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Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
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Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
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Module 5   security
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Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
Module 5   security
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Module 5 security

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  • The configuration of the DHCP network can be explained from the book-refer the same topic
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    • 1. Operating System Reference Guide Module 5- Security
    • 2. Module 5 Security <ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data Security is the process of ensuring that data is safe and is free from corruption. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ideally, three common methods are used to prevent data – accounts, group and permission </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical security of data </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Providing permissions to groups </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Permissions that defines the data </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 3. Lesson 1 - Understanding Networking in Windows <ul><ul><ul><li>Topics covered are </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data security </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Authentication technologies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PC security </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless security </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other security issues </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 4. Topic 1 – Data Security <ul><ul><ul><li>Accounts, Groups and permissions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data security ensures that data is safe from corruption and access to that data is under control. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is not enough to have good firewall, but data security should ensure privacy, which helps in protecting personal data. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Having a firewall will protect the system from other system accessing it </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accounts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We need valid accounts to access Windows 2000/XP system. If the account is not valid, the user cannot use the system. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 5. Topic 1 – Data Security <ul><ul><ul><li>Groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A group defines a collection of accounts that share the same access possibilities </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creating a group makes the job easy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The user can assign a particular level of access for a file to a group </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Otherwise the users need to give permission to individual users separately </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 6. Topic 1 – Data Security <ul><ul><ul><li>Permissions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Permission defines the level of accessibility of a particular account can or cannot do to the file </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example: you can let a person to edit a file but not delete it </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can let a person to create a folder and not permit other people to make subfolders </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 7. Topic 1 – Data Security <ul><ul><ul><li>Local security policy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A local user or group is an account that can be granted permissions and rights from your computer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local Users and Groups is an important security feature because you can limit the ability of users and groups to perform certain actions by assigning them rights and permissions. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A security policy is a combination of security settings that affect the security on a computer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By using a security policy you can control unauthorized access to the computer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of the resources shared on the computer and the recording of the group/non-group’s actions displayed by the event log. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 8. Topic 1 – Data Security <ul><ul><ul><li>Encryption </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In cryptography encryption is a process where we make a document unreadable without the proper knowledge or key to read it </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is at times referred as scrambling </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft calls the encryption utility in NTFS as EFS that is Encrypting Files System </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 9. Topic 1 – Data Security <ul><ul><ul><li>Data remnant removal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Removing all usable data from media typically hard drive or any media is called as Data Remnant Removal. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data can be on any magnetic or optical devices </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As data or Hardware ages, we can bring policies to remove the data from the present storage and move it on to the new media </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Another way is to physically write down the information of the media & contents of it </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This process of removing the user data is known as Data Remnant Removal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 10. Topic 1 – Data Security <ul><ul><li>Audit and event logging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Audit is the process that tracks the activities of users by recording selected types of events in the security log of a server or a workstation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Before auditing is implemented the auditing policy must be selected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An auditing policy specifies categories of security-related events that you want to audit </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 11. Topic 1 – Data Security <ul><ul><ul><li>Password Management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A password is used to control access to resource. The password should be kept secret from those not allowed access </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passwords are used in many fields. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To protect computer operating systems, mobile phones cable TV decoders, automated teller machines (ATM) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 12. Topic 1 – Data Security <ul><ul><ul><li>Protecting the password </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create a password, which is easy to remember but hard to guess by others. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The account lockout policy can be enabled to lock the computer when an incorrect password is typed for 3 times </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Include punctuation marks or symbols. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not use blank space. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Change password once every 6 months. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use upper and lower case characters. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not write down the password. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 13. Topic 2 – Authentication Technologies <ul><ul><li>Smart Card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike magnetic stripe cards, smart cards can carry all essential functions and information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smart card resembles a credit-card in shape and size </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The small microprocessor embedded inside is used for security </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When this smart card is interfaced with the computer using a card reader, the computer reads the information </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 14. Topic 2 – Authentication Technologies <ul><ul><li>Smart card Readers Terminals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smart Card Reader is a unit that interfaces with a PC. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Terminal is a self-contained processing device </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smart card reader can be connected through RS232 serial ports, USB ports, PCMCIA etc </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 15. Topic 2 – Authentication Technologies <ul><ul><li>Types of smart cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There are three types of smart cards available , they are </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Circuit Microprocessor Card </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Circuit Memory Cards </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Optical Memory Cards </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 16. Topic 2 – Authentication Technologies <ul><ul><li>Biometric Devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biometric devices can be used as input to a computer. