From here to there for first gen overcoming
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From here to there for first gen overcoming

From here to there for first gen overcoming

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From here to there for first gen overcoming From here to there for first gen overcoming Presentation Transcript

  • “Getting from Here to There”- Overcoming Obstacles to Access for First Generation and Underrepresented College students. Dr. Fay M. Butler Director of Student Engagement LaGuardia Community College/CUNY
  • This workshop will be presented in five parts I. First Generation and Underrepresented College Students: Who are they? Highlights II. The Importance of College Access III. The structure of College Access using College Choice Models IV. Obstacles to Access for First Generation and Underrepresented Students V. Conclusion – Some solutions to access issues, open discussion This workshop will be presented in five parts I. First Generation and Underrepresented College Students: Who are they? Highlights II. The Importance of College Access III. The structure of College Access using College Choice Models IV. Obstacles to Access for First Generation and Underrepresented Students V. Conclusion – Some solutions to access issues, open discussion
  • Theoretical Models used in support of this presentation are: • Hossler’s and Gallagher’s (1987) college choice model (College Choice Theory); • Freemans model of college predetermination • Cabrera and LaNasa three task process • Bourdieu and Passeron’s (1990) theory of cultural capital; • Ogbu’s (1992 ) theory of the role of community forces (Status Attainment Theory); Theoretical Models used in support of this presentation are: • Hossler’s and Gallagher’s (1987) college choice model (College Choice Theory); • Freemans model of college predetermination • Cabrera and LaNasa three task process • Bourdieu and Passeron’s (1990) theory of cultural capital; • Ogbu’s (1992 ) theory of the role of community forces (Status Attainment Theory);
  • Important Definitions for this session Cultural and Social Capital In simplest terms, the concepts of cultural and social capital mean assets, in the form of behaviors, on which individuals and/or families can draw to meet a certain set of established values in a society. Important Definitions for this session Cultural and Social Capital In simplest terms, the concepts of cultural and social capital mean assets, in the form of behaviors, on which individuals and/or families can draw to meet a certain set of established values in a society.
  • First Generation First Generation students are defined as “those whose parents have different levels of education, the maximum education level of either parent determines how the student is categorized”(NCES, 1998). Underrepresented For this workshop, historically underrepresented groups in education will be defined as Black and Hispanic. First Generation students are defined as “those whose parents have different levels of education, the maximum education level of either parent determines how the student is categorized”(NCES, 1998). For this workshop, historically underrepresented groups in education will be defined as Black and Hispanic.
  • First Generation The proportion of first-generation students within the overall population of first-time, full-time entering college freshman at four- year institutions has steadily declined since 1971, reflecting increasing levels of education among the U.S. population (HERI, 2007). Underrepresented • Differences between racial/ethnic groups are cause for concern. Specifically, since 1975, African Americans show the greatest decline in their representation of first- generation college students—a declining rate that is of concern because it is faster than the relative proportion of African American adults without a college education as well as the decline of first-generation students in other racial/ethnic groups. Hispanics remain the least educated group (69.1 percent of Hispanic adults lacked a college education in 2005) and have the highest proportion of first- generation college students. The proportion of first-generation students within the overall population of first-time, full-time entering college freshman at four- year institutions has steadily declined since 1971, reflecting increasing levels of education among the U.S. population (HERI, 2007). • Differences between racial/ethnic groups are cause for concern. Specifically, since 1975, African Americans show the greatest decline in their representation of first- generation college students—a declining rate that is of concern because it is faster than the relative proportion of African American adults without a college education as well as the decline of first-generation students in other racial/ethnic groups. Hispanics remain the least educated group (69.1 percent of Hispanic adults lacked a college education in 2005) and have the highest proportion of first- generation college students.
  • II. Why Is College Access Important? • In 2004, noted researcher Dr. Patricia McDonough wrote about the challenges and prospects for the school to college transition especially for underrepresented students. This is also true for First Generation students • The great increase in the importance of college has coincided with a huge increase in the percentage of U.S. students who come from historically excluded minority groups, which never had equal access to college and were concentrated in weak high schools, usually segregated by both race and poverty (Orfield, 2005). II. Why Is College Access Important? • In 2004, noted researcher Dr. Patricia McDonough wrote about the challenges and prospects for the school to college transition especially for underrepresented students. This is also true for First Generation students • The great increase in the importance of college has coincided with a huge increase in the percentage of U.S. students who come from historically excluded minority groups, which never had equal access to college and were concentrated in weak high schools, usually segregated by both race and poverty (Orfield, 2005).
