Biology 1130          March 19thPlease do not eat or drink in our classroom.            Attendance Poll
Announcements• Chapter 9 reading quiz deadline: March 26th• Chapter 10 reading quiz deadline: March 28th
Let’s Review!• What’s a hypothesis? What notable features  does a hypothesis have?• What’s the scientific method?
Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection          and its precursors
What’s a Scientific Theory?• The result of repeated hypothesis testing• Provides an explanatory model in a scientific  dis...
What did Western Europeans      believe before the 1550s?• The Earth was flat• The Sun and other  heavenly bodies moved  a...
European History                (1400s – 1900s)• What were some of the major discoveries,  wars, and social events of this...
Scientific Breakthroughs       in the Renaissance and later• Heliocentric, rather than geocentric universe• Earth is round...
If the Biblical account ofspecial creation is literally true, then…• There should be no evidence that organisms have  chan...
Discoveries that challenged the Biblical   account of creation (1700 and 1800s) Why organisms were more diverse than in t...
“New” Continents, “New” Species
Invention of the microscope
Breakthroughs in Biology in the          Renaissance and later• Why organisms were more diverse than in the  Bible Appare...
Mary Anning, Fossil Discoverer
Breakthroughs in Biology in the           Renaissance and later• Why organisms were more diverse than in the  Bible• Appar...
Homology of mammal forelimbs                                              Humerus                                         ...
Order Primates                                 Family Hominidae                                          Subfamily Hominin...
Breakthroughs in Biology in the           Renaissance and later• Why organisms were more diverse than in the  Bible• Appar...
“Useful” trait in primate relative   Vestigial trait in human(a) Tail bone(b) Goose bumps
Breakthroughs in Biology in the          Renaissance and later• Why organisms were more diverse than in the  Bible• Appare...
Comparative Embryonic Development               Snake   Chicken   Possum   Cat   Bat   Human                              ...
Breakthroughs in Biology in the          Renaissance and later• Why organisms were more diverse than in the  Bible• Appare...
Horses and their ancestors                                                             Equus                              ...
Darwin and the armadillos
How can we explain all of this??• Why organisms were more diverse than in the  Bible• Apparently extinct organisms• Gross ...
Darwin’s Voyage on the Beagle
Individuals who influenced Darwin• Age of the Earth:   – Lyell• Similarities between organisms:   – Ray   – Linnaeus• Fit ...
Charles Lyell: Uniformitarianism               • 1830s               • Uniformitarianism &                 deep time
Uniformitarianism• Geologic processes (wind and water erosion,  sedimentation, flooding, volcanic eruptions)  are constant...
John Ray• Late 1600s• Definition of  species  (reproductive  isolation)
Carolus Linnaeus:Linnaean Classification of Organisms                    • 1735                    • Taxonomy (study of   ...
Order Primates                                 Family Hominidae                                          Subfamily Hominin...
Georges Leclerc Comte de Buffon• 1749• organisms are “well-suited” to theirenvironments• adaptation• but against“transmuta...
Jean-Baptiste, Chevalier de Lamarck                  • Late 1700s                  • Inheritance of                    acq...
Lamarck’s Inheritance of Acquired         Characteristics
Thomas Malthus       • 1798       • Economist       • Populations have         finite resources       • More individuals  ...
Malthus’ observation aboutpopulations and their resources
Charles Darwin      • Voyage of the Beagle        (1830s)      • On the Origin of        Species published        (1859)  ...
Charles Darwin:Voyage of the Beagle (1830s)
What Darwin saw…• Similarities in Galapagos & South  American finches• Descent from a common ancestor• Differences seemed ...
What Darwin knew…      • Knew about Malthus’        idea      • Knew about artificial        selection      • Sexual repro...
Alfred Russel Wallace:      Almost “scooped” Darwin• 1848: Amazonian  journey• knew species well-suited  to environments• ...
For Natural Selection to Happen, There Must Be:    1. Variation    2. Variation must be heritable    3. Some variants bett...
More about natural selection• Survival only matters until the point of  reproduction• Environments contain selective  pres...
More about natural selectionGeographical isolation can produce new species:  – if groups are exposed to different selectiv...
Evolution Example: “Peppered” Moths in England                                What’s the                                se...