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A biometric device like a fingerprint scanner can be used for additional level of security </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biometric devices can also be programmed to verify a person’s identity based on the facial features, voice or even handwriting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some of the biometric devices are </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finger prints </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Face Recognition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speaker Recognition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iris Recognition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 17. Topic 2 – Authentication Technologies <ul><li>Key Fobs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A key fob is a small hardware device with built-in authentication mechanisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic key fobs are used for remote keyless entry systems on motor vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People started using key fobs in apartment building to access common areas and it is used in automatic sliding doors </li></ul></ul>
    • 18. Topic 3 - Overview of various command line tools for networking <ul><ul><li>NSlookup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The NSlookup utility can be used to identify the origin of a host name resolution error. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When the host name resolution is successful, NSlookup utility displays the hostname and the IP address of the DNS server that is configured on the local computer </li></ul></ul></ul>Fig 1 Fig 2
    • 19. Topic 4 - Overview of Resource Sharing <ul><ul><li>When a large number of computers are connected in a network the resources are shared between the users. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Folder Sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To access a folder present on your computer from a remote location you need to share the folder. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User must set permissions on the shared folders to control the level of access that other people have to the files and the folders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To share a folder user must right click on the folder and click properties </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 20. Topic 3 – PC Security <ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Virus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Malware is a term given to all forms of Computer Software designed specifically to damage or disrupt a computer system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The different kinds of computer Malware are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Virus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trojan Horse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Worm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Virus Hoax </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 21. Topic 3 – PC Security <ul><ul><ul><li>Computer virus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> A virus must </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must able to execute itself </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must be able to replicate itself </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The different kinds of virus are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>File Infectors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boot Sector Infectors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Master Boot Record Infectors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-Partite viruses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Macro viruses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 22. Topic 3 – PC Security <ul><ul><ul><li>Trojan Horse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trojan Horses are impostors. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They are executable files that claim to be something desirable but, in fact, are malicious. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They do not replicate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A Worm is program that can replicate itself from system to system without the use of a host file. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They generally exist another host file </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The entire file will travel from computer to computer, so the entire file should be considered the worm </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 23. Topic 3 – PC Security <ul><ul><ul><li>A Virus hoax is message that almost always is sent by email that amounts to little more than a chain letter. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some of the common phrases used in these virus hoaxes are </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If you receive an email titled [email virus hoax name here], do not open it! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delete it immediately! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It contains the [hoax name] virus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It will delete everything on your hard drive and [extreme and improbable danger specified here] </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This virus was announced today by [reputable organization name here] </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forward this warning to everyone you know! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 24. Topic 3 – PC Security <ul><ul><li>Steps to Prevent Virus are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not open any files attached to an email from an unknown, suspicious or untrustworthy source </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delete chain emails and junk email </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise caution when downloading files from the Internet . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Update your anti-virus software regularly </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 25. Topic 4 – Wireless Security <ul><ul><li>Wireless Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A wireless access point is a device that connects multiple wireless devices to form a network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The other terminal of the access point is connected to a wired device </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hence the access point serves to be a link between the wireless and wired devices </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 26. Topic 4 – Wireless Security <ul><ul><li>Enabling a Static IP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A wireless device automatically assigns IP addresses to the devices that try to connect to the network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using a DHCP on a wireless network can attract a lot of hackers to access your network, because DHCP assigns all the users including the hacker, IP addresses automatically </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hence to provide extra protection, a static IP can be assigned to the devices </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 27. Topic 4 – Wireless Security <ul><ul><li>Disabling a SSID broadcast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By default a wireless network device like a router will broadcast the signal to the rest of the world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Along with the message it also broadcasts the SSID (service set identifier) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The SSID is a sequence of case sensitive alphanumeric characters having a length of 32 letters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The service set identifier is the name of the network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Any unknown network device can get connected to this network using the SSID </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 28. Topic 4 – Wireless Security <ul><ul><li>Change the default SSID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For a wireless device to connect to a wireless network, it needs to know the SSID of the network </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hence it is advisable to change the SSID of a network to a different and trickier one </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MAC address filtering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A user who is identified as a “legitimate user” by the network will create a list of MAC addresses which are allowed to access his network </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If a unknown (an address not in the MAC address list) address to access his network the access will be denied </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 29. Topic 5 – Other Security Issues <ul><ul><ul><li>Other Security Issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BIOS Security </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware Deconstruction and Cycling </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data Migration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 30. Topic 6 - Network Topologies, Network Devices and Network Operating System <ul><ul><ul><li>Bridges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A bridge is a physical unit with two ports which connects the network segments together and filters the amount of traffic on each network </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Bridges
