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H.evolution honors final


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H.evolution honors final

  1. 1. Human Evolution Mrs. Nelson
  2. 2. Background Information… What does evolution mean? - “change” Who was Charles Darwin? -evolution and natural selection What did Charles Darwin say about human evolution? -Humans and apes shared a common ancestor -Problem was he had no evidence to support this idea
  3. 3. Classification of Humans KINGDOM  PHYLUM  CLASS  ORDER  FAMILY  GENUS  SPECIES  Animal Chordate Mammal Primate Hominid Homo sapien
  4. 4. What makes us animals? Eukaryotic No cell walls (cell membranes) Multicellular Heterotrophic
  5. 5. What makes us chordates? All chordates are animals with… 1. Flexible “rod”called notochord along back below nerve cord (replaced by backbone in vertebrates) 2. Dorsal, hallow nerve cord 3. Pharyngeal slits (primitive gill slits) 4. Tail at some point in life.
  6. 6. These are not chordates!
  7. 7. These ARE chordates!
  8. 8. What makes us mammals? All mammals are chordates with… 1. Hair or fur 2. Mammary glands – feed young milk 3. Four chambered heart 4. Internal body temperature regulation (Endothermic) 5. Lungs
  9. 9. Mammals
  10. 10. Three groups of mammals? 1. Monotremes – Egg laying mammals. Ex.) platypus 2. Marsupials – Pouched animals Ex.) Kangaroo 3. Placentals – Nutrients are passed to baby via the placenta
  11. 11. What makes us primates? Mammals Well developed brain Binocular vision- ability to merge visual images seen from both eyes (3-D or depth) Grasping hands and feet due to presence of 5 flexible digits and opposable thumb Rotating shoulder joints
  12. 12. 2 Groups Primates Prosimians ex) lemur Nocturnal Large eyes
  13. 13. 2 Groups Primates cont. Anthropoids ex) monkeys, apes, humans Day-active (diurnal) Smaller eyes Development color vision This group split into two major groups when continents split
  14. 14. Anthropoid Branches New World Monkeys Found Central/South America Tree dwellers Prehensile tail- grasping equal to a 5th hand Ex) spider monkey
  15. 15. Anthropoid Branches cont. Old World Monkeys Found Africa/Asia Do NOT have prehensile tails Ex) baboon
  16. 16. Anthropoid Branches cont. Great Apes are included in the Old World Monkeys Also called hominoids Lack tails Ex) gibbon, orangutan, gorilla, chimpanzee, humans
  17. 17. What is a hominid? Scientists believe that 5 mya hominoid line gave rise to the earliest hominids Family includes humans and their closest ancestors “Humans share a common ancestor with apes” Closest relative is the chimpanzee (98% identical DNA) Thus, apes (not even the chimp) is our direct ancestor
  18. 18. What are Hominids? Bipedal- walk upright on two legs (due to locking knee joint and position of spine entry to skull) Increased brain size Jaw arc-shaped, no space between incisors and canines, short canines
  19. 19. Human Evolution-Where are We? Primates Prosimians Anthropoids New World Monkeys Old World Monkeys Hominoids Hominids
  20. 20. Human and Ape Skeletal Differences Spine shape. Entry of spine into skull Teeth Brain cavity size Feet (great toe) Locking knee joints Arm and leg length Angle of femur Pelvis shape
  21. 21. Charles Darwin’s Theory…
  22. 22. Classification of Humans Human Chimp Pig Goldfish Jellyfish Kingdom Animal Animal Animal Animal Animal Phylum Chordate Chordate Chordate Chordate X Class Mammal Mammal Mammal X X Order Primate Primate X X X Family Hominid X X X x Genus Homo X X X X Species Sapien X X X x