What we talk
about when
we talk
about
Argument
Let’s start with a claim
ALL bicycles have two wheels
ALL bicycles have two wheels
This is a bicycle.
ALL bicycles have two wheels
This is a bicycle.
It
has
2
wheels.
A Syllogism
A Syllogism
All bicycles have
2 wheels
Premise
A Syllogism
All bicycles have
2 wheels
Premise
This is a bicyclePremise
A Syllogism
All bicycles have
2 wheels
Premise
This is a bicyclePremise
(Therefore) it has
2 wheels.
Conclusion
A Syllogism
All bicycles have
2 wheels
Premise
This is a bicyclePremise
(Therefore) it has
2 wheels.
ConclusionVALID
Mr. Stearns is rich.
A Syllogism
All teachers are richPremise
Mr. Stearns is a teacher.Premise
???Conclusion
Mr. Stearns is rich.
A Syllogism
All teachers are richPremise
Mr. Stearns is a teacher.Premise
Conclusion
Mr. Stearns is rich.
A Syllogism
All teachers are richPremise
Mr. Stearns is a teacher.Premise
ConclusionVALID
Milo is fuzzy.
A Syllogism
Premise
Premise
???
Conclusion
All puppies are fuzzy
Milo is a puppy.
Milo is fuzzy.
A Syllogism
Premise
Premise
Conclusion
All puppies are fuzzy
Milo is a puppy.
Milo is fuzzy.
A Syllogism
Premise
Premise
Conclusion
All puppies are fuzzy
Milo is a puppy.
VALID
Milo doesn’t care
A Syllogism?
Premise
Premise
Conclusion
All Honey Badgers
don’t care
Milo is a honey badger
Milo doesn’t care
A Syllogism?
Premise
Premise
Conclusion
All Honey Badgers
don’t care
Milo is a honey badgerVALID
Milo doesn’t care
A Syllogism?
Premise
Premise
Conclusion
All Honey Badgers
don’t care
Milo is a honey badger
Milo doesn’t care
A Syllogism?
Premise
Premise
Conclusion
All Honey Badgers
don’t care
Milo is a honey badgerINVALID
Let’s continue
with a different claim
Women
should be
allowed to
fight in US
combat units
1) They are
physically capable.
2) Their presence
would weaken
gender stereotypes.
3) This would
expand the
opportunities ...
1) They are
physically capable.
What is the implied
assumption?
Because...
2) Their presence
would weaken
gender stereotypes.
What is the implied
assumption?
Because...
3)This would
expand the
opportunities for
women in the
military.
What is the implied
assumption?
Because...
Stephen Toulmin
Terms:
Terms:
Claim
Terms:
Claim
Reason
Terms:
Claim
Reason
Warrant
Terms:
Claim
Reason
Warrant
Used to be called “implied assumption”
Example:
Claim
Reason
Warrant
Example:
Claim
Reason
Warrant
I shouldn’t have to take Algebra
Example:
Claim
Reason
Warrant
I shouldn’t have to take Algebra
because I want to be a lawyer
Example:
Claim
Reason
Warrant
I shouldn’t have to take Algebra
because I want to be a lawyer
career utility should be the ...
Your Turn:
Claim
Reason
Warrant
Your Turn:
Claim
Reason
Warrant
You should have to take algebra...
Your Turn:
Claim
Reason
Warrant
You should have to take algebra...
??????
Your Turn:
Claim
Reason
Warrant
You should have to take algebra...
??????
??????
An Argument:
Parents should not
allow their kids to
own cellphones
...because they
prevent kids from
developing empathy.
R...
An Argument:
Parents should not
allow their kids to
own cellphones
...because they
prevent kids from
developing empathy.
R...
An Argument:
Parents should not
allow their kids to
own cellphones
...because they
prevent kids from
developing empathy.
R...
So Far:
Claim
Reason
Warrant
So Far:
Claim
Reason
Warrant
Parents should not allow their
kids to own cellphones
So Far:
Claim
Reason
Warrant
Parents should not allow their
kids to own cellphones
...because they prevent kids from
devel...
So Far:
Claim
Reason
Warrant
Parents should not allow their
kids to own cellphones
...because they prevent kids from
devel...