  • II. Why Is College Access Important? • Access to higher education has taken on crucial importance in debating about social mobility and equality because there is clear evidence that a college education is associated with significant economic and non economic benefits (Karen & Dougherty, 2005). • Economic benefits of higher education include higher pay and employment stability. • Plain and simple education pays: A college education is associated with better access to employment and high earning. (Education Commission of the States, 2003). II. Why Is College Access Important? • Access to higher education has taken on crucial importance in debating about social mobility and equality because there is clear evidence that a college education is associated with significant economic and non economic benefits (Karen & Dougherty, 2005). • Economic benefits of higher education include higher pay and employment stability. • Plain and simple education pays: A college education is associated with better access to employment and high earning. (Education Commission of the States, 2003).
  • II. Why Is College Access Important? For First Generation Students • Research indicates that students whose parents did not attend college are more likely than their non first-generation counterparts to be less academically prepared for college, to have less knowledge of how to apply for college and for financial assistance, and to have more difficulty in acclimating themselves to college once they enroll. They are also more at risk for not completing a degree because they are more likely to delay enrollment after high school, to enroll in postsecondary education part time, and to work full-time while enrolled. (First Generation College Student, 2004) II. Why Is College Access Important? For First Generation Students • Research indicates that students whose parents did not attend college are more likely than their non first-generation counterparts to be less academically prepared for college, to have less knowledge of how to apply for college and for financial assistance, and to have more difficulty in acclimating themselves to college once they enroll. They are also more at risk for not completing a degree because they are more likely to delay enrollment after high school, to enroll in postsecondary education part time, and to work full-time while enrolled. (First Generation College Student, 2004)
  • II. Why Is College Access Important? For Underrepresented Students • Transition from high school to college is particularly difficult for historically underrepresented urban students who are not academically talented (Butler, 2005). • Black and Hispanic students are not obtaining postsecondary education degrees at the same rate as their White, non-Latino counterparts nor are they graduating from high school with the same level of academic skills (NCES, 2001a.) II. Why Is College Access Important? For Underrepresented Students • Transition from high school to college is particularly difficult for historically underrepresented urban students who are not academically talented (Butler, 2005). • Black and Hispanic students are not obtaining postsecondary education degrees at the same rate as their White, non-Latino counterparts nor are they graduating from high school with the same level of academic skills (NCES, 2001a.)
  • II. Why Is College Access Important? Summary Access to Higher Education is important • Better Educated Citizens • Significant economic and non economic benefits • Social mobility II. Why Is College Access Important? Summary Access to Higher Education is important • Better Educated Citizens • Significant economic and non economic benefits • Social mobility
  • III. Structure of College Access: Models of College Choice How do Students get to college? • Students aspire to, apply to and then enroll in college through a complex, longitudinal, interactive process involving individual aspiration and achievement, learning opportunities and intervention programs in high school and institutional admissions (McDonough, 2004). • What is college choice ? How do students make decisions to participate or not to participate in Higher Education? III. Structure of College Access: Models of College Choice How do Students get to college? • Students aspire to, apply to and then enroll in college through a complex, longitudinal, interactive process involving individual aspiration and achievement, learning opportunities and intervention programs in high school and institutional admissions (McDonough, 2004). • What is college choice ? How do students make decisions to participate or not to participate in Higher Education?
  • III. Structure of College Access: Models of College Choice • Models of student college choice have been developed to demonstrate how traditional- age students go about realizing their educational aspirations (Hossler, Schmit, & Vesper, 1999). • Hossler and Gallagher (1987) created a three-stage model of college choice: predisposition, search, and choice. III. Structure of College Access: Models of College Choice • Models of student college choice have been developed to demonstrate how traditional- age students go about realizing their educational aspirations (Hossler, Schmit, & Vesper, 1999). • Hossler and Gallagher (1987) created a three-stage model of college choice: predisposition, search, and choice.
