Toulmin Model


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Toulmin Model

  1. 1. Toulmin Model of Argument<br />A method to divide parts of an argument<br />
  2. 2. STEPHEN TOULMIN<br />Stephen Toulmin, a professor at the University of Southern California developed the Toulmin Model of Argument to help analyze arguments that are read and heard in every day life. The Toulmin Model helps to show how constructed arguments are and how each part of an argument relates to the overall validity or reasonableness of an agrument.. <br />
  3. 3. There are 6 parts in the Toulmin Model<br />ClaimsGroundsWarrantBackingReservations/ rebuttalqualifier<br />
  4. 4. CLAIMS<br />A claim is a main point, thesis, or idea. The claim is the what the arguer is trying to prove, propose and conclude.<br />Example:“ The Los Angeles Lakers will win another championship this year because they won last year.”<br />
  5. 5. GROUNDS<br />Grounds are the reason provided to support the claim. They are evidence, proof, and arguments. <br />The support of a claim can be facts, statistics, expert opinions, examples, explanations, and logical reasoning. <br />Example: “The Los Angeles Lakers will win the championship because they have the best defense in the NBA.”<br />
  6. 6. WARRANTS<br />Is the logic principal of the argument. <br />The warrant connects the claim with the grounds.<br />Usually begin with words like all, every, any, anytime, or whenever. <br />Example: “Every team in the NBA with the best defense has one the championship. “<br />
  7. 7. BACKING<br />Is the specific date which is used to justify and support the grounds and warrant. <br />Example: “ The NBA team with the best defense won last year.”<br />
  8. 8. RESERVATIONS/REBUTTAL<br />Exceptions that may be offered to the claim. <br />Are “unlesses” to the warrant. <br />Admits to those circumstances or situations where the argument would not hold. <br />Example: “The Los Angeles Lakers will win the championship this year unless Kobe Bryan gets injured.”<br />
  9. 9. QUALIFIERS<br />States the degree of force or probability to be attached to the claim. <br />States how sure the arguer is about his/her claim. <br />They include words such as usually, most, always, or sometimes. <br />EXAMPLE: “ Most NBA teams with the best defense win the championship.”<br />
  10. 10. MAIN CONCEPT OF THE TOULMIN MODEL<br />The Toulmin method, in short, is an effective way of getting to the how and why levels of the argument. It is a type of communication break down that allows us to divide an argument into its different parts (such as claim, reasons, and evidence) so that we can make judgments on how well the different parts work together.<br />