Steam turbine Working
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Steam turbine Working

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In this i have describe a little about steam turbine

In this i have describe a little about steam turbine

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    Steam turbine Working Steam turbine Working Presentation Transcript

    • Steam turbine
    • summary What is the turbine? What is the principle of steam turbine? Types of steam turbine. Component of steam turbine. Problems in steam turbine.
    • What exactly is the turbine?Turbine is an enginethat converts energy offluid into mechanicalenergyThe steam turbine issteam driven rotaryengine.
    • Principle of steam turbine: The steam energy is converted mechanical work by expansion through the turbine. Expansion takes place through a series of fixed blades(nozzles) and moving blades. In each row fixed blade and moving blade are called stage.
    • Steam turbine:Steam Turbine System:• Widely used in CHP(combined heat and power) applications.• Oldest prime mover technology• Capacities: 50 kW to hundreds of MWs• Thermodynamic cycle is the “Rankin cycle” that uses a boiler• Most common types • Back pressure steam turbine • Extraction condensing steam turbine 5
    • Steam turbine: Back Pressure Steam Turbine • Steam exits the turbine at a higher pressure that the atmospheric HP Steam Advantages: -Simple configuration -Low capital cost Boiler Turbine -Low need of cooling water -High total efficiencyFuel Disadvantages: Condensate LP Process Steam -Larger steam turbine Figure: Back pressure steam turbine 6
    • Steam turbine: Extraction Condensing Steam Turbine HP Steam• Steam obtained by extraction from an Boiler Turbine intermediate stage Fuel• Remaining steam is Condensate LP Steam Process exhausted• Relatively high capital cost, lower Condenser total efficiency Figure: Extraction condensing steam turbine 7
    • steam turbine and blades
    • Types of steam turbine: There are two main types1. Impulse steam turbine2. Reaction steam turbine
    • Impulse steam turbine: The basic idea of an impulse turbine is that a jet of steam from a fixed nozzle pushes against the rotor blades and impels them forward. The velocity of steam is twice as fast as the velocity of blade. Pressure drops take place in the fixed blade (nozzle).
    • The single stage impulse turbine: The turbine consists of a single rotor to which impulse blades are attached. The steam is fed through one or several convergent nozzles. If high velocity of steam is allowed to flow through one row of moving blades. It produces a rotor speed of about 30000 rpm which is too high for practical use.
    • Velocity diagram:
    • Cross section view:
    • Component of impulse steam turbine: Main components are1. Casing2. Rotor3. Blades4. Stop and control valve5. Oil befell, steam befell6. governor7. Bearing(general and thrust bearing)8. Gear box(epicyclic gear box)9. Oil pumps
    • Construction of steam turbines1 – steam pipeline 9 – rotor disc 21 – bearing pedestal2 – inlet control valve 10 – rotor 22 – safety governor3 – nozzle chamber 11 – journal bearing 23 – main oil pump4 – nozzle-box 13 – thrust bearing 24 – centrifugal governor5 – outlet 14 – generator rotor 25 – turning gear6 – stator 15 – coupling 29 – control stage impulse blading7 – blade carrier 16 – labyrinth packing8 – casing 19 – steam bleeding (extraction)
    • Reaction steam turbine: A reaction turbine utilizes a jet of steam that flows from a nozzle on the rotor. Actually, the steam is directed into the moving blades by fixed blades designed to expand the steam. The result is a small increase in velocity over that of the moving blades.
    • Schematic diagram:
    • Problems in steam turbine: Stress corrosion carking Corrosion fatigue Pitting Oil lubrication imbalance of the rotor can lead to vibration misalignment Thermal fatigue
    • BLADE FAILURES: Unknown 26% Stress-Corrosion Cracking 22% High-Cycle Fatigue 20% Corrosion-Fatigue Cracking 7% Temperature Creep Rupture 6% Low-Cycle Fatigue 5% Corrosion 4% Other causes 10%
    • Corrosion: Resultant damage: Extensive pitting of airfoils, shrouds, covers, blade root surfaces. Causes of failure: Chemical attack from corrosive elements in the steam provided to the turbine.
    • Creep: Resultant damage: Airfoils, shrouds, covers permanently deformed. Causes of failure: Deformed parts subjected to steam temperatures in excess of design limits.
    • Fatigue: Resultant damage: Cracks in airfoils, shrouds, covers, blade roots. Causes of failure: Loosing of parts (cover, tie wire, etc.) Exceeded part fatigue life design limit
    • Stress Corrosion Cracking: Resultant damage: Cracks in highly stressed areas of the blading. Causes of failure: caused by the combined presence of corrosive elements and high stresses in highly loaded locations.
    • Thank you