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  1. 1. Evolution Luis Arenas Herrera
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>We are going to talk about!! </li></ul><ul><li>What is evolution? </li></ul><ul><li>Alfred Russell Wallace </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Darwin </li></ul><ul><li>Jean Baptiste LeMarck </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Primate Evolution </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is evolution? <ul><li>Evolution is when you change heritable characteristics, or traits overtime. </li></ul>
  4. 4. History of evolution <ul><li>People thought that species where not from linked in a single family tree </li></ul><ul><li>People thought that god created everything. </li></ul><ul><li>Has your environment changes the species change so they can survive. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Charles Darwin <ul><li>Charles Darwin was a naturalist </li></ul><ul><li>He took a trip on the HMS Beagle to the Galapagos islands </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly studied finches and turtles iguanas during his time in the Galapagos islands </li></ul><ul><li>By studying these creatures he came up with the idea of natural selection </li></ul><ul><li>He wrote a book The Origin of Species </li></ul>
  6. 6. His Examples <ul><li>Darwin identified 13 species of finches </li></ul><ul><li>He noticed that each of the finches were different </li></ul><ul><li>They were all different from the size and shape of the beak </li></ul><ul><li>Then he noticed that the diet was different based on the beak </li></ul>
  7. 7. Examples <ul><li>Example: big beaks were good for cracking nuts </li></ul><ul><li>Long and slender beaks can be used to eat out of flowers </li></ul><ul><li>Short and wide beaks are for eating insects </li></ul><ul><li>Short and stubby beaks are great for seeds </li></ul>
  8. 8. Examples <ul><li>He found that each of the finches beaks were different because of the changing environment </li></ul><ul><li>Natural selection was revealed </li></ul>
  9. 9. Charles Darwin The Origin of Species He study Finches, turtles and iguanas at the Galapagos islands He came up with natural selection Charles Darwin is the father of evolution He took a trip on the HMS. Alfred Wallace Convinced Charles Darwin to bring out his book called “ The Origin of Species”.
  10. 10. Jean Baptiste LaMarck <ul><li>He was born on August 1, 1744 in Bazentin-le-Petit </li></ul><ul><li>He was a French soldier, naturalist, academic and an early proponent of the idea that evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws. </li></ul><ul><li>He died on December, 18, 1829. </li></ul><ul><li>His theory was wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>His theory was wrong didn’t take into account genes which pass along the genetic instructions Charles Darwin Alfred R Wallace natural selection. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Alfred Wallace <ul><li>Alfred Russell Wallace was born on January, 8, 1823 in Monmouthshire, Wales. </li></ul><ul><li>He was a was a British naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist and biologist. He is know for making a theory of Natural selection. </li></ul><ul><li>He also convinced Charles Darwin to bring out his book called “The Origin of Species”. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Natural Selection
  13. 13. Natural selection <ul><li>Natural selection: when an animal adapts to his environment depending on what part of the world where they exist and to reproduce and pass on genes. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural selection relates to evolution because on evolution the animals change so they could survive just like on natural selection. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Mutation <ul><li>Mutation is when the DNA is damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Mutation- a mutation can be that one animal is bigger then the rest of it species. </li></ul><ul><li>Mutation is related to genetic diversity because a mutation can be passed down as a trait or gene of the parent. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Variation <ul><li>Variations is in all of the population of living things. For example fish are the same spice but they look different on sizes and colors. </li></ul><ul><li>One spice can survive because of the color and pass on the genes and the other one could go extinct. That’s how population could improve if there are changes in the environment. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Variation <ul><li>Is when there’s more then one kind of species in a population, That is different then the rest. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: moth that looks like a leaf so I could survive and can pass on the genes. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Natural selection is competition for food space mates etc. struggle to survive because they are batter equipped they pass on their genes and their traits. </li></ul><ul><li>How do species change or vary from each other caused by DNA in 2 ways </li></ul><ul><li>Mutations random </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual variation </li></ul><ul><li>2 organisms having sex to create a new organism. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Population <ul><li>Population- the changes in the population are dependent on the species attraction to one another. </li></ul><ul><li>Population can change because of genetic diversity. It can change because an animal can mate with a different animal and create a new species. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Adaptation <ul><li>adaptation- change in the anatomy that helps an organism survive better. one of the biggest problems with the fossil record in that is that its incomplete. Mammals show up in the fossil record after the dinosaurs go extinct. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Evidence of Evolution