Evolution Example:antibiotic-resistant bacteria (example: MRSA)                         • What’s the selective            ...
Misconceptions about Evolution• It’s not testable• How does one formulate a testable hypothesis  about something that happ...
Follow-up Questions•   What’s the Great Chain of Being?•   What’s the Fixity of Species?•   How do geocentric and heliocen...
Judgment Day:Intelligent Design on Trial
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Bio%201130 c%203 19%20lecture

  1. 1. Biology 1130 March 19thPlease do not eat or drink in our classroom. Attendance Poll
  2. 2. Announcements• Chapter 9 reading quiz deadline: March 26th• Chapter 10 reading quiz deadline: March 28th
  3. 3. Let’s Review!• What’s a hypothesis? What notable features does a hypothesis have?• What’s the scientific method?
  4. 4. Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection and its precursors
  5. 5. What’s a Scientific Theory?• The result of repeated hypothesis testing• Provides an explanatory model in a scientific discipline• The best explanation for what we see in the natural world• As close to a fact as we can get
  6. 6. What did Western Europeans believe before the 1550s?• The Earth was flat• The Sun and other heavenly bodies moved around the Earth• The Earth is young• The accounts of organismal and human creation in Genesis were true: – Fixity of Species – Great Chain of Being
  7. 7. European History (1400s – 1900s)• What were some of the major discoveries, wars, and social events of this time period?• How did these events change how people saw the world?• How might these events have influenced scientific thought?
  8. 8. Scientific Breakthroughs in the Renaissance and later• Heliocentric, rather than geocentric universe• Earth is round• Invention of telescopes & microscopes
  9. 9. If the Biblical account ofspecial creation is literally true, then…• There should be no evidence that organisms have changed over time• All features of organisms should be perfectly designed for their function• There should be no features that have no obvious function• There should be no similarities between organisms• There should be no extinct organisms (that didn’t die in the flood)• There should be no evidence of organisms existing more than 6000 years ago
  10. 10. Discoveries that challenged the Biblical account of creation (1700 and 1800s) Why organisms were more diverse than in the Bible
  11. 11. “New” Continents, “New” Species
  12. 12. Invention of the microscope
  13. 13. Breakthroughs in Biology in the Renaissance and later• Why organisms were more diverse than in the Bible Apparently extinct organisms
  14. 14. Mary Anning, Fossil Discoverer
  15. 15. Breakthroughs in Biology in the Renaissance and later• Why organisms were more diverse than in the Bible• Apparently extinct organisms Gross anatomical similarities between organisms
  16. 16. Homology of mammal forelimbs Humerus Radius and ulna Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges Bat Sea lion Lion Chimpanzee Human
  17. 17. Order Primates Family Hominidae Subfamily HomininaeSquirrel Commonmonkey Orangutan Gorilla chimpanzee Bonobo Human increase in size of genital structures delayed sexual maturity broad incisors shortened canine teeth enlarged brow ridges elongated skull reduced hairiness large brain no tail more erect posture increased flexibility of thumb Mammal ancestor
  18. 18. Breakthroughs in Biology in the Renaissance and later• Why organisms were more diverse than in the Bible• Apparently extinct organisms• Gross anatomical similarities between organisms Vestigial structures
  19. 19. “Useful” trait in primate relative Vestigial trait in human(a) Tail bone(b) Goose bumps
  20. 20. Breakthroughs in Biology in the Renaissance and later• Why organisms were more diverse than in the Bible• Apparently extinct organisms• Gross anatomical similarities between organisms• Vestigial structures Similar embryonic development between species
  21. 21. Comparative Embryonic Development Snake Chicken Possum Cat Bat Human PharyngealEarly slitsembryo TailIntermediateembryoLateembryo
  22. 22. Breakthroughs in Biology in the Renaissance and later• Why organisms were more diverse than in the Bible• Apparently extinct organisms• Gross anatomical similarities between organisms• Vestigial structures• Similar embryonic development between species Evidence that organisms have changed over time
  23. 23. Horses and their ancestors Equus Merychippus 1 toe Mesohippus 3 toesHyracotherium (Eohippus) 3 toes 4 toes Horse ancestor Modern horse 55 40 17 4 Millions of years ago
  24. 24. Darwin and the armadillos
  25. 25. How can we explain all of this??• Why organisms were more diverse than in the Bible• Apparently extinct organisms• Gross anatomical similarities between organisms• Vestigial structures• Similar embryonic development between species• Evidence that organisms have changed over time
  26. 26. Darwin’s Voyage on the Beagle
  27. 27. Individuals who influenced Darwin• Age of the Earth: – Lyell• Similarities between organisms: – Ray – Linnaeus• Fit between organisms and their environments: – Buffon – Lamarck• Economics (?!): — Malthus
  28. 28. Charles Lyell: Uniformitarianism • 1830s • Uniformitarianism & deep time
  29. 29. Uniformitarianism• Geologic processes (wind and water erosion, sedimentation, flooding, volcanic eruptions) are constant now and have been in the past• These processes take place over a long time• The Earth is really old!
