The National Center on Response to Intervention and Implementation Science: Building Capacity for Equity and Excellence for All Students

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  • Many people, not just in the field of education agree with this statement. Many of us have triedto realize ideas and introduce new methods, but after a while we have been forced to admit thatthings didn’t turn out as we had originally intended and planned.


  • 1. The National Center on Response to Intervention and Implementation Science
    “Building Capacity for Equity and Excellence for All Students”
    Tessie Rose, PhD
  • 2. Agenda
    • What is Response to Intervention (RTI)?
    • 3. What is the National Center on Response to Intervention (NCRTI)?
    • 4. Implementation Science
    • 5. Implementation Drivers
    • 6. Stages of Implementation
    • 7. Capacity Building
  • What is Response to Intervention?
    • An instructional framework aimed at improving the skills of ALL students
    • 8. RTI is “preventative” and provides immediate support to students who are at risk for academic failure
    • 9. Two primary goals:
    • 10. prevent future academic problems
    • 11. assist in identifying students with SLD
  • Continuum of School-wide Support
    Tertiary Intervention (~5%)
    Specialized Individualized
    Systems for Students with Intensive Needs
    Secondary Intervention (~15%)
    Specialized Group
    Systems for Students with
    At Risk Performance
    Primary Intervention (~80%)
    Systems for All Students,
    Staff and Settings
    ~80% of Students
    Adapted from”What is School-Wide PBS?”
  • 12. Essential Features of RTI
    • Core Curriculum
    • 13. Universal Screening
    • 14. Tiered-Interventions
    • 15. Progress Monitoring
    • 16. Data-Based Decision Making
    • 17. Learning Disability Determination
  • 1. Core Curriculum
    • Research-based curriculum delivered to all students
    • 18. Differentiated curriculum with evidence-based instructional methods
    • 19. High-quality instruction in the general education classroom setting
    • 20. Delivered with fidelity
    ~80% of Students
  • 21. 2. Universal Screening
    • PURPOSE: Identify students who are at risk of academic failure
    • 22. Conducted with all or targeted groups of students
    • 23. Administered more than 1x per year
    • 24. Fall, Winter, Spring
    • 25. Involves brief assessments that are valid, reliable, and evidence-based
  • NCRTI Screening Tools Chart
  • 26. 3. Tiered-Interventions
    • 3+ levels of increasingly intense scientific, research-based interventions
    • 27. Intensity addressed through duration, frequency and time of interventions, group size, and instructor skill level
    • 28. Individual problem solving model or standardized intervention protocol for intervention levels
    • 29. Delivered with fidelity
    ~80% of Students
  • 30. 4. Progress Monitoring
    • Repeated measurement of academic performance
    • 31. Conducted at least monthly to
    • 32. estimate rates of improvement,
    • 33. students who are not demonstrating adequate progress and/or
    • 34. compare the efficacy of different forms of instruction to design more effective, individualized instruction.
    • 35. Technically adequate measures administered with fidelity (accurate data)
  • 36. Progress Monitoring Tools Chart
  • 37. 5. Data-Based Decision making
    • Conducted at all levels of implementation (e.g., district, school, grade/content)
    • 38. Explicit decision rules for assessing learners’ progress (e.g., level and/or rate)
    • 39. Based on evidence based criteria
    • 40. Follows established routines and procedures
  • 6. Learning Disability Determination
    • Component of a comprehensive evaluation
    • 41. Consensus that dual discrepancy is the best way to operationalize “responsiveness/non-responsiveness”.
    • 42. Significantly below grade level peers
    • 43. Inadequate rate or growth of performance
  • What does RTI look like?Who decides?
    • USDOE does not endorse a specific RTI model/ framework
    • 44. National Center on RTI promotes essential components
    • 45. Washington provides guidance for LEAs Using Response to Intervention (RTI) for Washington’s Students (2006)
    • 46. Some LEAs are implementing RTI ahead of their SEA
  • The national center on response to intervention
  • 47. About NCRTI
    • 5-year Technical Assistance Center
    • 48. Funded through a cooperative agreement to American Institutes for Research from OSEP
    • 49. Part of OSEP’s National Technical Assistance and Dissemination Network
  • RTI Center Partners
    • American Institutes for Research
    • 50. Maurice McInerney and Nancy Safer, Co-Principal Investigators
    • 51. Maurice McInerney and Darren Woodruff, Co-Project Directors
    • 52. Amy Elledge, Deputy Project Director
    • 53. Vanderbilt University Researchers
    • 54. Lynn Fuchs, Doug Fuchs
    • 55. University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning
    • 56. Don Deshler, Daryl Mellard
  • Center Definition of RTI
    Response to intervention integrates student assessmentand intervention within a multi-level prevention system to maximize student achievement and reduce behavior issues. With RTI, schools identify students at risk for poor learning outcomes, monitor their progress, provide evidence-based interventions and adjust the intensity and nature of those interventions based on a student’s responsiveness, and identify students with learning disabilities or other disabilities
  • 57. Our Mission
    To build state capacity and support for implementing RTI in local districts and schools by serving as a central source of knowledge, expertise, and research-based information for educators, administrators, and parents.