  • III. Models of College Choice: Traditional College Choice Theory • Predisposition refers to the plans students develop for education or work after they graduate from high school (Hossler, Schmit, & Vesper, 1999). In this stage, a students’ family background, academic achievements, and peers influence the development of post-high school plans. In this stage, Hossler et al. found that most high school students formalize their educational plans between eighth and tenth grade. • The search stage includes students’ discovering and evaluating possible colleges in which to enroll. In their study on going to college, Hossler et al. (1999) discovered that during the search stage of college choice, students’ educational aspirations tended to remain steady or increased during sophomore and junior years. • In the choice stage students choose a school from among those they have considered. III. Models of College Choice: Traditional College Choice Theory • Predisposition refers to the plans students develop for education or work after they graduate from high school (Hossler, Schmit, & Vesper, 1999). In this stage, a students’ family background, academic achievements, and peers influence the development of post-high school plans. In this stage, Hossler et al. found that most high school students formalize their educational plans between eighth and tenth grade. • The search stage includes students’ discovering and evaluating possible colleges in which to enroll. In their study on going to college, Hossler et al. (1999) discovered that during the search stage of college choice, students’ educational aspirations tended to remain steady or increased during sophomore and junior years. • In the choice stage students choose a school from among those they have considered.
  • III. Models of College Choice: Alternate Model • Dr. Kassie Freeman’s alternate model of college choice called the model of predetermination focuses primarily on the decision making process of underrepresented groups • Freeman created her model based on the following questions: a) Are the influences that determine the choice to go to college the same for different cultural groups? b) At what age does the process to choose higher education begin? c) What role does economics and secondary school play in the process for underrepresented groups? III. Models of College Choice: Alternate Model • Dr. Kassie Freeman’s alternate model of college choice called the model of predetermination focuses primarily on the decision making process of underrepresented groups • Freeman created her model based on the following questions: a) Are the influences that determine the choice to go to college the same for different cultural groups? b) At what age does the process to choose higher education begin? c) What role does economics and secondary school play in the process for underrepresented groups?
  • III. Models of College Choice: Alternate Model • Her model is meant to address the culturally diverse perspectives not captured by Hossler and others (Smith, 2008). • Freeman also presents a dynamic model where multiple, intersecting influences such as school context, economic, outlook, gender and psychological make up of the individual (knowers, seekers and dreamers) result in either college attendance or the exploration of other postsecondary options. • In contrast to Hossler and Gallagher’s discrete three stage model, Freemans model instead describes a fluid process that begins with kinship/family influences that intersect with school characteristics to create student cultural characteristics that shape college predetermination III. Models of College Choice: Alternate Model • Her model is meant to address the culturally diverse perspectives not captured by Hossler and others (Smith, 2008). • Freeman also presents a dynamic model where multiple, intersecting influences such as school context, economic, outlook, gender and psychological make up of the individual (knowers, seekers and dreamers) result in either college attendance or the exploration of other postsecondary options. • In contrast to Hossler and Gallagher’s discrete three stage model, Freemans model instead describes a fluid process that begins with kinship/family influences that intersect with school characteristics to create student cultural characteristics that shape college predetermination
  • III. Structure of College Access Models of College Choice Summary • Hossler and Gallagher’s traditional three stage model • Freeman’s Fluid model of predetermination III. Structure of College Access Models of College Choice Summary • Hossler and Gallagher’s traditional three stage model • Freeman’s Fluid model of predetermination
  • IV. Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented and First Generation students What obstacles do students face as they progress through the stages of college choice models • Unequal educational expectations • Unequal academic qualifications • Inequalities of information in the College Search Process • Inadequate Financial Assistance • There will be a review of each IV. Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented and First Generation students What obstacles do students face as they progress through the stages of college choice models • Unequal educational expectations • Unequal academic qualifications • Inequalities of information in the College Search Process • Inadequate Financial Assistance • There will be a review of each
  • IV. Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented and First Generation students Highlights Socioeconomic status, race, and ethnicity are considered causal or background variables because of how they affect educational expectations, aspirations, and information resources for students about college. The effects of these background variables are direct (Butler, 2005). IV. Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented and First Generation students Highlights Socioeconomic status, race, and ethnicity are considered causal or background variables because of how they affect educational expectations, aspirations, and information resources for students about college. The effects of these background variables are direct (Butler, 2005).