  30. 30. John Ray• Late 1600s• Definition of species (reproductive isolation)
  31. 31. Carolus Linnaeus:Linnaean Classification of Organisms • 1735 • Taxonomy (study of relationships between organisms) • included humans • differences and similarities between species • descent from a common ancestor
  32. 32. Order Primates Family Hominidae Subfamily HomininaeSquirrel Commonmonkey Orangutan Gorilla chimpanzee Bonobo Human increase in size of genital structures delayed sexual maturity broad incisors shortened canine teeth enlarged brow ridges elongated skull reduced hairiness large brain no tail more erect posture increased flexibility of thumb Mammal ancestor
  33. 33. Georges Leclerc Comte de Buffon• 1749• organisms are “well-suited” to theirenvironments• adaptation• but against“transmutation”
  34. 34. Jean-Baptiste, Chevalier de Lamarck • Late 1700s • Inheritance of acquired characteristics • first person to try to explain adaptation
  35. 35. Lamarck’s Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics
  36. 36. Thomas Malthus • 1798 • Economist • Populations have finite resources • More individuals born in most species than can survive
  37. 37. Malthus’ observation aboutpopulations and their resources
  38. 38. Charles Darwin • Voyage of the Beagle (1830s) • On the Origin of Species published (1859) • Notice the gap in time…
  39. 39. Charles Darwin:Voyage of the Beagle (1830s)
  40. 40. What Darwin saw…• Similarities in Galapagos & South American finches• Descent from a common ancestor• Differences seemed to be related to food
  41. 41. What Darwin knew… • Knew about Malthus’ idea • Knew about artificial selection • Sexual reproduction produced variation
  42. 42. Alfred Russel Wallace: Almost “scooped” Darwin• 1848: Amazonian journey• knew species well-suited to environments• Wrote to Darwin (1858)• 1859 Darwin published On the Origin of Species• Why did Darwin wait?
  43. 43. For Natural Selection to Happen, There Must Be: 1. Variation 2. Variation must be heritable 3. Some variants better able to survive OR reproduce than others in a given environment (reproductive fitness = differential reproductive success)  Over time, accumulation of successful variants result in adaptation
  44. 44. More about natural selection• Survival only matters until the point of reproduction• Environments contain selective pressures (predators, competition for food / mates)• Environmental context is key (example: wooly mammoths)
  45. 45. More about natural selectionGeographical isolation can produce new species: – if groups are exposed to different selective pressures in their respective environments – gradually differences will accumulate – groups will no longer be able to interbreed• Individuals survive & reproduce, but populations evolve
  46. 46. Evolution Example: “Peppered” Moths in England What’s the selective pressure in the environment? How did the population evolve?
  47. 47. Evolution Example:antibiotic-resistant bacteria (example: MRSA) • What’s the selective pressure in the environment? • How did the population evolve?
  48. 48. Misconceptions about Evolution• It’s not testable• How does one formulate a testable hypothesis about something that happened in the past?• It’s all about survival• If something exists, it’s the result of natural selection (adaptationism) (example: male nipples)
  49. 49. Follow-up Questions• What’s the Great Chain of Being?• What’s the Fixity of Species?• How do geocentric and heliocentric universes differ?• What’s a vestigial trait?• What’s uniformitarianism? What’s deep time?• What’s a species? What’s taxonomy?• What’s the inheritance of acquired characteristics?• What is adaptation?• What is required in order for natural selection to occur?
  50. 50. Judgment Day:Intelligent Design on Trial

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