    • 31. Topic 6 - Network Topologies, Network Devices and Network Operating System <ul><ul><ul><li>Switches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Switches allow different nodes (a network connection point) of a network to communicate directly with one another in a smooth and efficient manner. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Switches on receiving the data packets transfers only to the intended recipients preventing the wastage of the network bandwidth and optimizing efficiency </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 32. Topic 6 - Network Topologies, Network Devices and Network Operating System <ul><ul><ul><li>Router </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A router is a device that connects two network interfaces together. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The two networks can be either two LANs or WANs or a LAN and its ISP's network. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A router route the packets to other networks until that packet ultimately reaches its destination </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 33. Topic 6 - Network Topologies, Network Devices and Network Operating System <ul><ul><ul><li>Network Operating Systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network operating system can be defined as an operating system that include special functions for connecting computers and devices into a local area network (LAN). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some of the important Network operating system are UNIX, Mac OS, Novell Network, Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000 Server, Windows Server 2003 </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 34. Topic 7 - Configuring Network Interface Card <ul><ul><ul><li>Network Interface Card (NIC) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is a physical device that connects the computer system to the network wire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To connect to the network you need to install the NIC card on the computer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Every network card has a unique 48-bit serial number called a MAC address, which is written to ROM carried on the card. Every computer on a network must have a card with a unique MAC address </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The manufacturer of the NIC provides the driver software which needs to be installed in order to use the NIC </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 35. Topic 7 - Configuring Network Interface Card <ul><ul><ul><li>To install the NIC from the Add Hardware Wizard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Click Start  Settings  Control Panel . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the Control Panel window, double-click on the Add Hardware icon. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 36. Topic 7 - Configuring Network Interface Card <ul><ul><ul><li>The Add hardware Wizard window is shown below and the NIC is shown below </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 37. Topic 8 - Installing a Network Operating System (Windows Server 2003) <ul><ul><li>Microsoft introduced Windows Server 2003 in four product editions. They are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Server 2003,Standard Edition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Server 2003,Enterprise Edition (32-bit,64-bit versions) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Server 2003,Datacenter Edition (32-bit,64-bit versions) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Server 2003,Web Edition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pre-installation steps before installing an operating system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Installing Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Text based </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GUI based </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 38. Topic 8 - Installing a Network Operating System (Windows Server 2003) <ul><ul><li>Post-Installation Steps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The welcome screen has the Manage Your Server window. This wizard can be closed if not required. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To manually configure the server, open the Manage Your Server applet through the Start menu as shown </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 39. Lesson 2 - Internet Technology <ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There are several internet technologies that are used on the internet. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To access the web pages you need to use a browser which can be configured with several settings. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Additionally, you should be able to protect your computers from intruders using Firewall. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Topics covered in this lesson </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Terminologies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connectivity Technologies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Browser Configurations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Firewall Configuration in Windows XP </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 40. Topic 1 - Internet Terminologies <ul><ul><ul><li>Some of the common internet terminologies used in the modern world are </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISP </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HTML </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HTTP </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SSL </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HTTPS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Telnet </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FTP </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Newsgroups </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 41. Topic 1 - Internet Terminologies <ul><ul><li>ISP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISP( Internet Service Provider) is an organization that provides access to the Internet for a monthly fee. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ISP provides a username, password and an access phone number to get connected to the internet. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 42. Topic 1 - Internet Terminologies <ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic mail (e-mail) is a store and forward method of composing, sending, storing, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some of the popular email programs (or email clients) are Microsoft’s Outlook Express and Netscape’s Messenger. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The different types of servers are </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IMAP (Internet Mail Access Protocol) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 43. Topic 1 - Internet Terminologies <ul><ul><li>HTML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is a markup language for the creation of web pages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The HTML documents consists of HTML elements defined using HTML tags </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is the protocol that is used on the World Wide Web </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It defines how messages are formatted and transmitted, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HTTP is called a stateless protocol because each command is executed independently </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 44. Topic 1 - Internet Terminologies <ul><ul><li>SSL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a protocol developed by Netscape for transmitting private documents via the Internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The encryption technology used by SSL provides data encryption, server authentication, message integrity, and client authentication for any TCP/IP connection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HTTPS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HTTPS (Secure Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) (S-HTTP) is another protocol that transmits data securely over the internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is designed to transmit individual messages securely unlike SSL which can transmit any amount of data securely between a client and a server </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 45. Topic 1 - Internet Terminologies <ul><ul><li>Telnet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is used to provide user oriented