Communicating With Others


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Communicating With Others By Rachel Reiter

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Communicating With Others

  1. 1. Communicating with Others By: Rachel Reiter
  2. 2. What Makes Up a Critical Thinker? <ul><li>They could be Wrong </li></ul><ul><li>They can change his or her mind </li></ul><ul><li>They are never completely, 100%, sure of anything </li></ul><ul><li>They are always growing and learning </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter One’s Three Main Topics <ul><li>Communication - understand the influence of communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Truth vs. Validity – understand the difference between what is true and what is valid. </li></ul><ul><li>The Continuum of Certainty – We make decisions based on how sure we are of the conclusion. </li></ul>
  4. 4. C o m m u n i c a t i o n <ul><li>The imperfections of the communication process, influence our critical thinking and decision making process </li></ul><ul><li>Have you even been in conflict? </li></ul><ul><li>Were there multiple sides to one story? </li></ul><ul><li>Think back to that moment and ask yourself these questions : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is communication? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When does it take place? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is responsible when communication breaks down? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Truth <ul><li>What is Truth? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Truth is the complete accuracy of whatever was, is, or will be error-proof, beyond doubt, dispute of debate, a final test of right or wrong of people’s ideas and beliefs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two Concepts of Truth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Truth with the capital “ T ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Truth with the small “ t ” </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Truth with the Small “ t ” <ul><li>Ultimate accurate position on a situation or interpretation of an event. </li></ul><ul><li>There is only one Truth to a situation and all other explanations or understandings are incorrect. </li></ul><ul><li>What someone believes as being the only answer to a situation or only interpretation of an event. </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone can have their own truth in every situation. </li></ul>Truth with the Capital “ T ”
  7. 7. Validity <ul><li>Critical Thinkers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do NOT Rely on Truth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the concept of validity to make decisions and maintain positions in arguments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Validity is a Measurement of how sure we are of any situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Given information we are conscious of, validity measures how certain we are of our decision. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on what you know about a situation, you draw the most reasonable conclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>This is very different than the Truth of situation. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Differences Between Truth and Validity <ul><li>Where there is only one Truth, there can be many reasonable positions. </li></ul><ul><li>Where Truth is absolute and can never change, new more valid positions are created with the discovery of new evidence. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Differences Between Truth and Validity <ul><li>Where truth is created internally and is a part of our self esteem, validity is based on external information and so it is okay to change our minds when new evidence is presented. </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the difference between Truth and Validity are crucial to becoming a critical thinker. </li></ul><ul><li>Critical thinkers use validity to make decisions, not Truth. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Continuum of Certainty and Threshold <ul><li>The Continuum of Certainty is simply a measurement of validity. </li></ul><ul><li>Think of a straight line. At one end of the line the argument has no validity, while at the other end the argument is 100% valid. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Interpretation of the Continuum of Certainty <ul><li>The more you move towards the right, the more certain you are of your belief. </li></ul><ul><li>A threshold is that specific location on the continuum of Certainty where we accept the argument. It is now “valid enough” to be accepted. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Understanding the Continuum of Certainty <ul><li>Crucial to being a critical thinker </li></ul><ul><li>It is this understanding that allows us to comprehend just how certain we are of something. </li></ul><ul><li>Since there are very few things you might feel absolutely sure of, there is always some doubt. </li></ul><ul><li>How sure do you have to be to act or make a decision? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Real World Example <ul><li>Roger Clemens and Brian McNamee are to testify about steroid use. Clemens says he has never used steroids while McNamee says he injected Clemens with steroids. Congress is not seeking the truth but instead is looking to find who’s argument is more valid. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Conclusion <ul><li>Communication is important in the way we understand what is true and what is valid. Different perspectives need to be taken into account and understood before analyzing truth and validity. </li></ul><ul><li>Truth is questioned whereas validity can change and can be uncertain. Critical thinkers use validity </li></ul><ul><li>There is a continuum of validity. Something can be 0% valid all the way to 100% valid. </li></ul>