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0938 Introducing System of Rice Intensification in Timor Leste - Experiences and Prospects
 

0938 Introducing System of Rice Intensification in Timor Leste - Experiences and Prospects

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Authors: Dr. Georg Deichert, Mr. José Barrosand Mr. Martin Noltze...

Authors: Dr. Georg Deichert, Mr. José Barrosand Mr. Martin Noltze

Presented at the 7th Annual Conference of the International Society of Paddy and Water Environment Engineering, 7-9 October 2009

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  • Agriculture remains one of the key aspects for development as an economic activity, as a livelihood and as a provider of environmental services (World Bank 2007). Within the last decades, agricultural extension programs have become one of the largest institutional efforts for agricultural development. Training methods affected both thousands of extension workers and millions of farmers in developing countries (Anderson, Feder 2004). However, most programs are relatively costly and time consuming, thus knowledge about the impact of actions is increasingly required by donors, policymakers and program managers. Development institutions wonder in how far programs have been effective according to defined objectives. Many studies report remarkable success stories, but many fail to address data collection challenges and econometric analysis in a satisfactory way. Data quality, difficult methodological issues of causality and the quantification of benefits do often lack a solid foundation of scientific procedures. This study aims to contribute to the following superior research topics: 1. agricultural extension, 2. technology adoption, 3. impact assessment, and the 4. ‘system of rice intensification’ (SRI) in particular.
  • The advocates of the system of rice intensification (SRI) have claimed both the world record for rice yield and the highest yields (by a substantial margin!) for any grain crop (Rafaralahy, 2002). This is curious because none of the usual information expected in support of these ‘fantastic yields’ was presented to support the claim. Absent were data concerning cultivar, experimental design, statistical errors, dates of planting and harvesting, soil types, fertilizer inputs, weed control, disease control, insect control, water management and the weather. The System of Rice Intensification 3 is a method that has been promoted and closely followed in Madagascar for more than ten years. It was developed in Madagascar in the late 1980s by a French priest working with Malagasy farmers, who later formed the NGO, Association Tefy Saina (ATS) to promote the method. SRI consists of five recommended practices: early transplanting, the planting of single seedlings, wide spacing, intermittent irrigation and good water control, and frequent weeding. (Moser, Barrett 2002)
  • The advocates of the system of rice intensification (SRI) have claimed both the world record for rice yield and the highest yields (by a substantial margin!) for any grain crop (Rafaralahy, 2002). This is curious because none of the usual information expected in support of these ‘fantastic yields’ was presented to support the claim. Absent were data concerning cultivar, experimental design, statistical errors, dates of planting and harvesting, soil types, fertilizer inputs, weed control, disease control, insect control, water management and the weather. The System of Rice Intensification 3 is a method that has been promoted and closely followed in Madagascar for more than ten years. It was developed in Madagascar in the late 1980s by a French priest working with Malagasy farmers, who later formed the NGO, Association Tefy Saina (ATS) to promote the method. SRI consists of five recommended practices: early transplanting, the planting of single seedlings, wide spacing, intermittent irrigation and good water control, and frequent weeding. (Moser, Barrett 2002)
  • The advocates of the system of rice intensification (SRI) have claimed both the world record for rice yield and the highest yields (by a substantial margin!) for any grain crop (Rafaralahy, 2002). This is curious because none of the usual information expected in support of these ‘fantastic yields’ was presented to support the claim. Absent were data concerning cultivar, experimental design, statistical errors, dates of planting and harvesting, soil types, fertilizer inputs, weed control, disease control, insect control, water management and the weather. The System of Rice Intensification 3 is a method that has been promoted and closely followed in Madagascar for more than ten years. It was developed in Madagascar in the late 1980s by a French priest working with Malagasy farmers, who later formed the NGO, Association Tefy Saina (ATS) to promote the method. SRI consists of five recommended practices: early transplanting, the planting of single seedlings, wide spacing, intermittent irrigation and good water control, and frequent weeding. (Moser, Barrett 2002)
  • The advocates of the system of rice intensification (SRI) have claimed both the world record for rice yield and the highest yields (by a substantial margin!) for any grain crop (Rafaralahy, 2002). This is curious because none of the usual information expected in support of these ‘fantastic yields’ was presented to support the claim. Absent were data concerning cultivar, experimental design, statistical errors, dates of planting and harvesting, soil types, fertilizer inputs, weed control, disease control, insect control, water management and the weather. The System of Rice Intensification 3 is a method that has been promoted and closely followed in Madagascar for more than ten years. It was developed in Madagascar in the late 1980s by a French priest working with Malagasy farmers, who later formed the NGO, Association Tefy Saina (ATS) to promote the method. SRI consists of five recommended practices: early transplanting, the planting of single seedlings, wide spacing, intermittent irrigation and good water control, and frequent weeding. (Moser, Barrett 2002)
  • The advocates of the system of rice intensification (SRI) have claimed both the world record for rice yield and the highest yields (by a substantial margin!) for any grain crop (Rafaralahy, 2002). This is curious because none of the usual information expected in support of these ‘fantastic yields’ was presented to support the claim. Absent were data concerning cultivar, experimental design, statistical errors, dates of planting and harvesting, soil types, fertilizer inputs, weed control, disease control, insect control, water management and the weather. The System of Rice Intensification 3 is a method that has been promoted and closely followed in Madagascar for more than ten years. It was developed in Madagascar in the late 1980s by a French priest working with Malagasy farmers, who later formed the NGO, Association Tefy Saina (ATS) to promote the method. SRI consists of five recommended practices: early transplanting, the planting of single seedlings, wide spacing, intermittent irrigation and good water control, and frequent weeding. (Moser, Barrett 2002)

