  6. 6. Indian Perspective• In India BNHS is designated partner of BirdLife International• With the help of BirdLIfe International and Royal Society for Protection of the Birds (RSPB), BNHS started Important Bird Area programme (IBA) in 1999• This programme identified 465 IBA sites in India• In central India there are 60 IBA sites
  7. 7. Endemic Bird Area• In India there are seven Endemic Bird Areas and five Secondary Areas• Central Indian Forests (Secondary area) - dry deciduous forest - scrub forest - wetlands - grasslands
  8. 8. Critically Endangered• In Central India we have six species of the birds which come under this category
  9. 9. White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalensis• This species is widely distributed in India• Till late 1990 it was in abundant but declined rapidly• Cause – veterinary use of diclofenac for livestock• Conservation – BNHS initiative – -Vulture Conservation Center at Pinjore, Buxa and Nagaon - Nation wide Ban on diclofenac - Vulture advocacy programme - Comes under Schedule I of Indian Wildlife ( Protection) Act. 1972
  10. 10. Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus • This species is also widely distributed in India • Like White-backed Vultures their population declined rapidly after 1990 • Cause – veterinary use of diclofenac for cattle • Conservation – BNHS initiative – -Vulture Conservation Center at Pinjore, Buxa and Nagaon - Nation wide Ban on diclofenac - Vulture advocacy programme - Comes under Schedule I of IndianWildlife (Protection) Act. 1972
  11. 11. Jerdons Courser Rhinptilus bitorquatus• This is endemic bird found in south-eastern Andhra Pradesh. Earlier known from few places in Central India from Godavari River basin.• Habitat specialist bird found only in scrub forest• Threats – habitat destruction because of human activities• Conservation – BNHS is carrying out long term study in Sri Lankamalleshwar Sanctuary in Cuddapah district of Andhra Pradesh. - Comes under Schedule I of Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act. 1972
  12. 12. Forest Owlet Heteroglaux blewitti• This bird is endemic to Satpuda Mountains known from only from six places in Central India. Because of the Forest Owlet, the Central Indian Forests come under Endemic Bird Area• Only found in dry deciduous forests• Threats – habitat destruction for fuel wood, illicit wood cutting, overgrazing and direct persecution by tribal• Conservation – BNHS carried out three year study in Satpuda. Several recommendations have been put forward for its protection and conservation. - Comes under Schedule I of Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act. 1972
  13. 13. Sociable Lapwing Vanellus gregarius • It is a migratory bird visits India during winter • Inhabitant of Europe and west-central Asia • The population is decreased rapidly in this decade • Threats - increasing use of pesticide and change in land use pattern • Conservation – declared as critically endangered and protected by law in various countries. Listed in Appendix I of CITES.
  14. 14. Pallass Fish Eagle Haliaetus leucoryphus• Very recently included in Critically Endangered category• Inhabitant of large wetlands. It is a breeding migrant to India.• Threats – habitat loss and destruction, pollution on large water bodies due to pesticides and industrial effluents• Conservation - included on Appendix II of CITES. It is listed in Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972
  15. 15. Endangered• We have only two bird species which come under this category
  16. 16. Great Indian Bustard Ardeotis nigriceps • Historically spread all over Indian subcontinent. Now restricted to only a few places in Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh • Habitat specialist birds representative of Grassland • Threats – expansion of agriculture, habitat fragmentation, overgrazing, pesticides and hunting • Conservation - listed in CITES Appendix I. It is listed in Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act. 1972 - BNHS is carrying out conservation and awareness Campaign in many states.
