Toulmin model5
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Toulmin model5



Student assignment for LAVC Communication 104 class.

Student assignment for LAVC Communication 104 class.



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Toulmin model5 Toulmin model5 Presentation Transcript

  • A Model for Evaluating Arguments
  • Because…
  • It evaluates arguments by first identifying six parts.
  •  Grounds  Warrant  Claim  Backing  Reservation  Qualifier
  • ➤ It’s what you’ve observed, either first hand or second hand. ➤ Grounds are reasons or supporting evidence that bolster the claim. ➤ Grounds can be: facts, statistics, expert opinion, examples, explanations, an d logical reasoning
  • ➤ It’s a chain of reasoning, that connects the grounds to the claim. ➤ It’s a general rule, which links the claim to the grounds.
  • ➤ Warrants aren’t normally explicit. ➤ Warrants operate at a higher level of generality than a claim..
  • ➤ It’s the conclusion of the argument. ➤ It’s what the arguer is attempting to convince the audience to do or think. ➤ It’s a statement, not a question.
  • ➤ It answers the question, “Why do you believe that?” ➤ It’s the specific support for the grounds, or the warrant. ➤ The backing is the implicit assumptions that show the warrant is reliable and/or it’s evidence to support the grounds.
  • ➤ It’s the reasons why the warrant does not apply. ➤ It’s the exceptions to the rule.
  • ➤ It’s a word or phrase which suggests the degree of validity of the claim. ➤ A claim that is "very highly" correct is more valid than a claim that is "most likely" correct.
  • According to the CDC, in 2010, 10,228 people were killed in alcohol-impaired driving crashes, accounting for nearly one-third (31%) of all traffic-related deaths in the United States.
  • Toulmin’s model works well for analyzing the kind of arguments you read in newspapers, and hear on TV, at work, in classrooms, and in conversation.
  • “Toulmin’s model helps to show how tightly constructed arguments are, and how each part of an argument relates to the overall validity or reasonableness of that argument.”
  • “Toulmin’s model is not meant to judge the success or failure of an attempt to prove an argument, instead it helps break down an argument to its most basic pieces.”
  •  While information in this Communication 104 student production depended heavily on the textbook, “Communicating and Critical Thinking” by Jim Marteney and Jack Sterk, numerous online resources were also studied in an effort to more fully understand the material and present a cogent explanation of the Toulmin Model.  Quotes on the last two slides are directly from the Marteney and Sterk textbook.