So Far:
Claim
Reason
Warrant
Backing
Arguments that show
how important
empathy is a child/
adult’s life.
So Far:
Claim
Reason
Warrant
Parents should not allow their
kids to own cellphones
Backing
Arguments that show
how importa...
So Far:
Claim
Reason
Warrant
Parents should not allow their
kids to own cellphones
...because they prevent kids from
devel...
So Far:
Claim
Reason
Warrant
Parents should not allow their
kids to own cellphones
...because they prevent kids from
devel...
So Far:
Claim
Reason
Warrant
Backing
Evidence that
supports the
warrant
So Far:
Claim
Reason
Warrant
Parents should not allow their
kids to own cellphones
Backing
Evidence that
supports the
warr...
So Far:
Claim
Reason
Warrant
Parents should not allow their
kids to own cellphones
...because they prevent kids from
devel...
So Far:
Claim
Reason
Warrant
Parents should not allow their
kids to own cellphones
...because they prevent kids from
devel...
Almost Done
Two More terms:
Rebuttal
Qualifier
Two More terms:
Rebuttal
The opposing
argument against your
claim
Two More terms:
Rebuttal
Cellphones should be
allowed because they
help kids connect with
their peers.
Two More terms:
The degree to which you
are confident in your
claim.
Qualifier
Two More terms:
Cellphones should DEFINITELY be
banned
Qualifier
Two More terms:
Cellphones should POSSIBLY be
banned
Qualifier
Two More terms:
We should consider whether
cellphones should be banned.
Qualifier
OK, your turn:
Warrant
Backing
Grounds
Reason
Claim
Rebuttal
Qualifier
OK, your turn:
Warrant
Backing
Grounds
Reason
Claim
Rebuttal
Qualifier
All
students
should be
required
to take AP
Language...
Logos -toulmin
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Logical argumentation

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Logos -toulmin

  1. 1. What we talk about when we talk about Argument
  2. 2. Let’s start with a claim
  3. 3. ALL bicycles have two wheels
  4. 4. ALL bicycles have two wheels This is a bicycle.
  5. 5. ALL bicycles have two wheels This is a bicycle. It has 2 wheels.
  6. 6. A Syllogism
  7. 7. A Syllogism All bicycles have 2 wheels Premise
  8. 8. A Syllogism All bicycles have 2 wheels Premise This is a bicyclePremise
  9. 9. A Syllogism All bicycles have 2 wheels Premise This is a bicyclePremise (Therefore) it has 2 wheels. Conclusion
  10. 10. A Syllogism All bicycles have 2 wheels Premise This is a bicyclePremise (Therefore) it has 2 wheels. ConclusionVALID
  11. 11. Mr. Stearns is rich. A Syllogism All teachers are richPremise Mr. Stearns is a teacher.Premise ???Conclusion
  12. 12. Mr. Stearns is rich. A Syllogism All teachers are richPremise Mr. Stearns is a teacher.Premise Conclusion
  13. 13. Mr. Stearns is rich. A Syllogism All teachers are richPremise Mr. Stearns is a teacher.Premise ConclusionVALID
  14. 14. Milo is fuzzy. A Syllogism Premise Premise ??? Conclusion All puppies are fuzzy Milo is a puppy.
  15. 15. Milo is fuzzy. A Syllogism Premise Premise Conclusion All puppies are fuzzy Milo is a puppy.
  16. 16. Milo is fuzzy. A Syllogism Premise Premise Conclusion All puppies are fuzzy Milo is a puppy. VALID
  17. 17. Milo doesn’t care A Syllogism? Premise Premise Conclusion All Honey Badgers don’t care Milo is a honey badger
  18. 18. Milo doesn’t care A Syllogism? Premise Premise Conclusion All Honey Badgers don’t care Milo is a honey badgerVALID
  19. 19. Milo doesn’t care A Syllogism? Premise Premise Conclusion All Honey Badgers don’t care Milo is a honey badger
  20. 20. Milo doesn’t care A Syllogism? Premise Premise Conclusion All Honey Badgers don’t care Milo is a honey badgerINVALID
  21. 21. Let’s continue with a different claim
  22. 22. Women should be allowed to fight in US combat units
  23. 23. 1) They are physically capable. 2) Their presence would weaken gender stereotypes. 3) This would expand the opportunities for women in the military. Because...
