Logos -toulmin

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Logos -toulmin

  1. 1. What we talkabout when we talk aboutArgument
  2. 2. Let’s start with an enthymeme
  3. 3. Women should be allowed to fight in UScombat units
  4. 4. Because...1) They arephysically capable.2) Their presencewould weakengender stereotypes.3) This wouldexpand theopportunities forwomen in themilitary.
  5. 5. Because...1) They arephysically capable.What is the impliedassumption?
  6. 6. Because...2) Their presencewould weakengender stereotypes.What is the impliedassumption?
  7. 7. Because...3)This wouldexpand theopportunities forwomen in themilitary.What is the impliedassumption?
  8. 8. Stephen Toulmin
  9. 9. Terms: Claim Reason WarrantUsed to be called “implied assumption”
  10. 10. Example:I shouldn’t have to take Algebra Claimbecause I want to be a lawyer Reasoncareer utility should be the mainjustification for class Warrantrequirements
  11. 11. Your Turn:You should have to take algebra... Claim ?????? Reason ?????? Warrant
  12. 12. An Argument: Claim Cheerleading should be banned Reason ...because it depicts girls as sex objects
  13. 13. An Argument: Claim Cheerleading should be banned Reason ...because it depicts girls as sex objects Grounds •description of the uniform •video of suggestive cheerleading •Bring it On •MTV videos using cheerleading •professors of Media Studies quotes on cheerleading
  14. 14. So Far:Cheerleading should be banned Claim Reasonbecause it depicts girls as sexobjects????? Warrant
  15. 15. So Far:Cheerleading should be banned Claim Reasonbecause it depicts girls as sexobjectsIt is harmful for girls/society todepict girls as sex objects Warrant
  16. 16. So Far:Cheerleading should be banned Claim Reasonbecause it depicts girls as sexobjects Arguments that show howBacking having girls as sex objects are detrimental to their health and to society’s
  17. 17. So Far:Cheerleading should be banned Claim Reasonbecause it depicts girls as sexobjectsBacking It is harmful for girls/society to depict girls as sex objects Relevant evidence of loss of self-esteem, tendency towards teen pregnancy, and a society that does not respect the intellectual capabilities of women.
  18. 18. Almost Done
  19. 19. Two More terms: Rebuttal Qualifier
  20. 20. Two More terms: Rebuttal The opposing argument against your claim
  21. 21. Two More terms: Rebuttal Cheerleading should not be banned because it increases girls’ self- esteem
  22. 22. Two More terms: The degree to which you are confident in your claim. Qualifier
  23. 23. Two More terms: Cheerleading should DEFINITELY be banned Qualifier
  24. 24. Two More terms: We should consider whether Cheerleading should be banned or discouraged. Qualifier
  25. 25. Two More terms: Cheerleading should POSSIBLY be banned Qualifier
  26. 26. OK, your turn: Claim Grounds Reason Backing Warrant Rebuttal Qualifier
  27. 27. OK, your turn:Allstudents Claim Groundsshould berequired Reason Backingto take APLanguagein order to Warrant Rebuttalgraduate. Qualifier

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