command line login sessions between hosts on the Internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A telnet session can be started by logging in to the server by entering a valid username and password </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The telnet port is usually port 23 </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 46. Topic 1 - Internet Terminologies <ul><ul><li>FTP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is used to download a file from a server using the Internet or to upload a file to a server </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To access an FTP site, you must use an FTP client such as WS_FTP and type the URL of the FTP site </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newsgroups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To access a newsgroup, you must use a newsreader program </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft’s Outlook Express is the most common of all newsreaders as it comes free with most versions of Windows </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Else the ISP gives the name of the news server and also a username and password if necessary </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 47. Topic 2 - Connectivity Technologies <ul><ul><ul><li>Internet can be accessed by a variety of methods including telephone, cable, satellite and wireless. Depending on the usage, location and the expenditure a user will have to choose from the following forms of internet given below </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dial-up Networking </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DSL networking </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISDN networking </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cable </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LAN </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 48. Topic 2 - Connectivity Technologies <ul><ul><li>Dial-up Networking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Dial-up connection can be categorized into two types, analog and digital connection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An analog connection requires a telephone line and modem </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 49. Topic 2 - Connectivity Technologies <ul><ul><li>DSL networking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use a standard telephone line but special equipment on each end to create an all the time internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common forms of DSL Asynchronous and Synchronous (ADSL) and (SDSL) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 50. Topic 2 - Connectivity Technologies <ul><ul><li>ISDN networking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Services Digital Network ( ISDN ) is a circuit switched telephone network system, designed to allow digital transmission of voice and data over ordinary telephone copper wires </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 51. Topic 2 - Connectivity Technologies <ul><ul><li>Cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When a cable company offers Internet access over the cable the downstream data is sent into a 6-MHz channel. Upstream data uses a channel of 2 MHz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two types of equipment used in cable internet are cable modem on the customer end and a cable modem termination system (CMTS) at the cable provider's end. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 52. Topic 2 - Connectivity Technologies <ul><ul><li>Satellite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite Internet services are used in locations where terrestrial Internet access is not available </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The connection to high speed satellite Internet service is comprised of both indoor and outdoor equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outside, there is an antenna and transmit-and-receive electronics, along with a connection to a small, dish. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This equipment connects by coaxial cable to the Indoor Receive Unit (IRU) and Indoor Transmit Unit (ITU) which connect to your computer through a simple USB connector </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 53. Topic 2 - Connectivity Technologies <ul><ul><ul><li>The satellite internet mechanism and a reception antenna is shown in the figure below </li></ul></ul></ul>Satellite Internet mechanism Satellite Internet Dish
    • 54. Topic 2 - Connectivity Technologies <ul><ul><li>Wireless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The wireless Internet means that you must connect to a LAN that is wired to an ISP </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 55. Topic 2 - Connectivity Technologies <ul><ul><li>LAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A local area network (LAN) is a group of computers and associated devices that share a common communications line or wireless link. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ethernet is by far the most commonly used LAN technology ) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 56. Topic 3 - Browser Configurations <ul><ul><li>There are several configurations that can be set on a web browser. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The most commonly used web browser is the Microsoft Internet Explorer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The settings on this web browser in the Internet Explorer Options present in the Control Panel applet or by clicking the Tools menu The settings on the internet explorer are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proxy Server </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Security and Scripts </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 57. Topic 3 - Browser Configurations <ul><ul><li>Proxy Server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A proxy server is a computer that allows clients to make indirect network connections to other network services </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hence the client computers are configured with the IP address of the server which is directly connected to the network server providing the service </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 58. Topic 4 - Firewall Configuration in Windows XP <ul><ul><li>Firewall is a type of security mechanism that acts as a barrier to check the data (often called traffic) coming to the computer from other computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are two kinds of firewalls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware Firewall </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software Firewall </li></ul></ul></ul>Firewall
    • 59. Conclusion <ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A network is a set of computers or hardware devices connected together physically or logically </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A network protocol is a software that provides a set of rules for communicating between computers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The computers in a windows network communicate with each other using their IP address. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In Microsoft Windows network, a device can be configured with a static or a dynamic IP Address </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IPX/SPX (NWLink) is the Microsoft implementation of IPX/SPX </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AppleTalk is the proprietary Apple protocol which is small and relatively fast like IPX </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 60. Conclusion <ul><ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Windows operating system provide several command line tools that can be used for troubleshooting any TCP/IP related issues. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The various kinds of resources such as files, folders, entire drives, printers, faxes, Internet connections, etc can be shared on a Windows operating system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There are several terminologies used in the internet. These include, ISP, SSL, Email, HTTP, HTML, FTP, Telnet, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISP or Internet Service Provider is an organization that provides access to the Internet for a monthly fee. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 61. Conclusion <ul><ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is the protocol, which defines how messages are formatted and transmitted </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SSL or Secure Sockets Layer provides secure transmission of data between web browsers and web servers. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HTTPS or Secure Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (S-HTTP) is another protocol that transmits data securely over the internet. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Telnet is a terminal emulation program for TCP/IP networks such as the Internet. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP Professional operating system has a built-in firewall called Internet Connection Firewall (ICF). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>

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