  24. 24. 1) They are physically capable. What is the implied assumption? Because...
  25. 25. 2) Their presence would weaken gender stereotypes. What is the implied assumption? Because...
  26. 26. 3)This would expand the opportunities for women in the military. What is the implied assumption? Because...
  27. 27. Stephen Toulmin
  28. 28. Terms:
  29. 29. Terms: Claim
  30. 30. Terms: Claim Reason
  31. 31. Terms: Claim Reason Warrant
  32. 32. Terms: Claim Reason Warrant Used to be called “implied assumption”
  33. 33. Example: Claim Reason Warrant
  34. 34. Example: Claim Reason Warrant I shouldn’t have to take Algebra
  35. 35. Example: Claim Reason Warrant I shouldn’t have to take Algebra because I want to be a lawyer
  36. 36. Example: Claim Reason Warrant I shouldn’t have to take Algebra because I want to be a lawyer career utility should be the main justification for class requirements
  37. 37. Your Turn: Claim Reason Warrant
  38. 38. Your Turn: Claim Reason Warrant You should have to take algebra...
  39. 39. Your Turn: Claim Reason Warrant You should have to take algebra... ??????
  40. 40. Your Turn: Claim Reason Warrant You should have to take algebra... ?????? ??????
  41. 41. An Argument: Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones ...because they prevent kids from developing empathy. Reason Claim
  42. 42. An Argument: Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones ...because they prevent kids from developing empathy. Reason Claim Grounds •testimony from kids •research connecting technology use with negative behavior on-and offline
  43. 43. An Argument: Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones ...because they prevent kids from developing empathy. Reason Claim Grounds •testimony from kids •research connecting technology use with negative behavior on-and offline Grounds provide evidence to support the reason.
  44. 44. So Far: Claim Reason Warrant
  45. 45. So Far: Claim Reason Warrant Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones
  46. 46. So Far: Claim Reason Warrant Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones ...because they prevent kids from developing empathy.
  47. 47. So Far: Claim Reason Warrant Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones ...because they prevent kids from developing empathy. Developing empathy is an crucial element of growing up that parents should nurture.
  48. 48. So Far: Claim Reason Warrant Backing Arguments that show how important empathy is a child/ adult’s life.
  49. 49. So Far: Claim Reason Warrant Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones Backing Arguments that show how important empathy is a child/ adult’s life.
  50. 50. So Far: Claim Reason Warrant Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones ...because they prevent kids from developing empathy. Backing Arguments that show how important empathy is a child/ adult’s life.
  51. 51. So Far: Claim Reason Warrant Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones ...because they prevent kids from developing empathy. Developing empathy is an crucial element of growing up that parents should nurture. Backing Arguments that show how important empathy is a child/ adult’s life.
  52. 52. So Far: Claim Reason Warrant Backing Evidence that supports the warrant
  53. 53. So Far: Claim Reason Warrant Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones Backing Evidence that supports the warrant
  54. 54. So Far: Claim Reason Warrant Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones ...because they prevent kids from developing empathy. Backing Evidence that supports the warrant
  55. 55. So Far: Claim Reason Warrant Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones ...because they prevent kids from developing empathy. Developing empathy is an crucial element of growing up that parents should nurture. Backing Evidence that supports the warrant
  56. 56. Almost Done
  57. 57. Two More terms: Rebuttal Qualifier
  58. 58. Two More terms: Rebuttal The opposing argument against your claim
  59. 59. Two More terms: Rebuttal Cellphones should be allowed because they help kids connect with their peers.
  60. 60. Two More terms: The degree to which you are confident in your claim. Qualifier
  61. 61. Two More terms: Cellphones should DEFINITELY be banned Qualifier
  62. 62. Two More terms: Cellphones should POSSIBLY be banned Qualifier
  63. 63. Two More terms: We should consider whether cellphones should be banned. Qualifier
  64. 64. OK, your turn: Warrant Backing Grounds Reason Claim Rebuttal Qualifier
  65. 65. OK, your turn: Warrant Backing Grounds Reason Claim Rebuttal Qualifier All students should be required to take AP Language in order to graduate.

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