0938 Introducing System of Rice Intensification in Timor Leste - Experiences and Prospects 0938 Introducing System of Rice Intensification in Timor Leste - Experiences and Prospects Presentation Transcript

  • Introducing System of Rice Intensification in Timor Leste - Experiences and Prospects Dr. Georg Deichert 1 , Mr. José Barros 2 and Mr. Martin Noltze 3 1,2 RDP II, EU-GTZ Timor Leste, 3 University of Göttingen, Germany Paper presented at 7th Annual Conference of the International Society of Paddy and Water Environment Engineering, 7-9 October 2009, Bogor, Indonesia
  • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and Integrated Crop Management (ICM) in Timor Leste
    • Achievements with SRI Dissemination
    • Experiences and Challenges for SRI in Timor Leste
    • Conclusion
  •  
  • RDP II, Timor Leste
    • Project details : start in December 2006, 12 Mio. Euro, 5 years
    • Donors : European Commission (EC) and Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)
    • Implementing agencies : Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (MAF) and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), NGO partners and Universities
    • Project area: 2 western border districts Bobonaro and Covalima
    • Characteristics of project area: low productivity of production systems; lack of productivity enhancing technologies; strong subsistence economy, farm sizes around 1 ha
    • Project objectives: Increased agriculture production, economic growth, import substitution, food security, poverty reduction and improved livelihoods
  • RDP II
        • Component I: Support of partner institutions (incl. MAF policy advice
        • Component II: Agriculture Extension
        • Component III: Agribusiness
        • Component IV: Community development
        • Component VI: Rural Infrastructure
        • Component V: Watershed Management and Forestry
  • Rice Production in Timor Leste (1)
    • Agriculture contributes one third of TL’s GDP
    • Agriculture is income source for more than 80% of Timorese population
    • The local demand for rice amounts to 77,200 tons annually (at 90 kg per capita)
    • Local production was estimated to be 45,000 tons of paddy (or 27,000 tons of milled rice at 60% milling percentage)
    • Rice imports are estimated to cost 78,000 tons x 750 US$ = 58.5 million US$ annually (incl. staple substitutions)
  • Rice Production in Timor Leste (2)
    • Rice production area: Bobonaro 5,000 ha Covalima 4,000 ha
    • Percentage to national rice production (13 districts): Bobonaro 1st place (20.7%) Covalima 5th place (10.0%)
  • Introducing SRI by way of down-scaling ICM
    • ICM package in Timor Leste quite different from ICM in Indonesia, focusing on high input practices
    • SRI is presented as a low input option for resource poor farmers
    • ICM had had been implemented with significant success, causing confusion among staff and farmers (replacement strategy versus down-scaling ICM?)
    • Using the term “SRI” is necessary for international networking
    • Moving from pre-described technology (ICM) toward an open concept of applying different techniques (SRI)