  • IV. Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented and First Generation students Highlights • These inequalities are summarized best by reviewing Cabera and La Nasa three critical tasks underrepresented /low income/first generation students must complete • Using college choice theory and the framework of the three stages, Cabrera and La Nasa (2001) identified three tasks that underrepresented and underserved students must overcome if they are to gain access to postsecondary education • The three tasks are: a) Acquiring college qualifications b) Graduating from high school c) Applying to college IV. Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented and First Generation students Highlights • These inequalities are summarized best by reviewing Cabera and La Nasa three critical tasks underrepresented /low income/first generation students must complete • Using college choice theory and the framework of the three stages, Cabrera and La Nasa (2001) identified three tasks that underrepresented and underserved students must overcome if they are to gain access to postsecondary education • The three tasks are: a) Acquiring college qualifications b) Graduating from high school c) Applying to college
  • IV. Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented and First Generation students What obstacles do students face as they progress through the stages of college choice models? Unequal educational expectations • Educational aspirations and plans are important predictors of college enrollment (Perna, 2000b) • Parental encouragement is a pivotal force in the emergence of occupational and educational aspirations • Parental involvement or the lack thereof is an obstacle to access • Family/kinship involvement for lack thereof is an obstacle to access IV. Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented and First Generation students What obstacles do students face as they progress through the stages of college choice models? Unequal educational expectations • Educational aspirations and plans are important predictors of college enrollment (Perna, 2000b) • Parental encouragement is a pivotal force in the emergence of occupational and educational aspirations • Parental involvement or the lack thereof is an obstacle to access • Family/kinship involvement for lack thereof is an obstacle to access
  • Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented and First Generation students What obstacles do students face as they progress through the stages of college choice models? Unequal educational expectations • The amount of support and encouragement that parents give to their children influences both their decision to enroll in postsecondary education and their actual postsecondary enrollment behavior. (Perna,2000a) Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented and First Generation students What obstacles do students face as they progress through the stages of college choice models? Unequal educational expectations • The amount of support and encouragement that parents give to their children influences both their decision to enroll in postsecondary education and their actual postsecondary enrollment behavior. (Perna,2000a)
  • First Generation Unequal Education Expectations •First-generation students are likely to enter college with less academic preparation, and to have limited access to information about the college experience, either first hand or from relatives (Thayer, 2000) •Despite the assertion that first-generation students are at a disadvantage due to their parents’ lack of knowledge about formal educational systems and higher education, our CIRP Freshman Survey trends show that both first-generation and non-first generation students placed similar importance on parental encouragement for college. An increasing proportion of students over the last couple of decades have reported that a very important reason why they went to college was because their parents wanted them to go. Underrepresented Unequal Education Expectations • Educational expectations are also affected by High school counselors, teachers, and peers (Perna, 20001). • Within the educational system students face challenges based on educator beliefs (Butler, 2005). • Support or lack thereof from counselors and teachers may shape students’ actual postsecondary education decisions Unequal Education Expectations •First-generation students are likely to enter college with less academic preparation, and to have limited access to information about the college experience, either first hand or from relatives (Thayer, 2000) •Despite the assertion that first-generation students are at a disadvantage due to their parents’ lack of knowledge about formal educational systems and higher education, our CIRP Freshman Survey trends show that both first-generation and non-first generation students placed similar importance on parental encouragement for college. An increasing proportion of students over the last couple of decades have reported that a very important reason why they went to college was because their parents wanted them to go. Unequal Education Expectations • Educational expectations are also affected by High school counselors, teachers, and peers (Perna, 20001). • Within the educational system students face challenges based on educator beliefs (Butler, 2005). • Support or lack thereof from counselors and teachers may shape students’ actual postsecondary education decisions
  • First Generation Unequal Education Expectations Underrepresented •First-generation students are often placed in vocational, technical, and/or remedial programs which impede their progress toward transferring to a four-year program, and receive poor counseling (Striplin, 1999). •Academic preparation of Hispanics is lacking: on average, Hispanic students score lower on standardized college- admission tests, and require more remedial English and mathematics compared to white students (Schmidt, 2003). Unequal Education Expectations Martinez and Klopott (2003) report that research in the relationship between teachers’ expectations and student performance indicate that teacher’s judgments and expectations of students’ ability clearly influences students . “Underrepresented students are provided less encouragement by teachers who may harbor doubts about their abilities and thereby contribute to a self-fulfilling prophecy of underachievement.” •First-generation students are often placed in vocational, technical, and/or remedial programs which impede their progress toward transferring to a four-year program, and receive poor counseling (Striplin, 1999). •Academic preparation of Hispanics is lacking: on average, Hispanic students score lower on standardized college- admission tests, and require more remedial English and mathematics compared to white students (Schmidt, 2003). Unequal Education Expectations Martinez and Klopott (2003) report that research in the relationship between teachers’ expectations and student performance indicate that teacher’s judgments and expectations of students’ ability clearly influences students . “Underrepresented students are provided less encouragement by teachers who may harbor doubts about their abilities and thereby contribute to a self-fulfilling prophecy of underachievement.”
  • Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented and First Generation students What obstacles do students face as they progress through the stages of college choice models? Unequal academic qualifications • Poor academic preparation is another obstacle for many students. • Students who secure college qualifications while in high school have a higher chance of enrolling in college than those who do not Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented and First Generation students What obstacles do students face as they progress through the stages of college choice models? Unequal academic qualifications • Poor academic preparation is another obstacle for many students. • Students who secure college qualifications while in high school have a higher chance of enrolling in college than those who do not
  • First Generation Underrepresented Unequal academic qualifications Academic preparation for college varies by parents’ education: 49 percent of 1992 high school graduates whose parents never attended college were only marginally qualified or were not qualified to attend college when they finished high school, compared to 33 percent of students whose parents had some college education and 15 percent of those who had at least one parent with a bachelor’s degree (Choy, 2001). Unequal academic qualifications •Black and Hispanic high school graduates are less likely to be well-prepared academically to attend a four- year college (NCES, 1997a) •Underrepresented students are more likely to attend crowded, inner-city public schools, where the quality of counseling is poor and students are neither adequately informed of their postsecondary options nor helped to achieve their goals (NCES, 2001b). •Venezia, Kirst and Antonio (2002) found that “underrepresented students are especially likely to be hampered by insufficient access to college preparatory courses, and a lack of early and high quality college counseling” (p.8). Unequal academic qualifications Academic preparation for college varies by parents’ education: 49 percent of 1992 high school graduates whose parents never attended college were only marginally qualified or were not qualified to attend college when they finished high school, compared to 33 percent of students whose parents had some college education and 15 percent of those who had at least one parent with a bachelor’s degree (Choy, 2001). Unequal academic qualifications •Black and Hispanic high school graduates are less likely to be well-prepared academically to attend a four- year college (NCES, 1997a) •Underrepresented students are more likely to attend crowded, inner-city public schools, where the quality of counseling is poor and students are neither adequately informed of their postsecondary options nor helped to achieve their goals (NCES, 2001b). •Venezia, Kirst and Antonio (2002) found that “underrepresented students are especially likely to be hampered by insufficient access to college preparatory courses, and a lack of early and high quality college counseling” (p.8).
  • Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented and First Generation students What obstacles do students face as they progress through the stages of college choice models? Inequalities of information in the College Search Process • Research shows that students are particularly less likely to enroll in college when their parents lack accurate information and knowledge about college (Perna, 2000a). • “Parental education also conditions the extent to which parents are knowledgeable about college qualification criteria and financial strategies to pay for college” (Cabrera & La Nasa, 2001, p 125). • An informed public must understand the realities of college prices, financial aid and the range of postsecondary options (Price, 2002). Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented and First Generation students What obstacles do students face as they progress through the stages of college choice models? Inequalities of information in the College Search Process • Research shows that students are particularly less likely to enroll in college when their parents lack accurate information and knowledge about college (Perna, 2000a). • “Parental education also conditions the extent to which parents are knowledgeable about college qualification criteria and financial strategies to pay for college” (Cabrera & La Nasa, 2001, p 125). • An informed public must understand the realities of college prices, financial aid and the range of postsecondary options (Price, 2002).
