By conservation census is defined as the counting
of all individuals belonging to the group of interest
within a defines area and a survey when only a
proportion are counted.
It is originated from the Latin word censere which
means to estimate.
Count directly the number of individuals
Sampling the habitat
Attempted complete enumeration
Sampling area is divided into small squares called
Suitable for sampling plants, slow moving animals and
some aquatic organisms.
Sample animals are catched up marked them
and releases them to mixed thoroughly with the rest of
the population and recaptured to estimate the size of the
It is a widely-used group of closely related methods for
estimating the density and/or abundance of biological
populations. The main methods are
A series of straight lines(track lines) is traversed by an
observer. This may be achieved in various ways, depending
on the study species
In this method points are selected randomly and count
number of organism present at each point from this number
the population size is estimated.
The use of automatic cameras
triggered by passing animals, record
medium to large mammals and
terrestrial birds in the field. Photographs
provide objective records or evidence
of an animal’s presence and identity.
Active camera trap
Noted only motion of animal.
Passive camera trap
Noted motion as well as stripes.
Infra red camera
Animal friendly, take continuous shoot and produce
black and white image.
Digital flash camera
Provide colour images,not animal friendly(Animals
are terrified by flash)
By virtue of being the top predator, the tiger
functions as an umbrella species for the conservation of
biodiversity, ecosystem functions, goods, and services
in forest systems of Asia.
double sampling approach is used
Ground surveys of all potential tiger.
Camera trapping and recapture techniques
Line transects based distance sampling
Status of particular species.
Ratio of male and female.
Age of the species.
Number of individuals belonging to different species.
No individuals remaining.
Extinct in the wild
survive on in captivity out side its historic range.
Extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.
Estimated number of population is less than 50.
High risk of extinction in the wild in near future.
Estimated number of population is less than 250
High risk of endangeredment in the wild in medium term
future. future. Estimated number of population is less than 1000
Likely to be endangered in the near future.
Wide spread and abundant taxa ,does not qualify for more
Not enough data to make an assessment of risk of
Has not been evaluated against the criteria.
Critically Endangered mammals
I. Himalayan Brown or Red Bear(Urcus arctos isobellinus).
II. Pygmy Hog (Parcula salvania).
III. Andaman White Toothed Shrew (Crocidura andamansis).
IV. Kandana Rat (Millardia Kandana).
V. Large Rock Rat or Elvira Rat (Cremnomys elvira).
VI. Namdapha Flying Squirrel(Biswanoyepterus biswasi).
VII. Malavar civet (Viverra civenttina).
VIII. Sumatran Rinocerous (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis).
IX. Kasmir stag/hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu).
I. Red Panda.
II. Wild Ass/Khur (Equus hemionus khur.)
III. Dhole / Asiatic Wild dog or Indian wild dog (Coun alpinus).
IV. Elds’s deer/thamin or brown antlered deer (Panolia eldii).
V. Golden langur (Trachypithecus geei).
VI. Himalayan / White bellied Musk Deer.
VII. Hispid hare/Assam rabbit (Caprolagus hispidus).
VIII. Hog deer
IX. Lion tailed macaque/Wanderoo (Macaca silensis).
X. Chital/ Tibetian Antelope.
XI. Nilgiri tahr.
Endangered marine mammals
freshwater / river dolphin.
By census we can able to know the status of an
organism, habitat distribution, reproductive behaviour
and number. Based on the status different conservation
strategies are used.
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III. Silveria L,Jacomo A.T.A, Alexandre J, Diniz-Felho, Camera Trap, Line Transact Census
and Track Surveys-A Complete evaluation 2003, Pp (352-353.)
IV. Paul Meek,Guy Ballard, Peter Flaming, An Introduction to Camera Trapping for Wildlife
Surveys in Australia,2012, Pp(16-17).
V. Rosemary k.Baraclough,Distance Sampling- A discussion Documents Produced for the
Development of Conservation,2000, Pp(15-16).
VI. Y. V. Jahala,Q.Quershi,R. Gopal,2015,The Status of Tiger India 2014,Pp(1-24).
VII. IUCN Red List India – Red data List – Red Book-1