  17. 17. Lesser Florican Sypheotides indica • This bird is endemic to India and Nepal. Historically spread all over peninsular India • Habitat specialist bird- representative of Grassland • Threats - habitat loss, hunting and failure of monsoon rains • Conservation - this species is protected under Schedule I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act. 1972
  18. 18. Vulnerable• We have nine species which come under this category
  19. 19. Spot-billed Pelican Pelecanus philippensis • The species found all over India in large wetlands • The population is declining very fast • Threats – destruction of nesting habitat, drainage and pollution of wetlands and dearth of food • Conservation - this species is protected under the Wildlife (Protection) Act. 1972
  20. 20. Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus • This species is resident species in central and northeastern India • Threats - loss of nesting sites is a major threat along with pesticides poisoning and direct persecution • Conservation - this species is protected under the Wildlife (Protection) Act. 1972
  21. 21. Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga• Found all over palearctic region; winter migrant to India• Population is declining very fast• Generally found near water bodies and open areas• Threats - habitat loss and degradation, exploitation, human disturbance, pollution, and shortage of prey• Conservation – comes under CITES Appendix II. Protected under Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act. 1972
  22. 22. Eastern Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca• Found all over palearctic and in India. Some population is winter migrant to India• Mainly found near water bodies• Threats - changing land use practices, pesticides, persecution and declining prey• Conservation - this species is listed in Appendix I of CITES, Protected under Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act. 1972
  23. 23. Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni • The Lesser Kestrel is an extremely widespread falcon species. It is a rare winter visitor and passage migrant in India • Occasionally seen in large flocks • Threats - Intensification of agriculture and increased use of pesticides • Conservation - this species is listed on Appendix II of CITES and Protected under Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act. 1972
  24. 24. Sarus Crane Grus antigone • Historically widespread all over south Asia and Australia. Now declining all over its range • Threats - primarily threatened by a combination of habitat loss and modification (owing primarily to agricultural expansion), pollution and persecution • Conservation - this species is listed on Appendix II of CITES. Protected under Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act. 1972
  25. 25. Indian Skimmer Rynchops albicollis • It was once very common on all large river systems in central and northern India • A decline in numbers has occurred, paralleled by a fragmentation of its range, and it now only breeds at scattered localities • Threats - increased human usage of wetlands, many feeding areas have been over-exploited, polluted, flooded or drained and destruction of nesting colonies • Conservation – protected under Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act. 1972. The National Chambal Sanctuary (5,400 sq. km ) contains one of the healthiest skimmer populations in Asia
  26. 26. Stoliczka‘s Bushchat Saxicola macrorhyncha • Found in a circumscribed area of semi-arid country in north-western India and eastern Pakistan. Known for its erratic movements in winter • Mainly prefers open grassland habitat and scrublands • Threats - the main threat is agricultural intensification and encroachment and overgrazing by livestock • Conservation - good population is found in Desert National Park. Protected under Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act. 1972
  27. 27. Green Munia Amandava formosa • It is endemic to India where it is distributed locally from southern Rajasthan, central Uttar Pradesh and southern Bihar to northern Andhra Pradesh • Population is declining very rapidly • Threats – most famous as cage bird and highly priced in wildlife trade. Along with this pesticides and habitat loss influencing the population • Conservation – the species appears on CITES Appendix II and Protected under Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act. 1972. Some populations are safe in protected areas of Central India
  28. 28. Near Threatened• We have seven species which fall under this category
  29. 29. Darter Anhinga melanogaster • Widespread resident in South Asia. The species is generally uncommon and declining throughout Asia. • It’s a water bird found in large wetlands • Threats - it is primarily threatened by habitat loss, disturbance (at feeding grounds and colonies), hunting and pollution • Conservation – protected under Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act. 1972. Found in may protected areas of Central India
  30. 30. Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala • Widespread and locally common resident in South east Asia • It frequents freshwater marshes, lakes and reservoirs, flooded fields, paddy fields, freshwater swamp forests, riverbanks, intertidal mudflats and saltpans • Population is declining slowly • Threats - habitat loss, disturbance, • pollution and hunting of adults and collection of eggs and nestlings from colonies is cause for concern • Conservation – protected under Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act. 1972. Many nesting colonies are in protected areas
  31. 31. Lesser Flamingo Phoeniconaias minor • Found only in Asia and African Continent • Every year 10% population decline is observed in Africa. It breeds in Little Run of Katch in Gujarat • After breeding, disperse over Indian Subcontinent • Threats – water pollution, disturbance to nesting sites and habitat destruction • Conservation – this species is protected under Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act. 1972. BNHS taken initiative to protect flamingo habitat in Mumbai
  32. 32. Oriental White Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus• Mainly occur in South and South East Asia• It inhabits freshwater marshes, lakes, rivers, flooded grasslands, paddy fields, tidal creeks, mudflats, salt marshes and coastal lagoons• Threats – mainly drainage of wetlands, disturbance, pollution, agricultural conversion, hunting and collection of eggs and nestlings from colonies• Conservation - this species is protected under the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act. 1972
  33. 33. Lesser Grey Headed Fish eagle Ichthyophaga humilis • Found mainly in South Asia. • Population is declining all over its range • It frequents large forested rivers and wetlands • Threats - loss of forest habitat along rivers, siltation, overfishing and increasing human disturbance • Conservation –this species is protected under the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act. 1972
  34. 34. Pallid Harrier Circus macrorus• It breeds primarily in the steppes of Palearctic region and Winters in India• Mainly prefers Scrub, savanna and wetlands• Threats –destruction and degradation of steppe grasslands, intensive grazing of wet pastures and the clearance of shrubs and tall weeds and rapid expansion of agriculture and direct persecution• Conservation - this species is protected under the Wildlife (Protection) Act. 1972. Some protected areas like Velavadar National Park, Gujarat holds good population. Similarly in Sailana Wildlife Sanctuary.
  35. 35. Malabar Pied HornbillAnthrococeros coronatus • It is restricted to central and southern India • Mainly found in undisturbed moist broadleaved deciduous and evergreen forests • Threats – rapid degradation and fragmentation of habitat, shifting cultivation, forest fire, and logging • Conservation - This species is protected under the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act. 1972. Found in various protected areas. In Madhya Pradesh it is found in Pench and Bandhavgarh National Parks.
  36. 36. Thank You!• www.bnhs.org girishjathar@bnhs.org

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