  • First Generation Underrepresented Lack of College Knowledge •Low-income, minority, and first-generation students are especially likely to lack specific types of “college knowledge.” They often do not understand the steps necessary to prepare for higher education which include knowing about how to finance a college education, to complete basic admissions procedures, and to make connections between career goals and educational requirements (Vargas, 2004). •Students whose parents had not attended college received less help from their parents in applying to college, and were not more likely to receive help from their schools. (Choy, 2001) •Low income, African American, and Latino families are less informed about financial aid: they tend to overestimate the cost of tuition and underestimate available aid (A shared Agenda, 2004). Lack of College Knowledge •Access to information about college varies by class more than by race (NCES, 1998; Terenzini et. al, 2001). •For three decades, socioeconomic factors have also impacted students’ access to information about college (Terenzini et al.). •Lowest SES students had few information sources that upper-level students and also relied on high school counselors as the single- most likely source of information about college (Cabrera & LaNasa, 2001) •Many families misunderstand the costs associated with attending postsecondary education and many students are unsure about application requirements and financial aid options (LUMINA Foundation, 2003). Lack of College Knowledge •Low-income, minority, and first-generation students are especially likely to lack specific types of “college knowledge.” They often do not understand the steps necessary to prepare for higher education which include knowing about how to finance a college education, to complete basic admissions procedures, and to make connections between career goals and educational requirements (Vargas, 2004). •Students whose parents had not attended college received less help from their parents in applying to college, and were not more likely to receive help from their schools. (Choy, 2001) •Low income, African American, and Latino families are less informed about financial aid: they tend to overestimate the cost of tuition and underestimate available aid (A shared Agenda, 2004). Lack of College Knowledge •Access to information about college varies by class more than by race (NCES, 1998; Terenzini et. al, 2001). •For three decades, socioeconomic factors have also impacted students’ access to information about college (Terenzini et al.). •Lowest SES students had few information sources that upper-level students and also relied on high school counselors as the single- most likely source of information about college (Cabrera & LaNasa, 2001) •Many families misunderstand the costs associated with attending postsecondary education and many students are unsure about application requirements and financial aid options (LUMINA Foundation, 2003).
  • Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented and First Generation students What obstacles do students face as they progress through the stages of college choice models? Inadequate financial assistance • Another obstacle to access is inadequate financial assistance. Who pays for college and what is affordable are specific concerns of underrepresented students Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented and First Generation students What obstacles do students face as they progress through the stages of college choice models? Inadequate financial assistance • Another obstacle to access is inadequate financial assistance. Who pays for college and what is affordable are specific concerns of underrepresented students
  • First Generation • Black and Hispanic students and their parents are more likely to be concerned about affordability than their Asian or White counterparts (NCES, 1997a). Freeman (1997) reported that for African American students, “The issue of lack of money to attend college was also a concern expressed by students across cities and school types” (p.536). Underrepresented Inadequate Financial AssistanceInadequate Financial Assistance An Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance estimated that four million college qualified students from low and moderate income families would be denied access to four year colleges in the first decade of the 21st century because remaining costs of college after loans and grants would be higher than the students could afford (St. John, Musoba, Simmons & Chung, 2002). • Black and Hispanic students and their parents are more likely to be concerned about affordability than their Asian or White counterparts (NCES, 1997a). Freeman (1997) reported that for African American students, “The issue of lack of money to attend college was also a concern expressed by students across cities and school types” (p.536). Inadequate Financial Assistance An Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance estimated that four million college qualified students from low and moderate income families would be denied access to four year colleges in the first decade of the 21st century because remaining costs of college after loans and grants would be higher than the students could afford (St. John, Musoba, Simmons & Chung, 2002).
  • Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented and First Generation students What obstacles do students face as they progress through the stages of college choice models? Summary • In summary, SES, race and ethnicity, academic preparation, educational expectations, the lack of information about college and the amount of financial assistance available affect the postsecondary attendance plans of underrepresented students. Obstacles to and Inequalities of Access for Underrepresented and First Generation students What obstacles do students face as they progress through the stages of college choice models? Summary • In summary, SES, race and ethnicity, academic preparation, educational expectations, the lack of information about college and the amount of financial assistance available affect the postsecondary attendance plans of underrepresented students.
  • Conclusion Solutions to Access • Thus far, this workshop has suggested that certain groups like low-income students and underrepresented students have difficulty completing high school and going to college. • However, in reviewing the literature many solutions emerged to improve access to higher education, especially for underrepresented groups. Conclusion Solutions to Access • Thus far, this workshop has suggested that certain groups like low-income students and underrepresented students have difficulty completing high school and going to college. • However, in reviewing the literature many solutions emerged to improve access to higher education, especially for underrepresented groups.
