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Logos -toulmin

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Logical argumentation

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Logos -toulmin

  1. 1. What we talk about when we talk about Argument
  2. 2. Let’s start with a claim
  3. 3. ALL bicycles have two wheels
  4. 4. ALL bicycles have two wheels This is a bicycle.
  5. 5. ALL bicycles have two wheels This is a bicycle. It has 2 wheels.
  6. 6. A Syllogism
  7. 7. A Syllogism All bicycles have 2 wheels Premise
  8. 8. A Syllogism All bicycles have 2 wheels Premise This is a bicyclePremise
  9. 9. A Syllogism All bicycles have 2 wheels Premise This is a bicyclePremise (Therefore) it has 2 wheels. Conclusion
  10. 10. A Syllogism All bicycles have 2 wheels Premise This is a bicyclePremise (Therefore) it has 2 wheels. ConclusionVALID
  11. 11. Mr. Stearns is rich. A Syllogism All teachers are richPremise Mr. Stearns is a teacher.Premise ???Conclusion
  12. 12. Mr. Stearns is rich. A Syllogism All teachers are richPremise Mr. Stearns is a teacher.Premise Conclusion
  13. 13. Mr. Stearns is rich. A Syllogism All teachers are richPremise Mr. Stearns is a teacher.Premise ConclusionVALID
  14. 14. Milo is fuzzy. A Syllogism Premise Premise ??? Conclusion All puppies are fuzzy Milo is a puppy.
  15. 15. Milo is fuzzy. A Syllogism Premise Premise Conclusion All puppies are fuzzy Milo is a puppy.
  16. 16. Milo is fuzzy. A Syllogism Premise Premise Conclusion All puppies are fuzzy Milo is a puppy. VALID
  17. 17. Milo doesn’t care A Syllogism? Premise Premise Conclusion All Honey Badgers don’t care Milo is a honey badger
  18. 18. Milo doesn’t care A Syllogism? Premise Premise Conclusion All Honey Badgers don’t care Milo is a honey badgerVALID
  19. 19. Milo doesn’t care A Syllogism? Premise Premise Conclusion All Honey Badgers don’t care Milo is a honey badger
  20. 20. Milo doesn’t care A Syllogism? Premise Premise Conclusion All Honey Badgers don’t care Milo is a honey badgerINVALID
  21. 21. Let’s continue with a different claim
  22. 22. Women should be allowed to fight in US combat units
  23. 23. 1) They are physically capable. 2) Their presence would weaken gender stereotypes. 3) This would expand the opportunities for women in the military. Because...
  24. 24. 1) They are physically capable. What is the implied assumption? Because...
  25. 25. 2) Their presence would weaken gender stereotypes. What is the implied assumption? Because...
  26. 26. 3)This would expand the opportunities for women in the military. What is the implied assumption? Because...
  27. 27. Stephen Toulmin
  28. 28. Terms:
  29. 29. Terms: Claim
  30. 30. Terms: Claim Reason
  31. 31. Terms: Claim Reason Warrant
  32. 32. Terms: Claim Reason Warrant Used to be called “implied assumption”
  33. 33. Example: Claim Reason Warrant
  34. 34. Example: Claim Reason Warrant I shouldn’t have to take Algebra
  35. 35. Example: Claim Reason Warrant I shouldn’t have to take Algebra because I want to be a lawyer
  36. 36. Example: Claim Reason Warrant I shouldn’t have to take Algebra because I want to be a lawyer career utility should be the main justification for class requirements
  37. 37. Your Turn: Claim Reason Warrant
  38. 38. Your Turn: Claim Reason Warrant You should have to take algebra...
  39. 39. Your Turn: Claim Reason Warrant You should have to take algebra... ??????
  40. 40. Your Turn: Claim Reason Warrant You should have to take algebra... ?????? ??????
  41. 41. An Argument: Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones ...because they prevent kids from developing empathy. Reason Claim
  42. 42. An Argument: Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones ...because they prevent kids from developing empathy. Reason Claim Grounds •testimony from kids •research connecting technology use with negative behavior on-and offline
  43. 43. An Argument: Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones ...because they prevent kids from developing empathy. Reason Claim Grounds •testimony from kids •research connecting technology use with negative behavior on-and offline Grounds provide evidence to support the reason.
  44. 44. So Far: Claim Reason Warrant
  45. 45. So Far: Claim Reason Warrant Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones
  46. 46. So Far: Claim Reason Warrant Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones ...because they prevent kids from developing empathy.
  47. 47. So Far: Claim Reason Warrant Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones ...because they prevent kids from developing empathy. Developing empathy is an crucial element of growing up that parents should nurture.
  48. 48. So Far: Claim Reason Warrant Backing Arguments that show how important empathy is a child/ adult’s life.
  49. 49. So Far: Claim Reason Warrant Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones Backing Arguments that show how important empathy is a child/ adult’s life.
  50. 50. So Far: Claim Reason Warrant Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones ...because they prevent kids from developing empathy. Backing Arguments that show how important empathy is a child/ adult’s life.
  51. 51. So Far: Claim Reason Warrant Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones ...because they prevent kids from developing empathy. Developing empathy is an crucial element of growing up that parents should nurture. Backing Arguments that show how important empathy is a child/ adult’s life.
  52. 52. So Far: Claim Reason Warrant Backing Evidence that supports the warrant
  53. 53. So Far: Claim Reason Warrant Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones Backing Evidence that supports the warrant
  54. 54. So Far: Claim Reason Warrant Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones ...because they prevent kids from developing empathy. Backing Evidence that supports the warrant
  55. 55. So Far: Claim Reason Warrant Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones ...because they prevent kids from developing empathy. Developing empathy is an crucial element of growing up that parents should nurture. Backing Evidence that supports the warrant
  56. 56. Almost Done
  57. 57. Two More terms: Rebuttal Qualifier
  58. 58. Two More terms: Rebuttal The opposing argument against your claim
  59. 59. Two More terms: Rebuttal Cellphones should be allowed because they help kids connect with their peers.
  60. 60. Two More terms: The degree to which you are confident in your claim. Qualifier
  61. 61. Two More terms: Cellphones should DEFINITELY be banned Qualifier
  62. 62. Two More terms: Cellphones should POSSIBLY be banned Qualifier
  63. 63. Two More terms: We should consider whether cellphones should be banned. Qualifier
  64. 64. OK, your turn: Warrant Backing Grounds Reason Claim Rebuttal Qualifier
  65. 65. OK, your turn: Warrant Backing Grounds Reason Claim Rebuttal Qualifier All students should be required to take AP Language in order to graduate.

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