  21. 21. Fossil <ul><li>Fossil: Are a trace of an organism from a past age that are skeleton or leaf imprint set in and conserved in the earth crust. </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil help scientist see the skeleton of a spice to tell if the spice has change by a period of time. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Embryology <ul><li>Embryology: is the study of the creation of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps the scientist to learn how spices are made and how they are crated in terms of evolution. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Geographic evidence <ul><li>Geographic evidence: Evidence of fossils and other different extinct animals or living forms. </li></ul><ul><li>That helps the scientist to see how the animals were a long time ago. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Vestigial structures <ul><li>Vestigial structures: Is an extra organ or a limb that is no longer use but in a time it was used by our ancestors. </li></ul><ul><li>The whale has an extra bone that is no longer use but is was used by the ancestors. </li></ul>
  25. 25. DNA Evidence <ul><li>DNA is related to other species because of their ancestors that were in a long time ago. </li></ul><ul><li>An example of this is humans and the chimpanzees have 98% of the same DNA. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Homologous structures <ul><li>Homologous structures: are body parts in many different organisms that have similar bones and similar muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>This helps the scientist to know that we have something in common with other creatures. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Mimicry <ul><li>Is when an animal looks like another animal like for example a moth that looks like a leaf so I could survive and can pass on the genes. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Evidence of Evolution Fossils are a evidence because they let us compare and contrast the species from the past and form the species that exist now. Vestigial structures tell us how animas have change and that they have extra organs that don’t use them any more. Homologous structures tell that all of us came from a same creature. Geographic evidence Embryology DNA Evidence Mimicry
  29. 29. Primate Evolution
  30. 30. What makes a Primate <ul><li>extremely mobile fingers and toes. </li></ul><ul><li>Hands and feet that are adapted for grasping </li></ul><ul><li>Eyes on front of the face with a very good vision that is good to see good things form a distance. </li></ul><ul><li>Their face look more like the face of a human bean </li></ul><ul><li>A bigger and more complex brain relative to body size. </li></ul><ul><li>Their thumbs and toes can be moved to touch the other digits and are known as opposable digits. </li></ul>
  31. 31. living primates and where are they distributed <ul><li>Most primates live in the tropical forest. </li></ul><ul><li>The smallest primates is the pygmy marmoset and it weights around 70g. </li></ul><ul><li>The largest primate is the gorilla and he weights about 175kg </li></ul><ul><li>There are about 233 living species of primates which are placed in 13 families on different places. </li></ul>
  32. 32. History of primate evolution <ul><li>According to Drawing research primates mostly apes look a lot like us. </li></ul><ul><li>Primates evolved over time into us. </li></ul><ul><li>Different primate look like a human fossils like hominids Lucy a fossil found 5.2 mya and that can come back up the theory of primate evolution. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1859 Darwin published The Origin of the Species which become the source of the present day of theory of evolution. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Homo Sapiens <ul><li>The word wise in the context of human evolution, refers to the word “sapiens” </li></ul><ul><li>The word homo means human in Latin. </li></ul><ul><li>The word human in the background of human evolution, refers to the word homo . </li></ul><ul><li>This was chosen by a man named Carolus Linnaeus. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Evolution In The Class Rooms <ul><li>1925- Tennessee biology teacher put on trial for teaching about evolution. </li></ul><ul><li>99% of the scientists in the fields of biology and the world sciences, allow the theory of evolution. </li></ul><ul><li>In the U.S. public schools fight between evolution and creation of science. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Genus HOMO <ul><li>Genus HOMO: Is a group that includes humans and other closely related spices. </li></ul><ul><li>Chims and gorillas where figthing for a part of the HOMO genus but after seeing so many differences they were not. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Primate Evolution Primates Prosimians Anthropoids Lemurs Lorises Galagos Pottos Tarsiers Old World Monkeys New World Monkeys Apes Ring Tailed Lemur Slender Loris Lesser Bush baby Potto Tarsier Aye-aye Slow Loris Brown Bush baby Sifaka Pygmy Slow Loris Gibbon Macaque Colobus Monkey Spider Monkey Marmoset Lesser Apes Greater Apes Chimpanzee Siamang Tamarin Baboon Gorilla Human Orangutan
  37. 38. Work sited <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>( ) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  38. 39. The End