  • Conclusion Solutions to Access THIS IS NOT A CONCLUSIVE LIST!!!!!! • There are many solutions to improve access for Underrepresented and First Generation students Some Suggestions • Increase Educational Expectations, Improve Academic Preparation, Improve College Knowledge ,Improve Social Supports, Increase Financial Assistance • Early Intervention Programs (I have A Dream, GEAR UP.etc) • High School Dual Enrollment Programs (College Now, Running Start,) • Personal Commitment Conclusion Solutions to Access THIS IS NOT A CONCLUSIVE LIST!!!!!! • There are many solutions to improve access for Underrepresented and First Generation students Some Suggestions • Increase Educational Expectations, Improve Academic Preparation, Improve College Knowledge ,Improve Social Supports, Increase Financial Assistance • Early Intervention Programs (I have A Dream, GEAR UP.etc) • High School Dual Enrollment Programs (College Now, Running Start,) • Personal Commitment
  • References • Cabrera, A.F & La Nasa, S.M. (2001). On the path to college: Three critical tasks facing America’s disadvantaged. Research in Higher Education, 42 (2) 119-148. • Cabrera, A.F., Prabhu, R., Deil-Amen, R., Terenzini, P.T., Lee, C. & Franklin, R.E. (Eds.). (2003). Paper presented at the 2003 ASHE meeting: Increasing the college preparedness of at-risk students, Portland, Or. • Cabrera, A.F.,Burkum, K.R. & La Nasa, S.M. (2003). Pathways to a four year degree: Determinants of transfer & degree completion among socioeconomically disadvantaged students. In A. Seidman (Ed.) College student retention: A formula for student success. (pp.161). ACE/Praeger series on Higher Education. References • Cabrera, A.F & La Nasa, S.M. (2001). On the path to college: Three critical tasks facing America’s disadvantaged. Research in Higher Education, 42 (2) 119-148. • Cabrera, A.F., Prabhu, R., Deil-Amen, R., Terenzini, P.T., Lee, C. & Franklin, R.E. (Eds.). (2003). Paper presented at the 2003 ASHE meeting: Increasing the college preparedness of at-risk students, Portland, Or. • Cabrera, A.F.,Burkum, K.R. & La Nasa, S.M. (2003). Pathways to a four year degree: Determinants of transfer & degree completion among socioeconomically disadvantaged students. In A. Seidman (Ed.) College student retention: A formula for student success. (pp.161). ACE/Praeger series on Higher Education.
  • References • Education Commission of the States. (2001). Postsecondary Options:dual/concurrent enrollment. • Freeman, K. (1997). Increasing African Americans participation in higher education. Journal of higher education, 68, 523-550 • Higher Education Research Institute. (2007). First in my Family: A Profile of First Generation College Students • Hossler, D., Schmit, J., & Vesper, N. (1999). Going to College. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press • Kezar, A. (2000a). Access to higher education. ERIC Review, 8 (1) 2-3 • Kezar, A. (2000). Does it work? Research on early intervention. ERIC Review, 8 (1) 9-12. References • Education Commission of the States. (2001). Postsecondary Options:dual/concurrent enrollment. • Freeman, K. (1997). Increasing African Americans participation in higher education. Journal of higher education, 68, 523-550 • Higher Education Research Institute. (2007). First in my Family: A Profile of First Generation College Students • Hossler, D., Schmit, J., & Vesper, N. (1999). Going to College. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press • Kezar, A. (2000a). Access to higher education. ERIC Review, 8 (1) 2-3 • Kezar, A. (2000). Does it work? Research on early intervention. ERIC Review, 8 (1) 9-12.
  • References • Kirst, M.W. & Venezia, A. (2004). From high school to college: Improving opportunities for success in postsecondary San Francisco, CA Jossey Bass • Kuh,G.D.,Kinzie,J.,Buckley, J.A. &Bridges, B.,(2006). What Matters to Student Success: A Review of the literature. NPEC • LUMINA Foundation (2003). Restricted access. Lumina Foundation for Education New Agenda series. Indianapolis, In. • Martinez, M. & Klopott, S (2003). Improving college access for minority, low-income, and first generation students. Pathway to College Network. Boston, Ma. • McDonough, P (2004). The school to college transition: Challenges and Prospects American Council on Education: Center: for Policy Analysis. References • Kirst, M.W. & Venezia, A. (2004). From high school to college: Improving opportunities for success in postsecondary San Francisco, CA Jossey Bass • Kuh,G.D.,Kinzie,J.,Buckley, J.A. &Bridges, B.,(2006). What Matters to Student Success: A Review of the literature. NPEC • LUMINA Foundation (2003). Restricted access. Lumina Foundation for Education New Agenda series. Indianapolis, In. • Martinez, M. & Klopott, S (2003). Improving college access for minority, low-income, and first generation students. Pathway to College Network. Boston, Ma. • McDonough, P (2004). The school to college transition: Challenges and Prospects American Council on Education: Center: for Policy Analysis.