  • ICM recommendations (in Timor Leste) Technical Elements SRI recommendations (in Timor Leste) Area estimation Ploughing with tractor Land preparation Good leveling Beds with Drains Improved varieties, ie IR64 Variety Any variety Use of good seed Seed Seed selection with salt water test Mat nursery 10 kg/ha Nursery Tray nursery 5 kg/ha One seedling, 12-14 days old Line tranplanting 25x25cm to 30x30cm Transplanting One seedling, 8-12 days old, Grid (caplak) At least 25x25cm, better 30x30cm to 50x50cm 1 st weeding: 15d after transplanting 2nd weeding: 25d after transplanting 3rd weeding: 35 days after transplanting Weeding 4 weedings with 10 days interval starting 10 days after transplanting Concept of getting air to the roots Feed the plant concept Leaf Color Chart (LCC) 2 applications of chemical fertilizer Soil nutrition feed the soil concept Compost preferred Chemical fertilizer optional 1-3 cm of standing water level Water Management Intermittend flooding with periods of no standing water As IPM (see ICM manual) Pest control Not part of SRI See ICM manual Harvesting Not part of SRI
  • Achievements with SRI promotion and dissemination (1)
    • Study tour with MAF officials to Bali and Lombok
    • In-service training of key extension workers (8 persons)
    • Training of 14 MAF and NGO staff on SRI in Lombok
    • MAF included SRI as one of three national strategies of improving rice production in Timor Leste
    • 5-day training on SRI as part of pre-service trainings to 100+100=200 newly recruited extension workers
    • Disseminating SRI through farmer field demonstrations
    • Promoting SRI through district radio broadcasting
  • Achievements with SRI promotion and dissemination (2) Parameter Season 2006/2007 Season 2007/2008 Season 2008/2009 No. of SRI farmers (n) 35 450 1228 Total SRI area (calculated) 297 ha 982.4 ha Average SRI plot size 0.66 ha 0.80 ha Average SRI yield 3 t/ha 4.3 t/ha 5.3 t/ha Minimum Yield 1.4 t/ha 1.6 t/ha Maximum yield 6.8 t/ha 10.0 t/ha National average (MAF estimates) 2 t/ha 2 t/ha 2.5 t/ha Bobonaro average (MAF estimates) 2.5 t/ha 3 t/ha Estimated total SRI production 1,277 tons 5,206 tons
  • Experiences and Challenges for SRI in Timor Leste (1)
    • No. of farmers and their yields increased significantly with SRI, in spite of some difficult circumstances (financial and human resources, farmers’ attitudes, agriculture service structure) .
    • Support and ownership from policy level is needed to go beyond “project level” (development and political interests have to be balanced) .
    • Disseminating SRI through MAF extension system is more difficult (EW need to be convinced themselves!) , but is expected to have wider outreach.
    • Promoting SRI through district radio broadcasting seemed to have contributed markedly to the dissemination of SRI.
  • Experiences and Challenges for SRI in Timor Leste (2)
    • Farmers knowing ICM was advantageous in terms of some technical elements, but more a disadvantage to understand the paradigm shift (esp. because of successes with ICM!) .
    • Moving from ICM to SRI created the opportunities for international networking.
    • SRI dissemination has to be aligned with other rice intensification programmes and projects avoiding contradictions and overlapping (sound monitoring of SRI practices is important!) .
    • The wide spread practice of providing farming inputs free-of-charge undermines self-help and self-reliance of farmers (SRI dissemination demands pro-active farmers) .
  • Thank You Terimah Kasih