  • References • McDonough, P. (1997). Choosing Colleges: How social class and How social class and schools structure opportunity Albany. N.Y. State University of New York Press. • National Center for Education Statistics (1996), National education longitudinal study: 1988-1994, Descriptive summary report Washington, D.C.:U.S, Department of Education. • National Center for Education Statistics (1997), Confronting the Odds; students at risk and the pipeline to higher education, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. • National Center for Education Statistics (1997) Access to postsecondary education fro the 1992 high school graduates. Washington, D.C.,U.S. Department of Education. References • McDonough, P. (1997). Choosing Colleges: How social class and How social class and schools structure opportunity Albany. N.Y. State University of New York Press. • National Center for Education Statistics (1996), National education longitudinal study: 1988-1994, Descriptive summary report Washington, D.C.:U.S, Department of Education. • National Center for Education Statistics (1997), Confronting the Odds; students at risk and the pipeline to higher education, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. • National Center for Education Statistics (1997) Access to postsecondary education fro the 1992 high school graduates. Washington, D.C.,U.S. Department of Education.
  • References • National Center for Education Statistics (1998). Choosing A Post Secondary Institution, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. • National Center for Education Statistics (1998). First-Generation Students: Undergraduates whose Parents Never Enrolled in Postsecondary Education., Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. • National Center for Education Statistics (2001), Educational Achievement in black-White Inequality, Washington , D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. • Ogbu, J. (2003). Black American students in an affluent suburb. Mahwah, NJ: Earlbaum Associates. • Perna, L.W. (2000). Promoting college enrollment through early intervention. ERIC Review, 8 (1) 4-8. References • National Center for Education Statistics (1998). Choosing A Post Secondary Institution, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. • National Center for Education Statistics (1998). First-Generation Students: Undergraduates whose Parents Never Enrolled in Postsecondary Education., Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. • National Center for Education Statistics (2001), Educational Achievement in black-White Inequality, Washington , D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. • Ogbu, J. (2003). Black American students in an affluent suburb. Mahwah, NJ: Earlbaum Associates. • Perna, L.W. (2000). Promoting college enrollment through early intervention. ERIC Review, 8 (1) 4-8.
  • References • Perna, L.W. (2000). Differences in the decision to attend college among African American, Hispanics and Whites. The Journal of Higher Education, 71 (2), 117-141 • Price, D.V. (2002). What we know about access and success in postsecondary education. Lumina Foundation for Education, Indianapolis, In. • Roscigno, V.J. (1998).Race and the reproduction of educational disadvantage. Social forces, 76 (3), 1033-1061. • St. John, E.P., Chung, C.G. Musoba, G.D., Simmons, A.B, & Wooden, O.S. & Medndez, J.P, (2204. Expanding college access: The impact of state finance strategies. Lumina Foundation for Education New Agenda Series. References • Perna, L.W. (2000). Differences in the decision to attend college among African American, Hispanics and Whites. The Journal of Higher Education, 71 (2), 117-141 • Price, D.V. (2002). What we know about access and success in postsecondary education. Lumina Foundation for Education, Indianapolis, In. • Roscigno, V.J. (1998).Race and the reproduction of educational disadvantage. Social forces, 76 (3), 1033-1061. • St. John, E.P., Chung, C.G. Musoba, G.D., Simmons, A.B, & Wooden, O.S. & Medndez, J.P, (2204. Expanding college access: The impact of state finance strategies. Lumina Foundation for Education New Agenda Series.
  • References • Venezia, A., Kirst, M.W., & Antonio, A.L. (2003). Betraying the college dream: How disconnected K-12 and postsecondary education systems undermine student aspirations. Stanford University Bridge Project. References • Venezia, A., Kirst, M.W., & Antonio, A.L. (2003). Betraying the college dream: How disconnected K-12 and postsecondary education systems undermine student aspirations. Stanford University Bridge Project.