  • 58. Achieving the Mission…
    • Strategy 1 – identify and evaluate RTI components for identifying and serving students with or at risk for a learning disability identification
    • 59. Strategy 2 – provide ongoing technical assistance to states and to support the implementation of RTI in classrooms, schools, and local districts nationally
    • 60. Strategy 3 – disseminate information about proven and promising RTI models to interested stakeholders across the country
  • Strategic Activities
    • Knowledge Production
    • 61. Technical Assistance Support
    • 62. Information Dissemination
  • Strategy 1:Knowledge Production
    • Technical Review Committees (TRCs):
    • 63. Identify tools and interventions that are grounded in a rigorous scientific evidence base
    • 64. Three TRCs
    (2) Progress Monitoring
    (3) Tiered Instruction
    Winter 2009
  • 65. Strategy 1: Knowledge Production
    • RTI Workgroups
    • 66. SEA Implementation
    • 67. ELL and RTI
    • 68. Disproportionality
    • 69. Learning Disability Identification
    • 70. Secondary RTI (High and Middle School)
    • 71. State Performance Plan (SPP) Analyses
    • 72. Focusing on Indicators 9 & 10
  • Strategy 2: Technical Assistance Support
    • In person
    • 73. Direct Technical Assistance
    • 74. At a distance
    • 75. TA Resource Development
    • 76. Sharing Communities and Webinars
    • 77. Training Modules
  • Strategy 2: Technical Assistance Support
    • Available to all SEAs at varying levels of intensity
    • 78. May include a variety of support activities, such as but not limited to:
    • 79. Development of state resources (e.g., guidance documents, readiness checklists)
    • 80. Training and coaching
    • 81. Development of implementation plans
  • Strategy 3: Information Dissemination
    • Sharing information through a variety of methods
    • 82. The NCRTI website –
    • 83. Monthly newsletters – the RTI Responder
    • 84. Email blasts about new resources or products
    • 85. Q&A through email inbox and toll-free number
  • 86.
  • 87. NCRTI State Database
    Database contains RTI information and resources from states, such as:
  • Monthly Webinars and Podcasts
  • 94. Training Modules
  • 95. Implementation Science
  • 96. “To implement – is easier said than done.”
  • 97. What is Implementation?
    Greenhalgh et al. (2005)
    • active and planned efforts to mainstream an innovation
    Other definitions of the verb “to implement” are:
    • introduce and put new ideas into use,
    • 98. establish and use a method in practice,
    • 99. realize, apply or put plans, ideas, models, norms or policies into operation.
    Greenhalgh T, Robert G, Bate P, Macfarlane F, & Kyriakidou O. (2005) Diffusion of innovations in health service organisations. A systematic literature review. Oxford: BMJ Books, Blackwell Publishing.
    See Guldbrandsson, 2008
  • 100. What is Implementation?
    Fixsenet al. (2005)
    • a specified set of activities designed to put into practice an activity or program of known dimensions
    Fixsen DL, Naoom SF, Blase KA, Friedman RM, Wallace F. (2005). Implementation research: A synthesis of the literature. Tampa, Florida: University of South Florida, Louise de la Parte. Florida Mental Health Institute, The National Implementation Research Network.
  • 101. Implementation
    Two Sets of Activities
    Two Sets of Outcomes
    Intervention Activities
    Intervention Outcomes
    Implementation Activities
    Implementation Outcomes
  • 102. Why is implementation important?
    As cited in Fixsen, 2008 (Institute of Medicine, 2000; 2001; New Freedom Commission of Mental Health, 2003; National Commission of Excellence in Education, 1983; Department of Health and Human Services, 1999)
  • 103. Evidence: What Doesn’t Work?
    Most Common Approaches Used to Support Implementation!
    Dissemination alone
    Training/ professional development alone
    Laws and policies alone
    Special funding alone
    (see Ager & O´May, 2001; National Implementation Research Network, n.d.; Paul Nutt, 2002; Rogers, Wellins, & Conner, 2002).
  • 104. Evidence: What Works?
    Combination of several implementation measures leads to better results
    e.g., distributing guidelines for innovations, offering education, practical training, coaching, feedback and consultation.
    Quality of support is more important than quantity
    (See Guldbrandsson, 2008)
  • 105. Implementation Support
    Making it Happen
    Effective Implementation
    Benefits to Consumers
    Helping it Happen
    Letting it Happen
    (Greenhalgh et al., 2005)
  • 106. Common Perceived Barriers
    • Scheduling (time)
    • 107. State/district/school policies
    • 108. Staff attitudes/lack of knowledge
    • 109. Funding
    • 110. “The system”
    Is this really true? Can these things really not be changed?
  • 111. Evidence: What Doesn’t Work?
    Attempt to fit innovation into existing service delivery system
    Rarely fully implemented in a reasonable time
    Often viewed as incompatible
    Eventually disappears
    Innovation: Component #1
    Innovation: Component #2
    Service Delivery System
    Innovation: Component #3
    Innovation: Component #4
    Innovation: Component #5
  • 112. Example: What Doesn’t Work?
    Core Curriculum
    Universal Screening
    Service Delivery System
    Tiered Interventions (some)
    Progress Monitoring
    Data Based Decision Making
  • 113. Evidence: What Works?
    Evaluate current infrastructure and identify and address potential barriers to implementation
    Structure technical assistance and service delivery system to support innovation
    Service Delivery System Changed to Fit Innovation
    Innovation: Component #1
    Innovation: Component #2
    Innovation: Component #3
    Innovation: Component #4
    Innovation: Component #5
  • 114. Example: What Works?
    Service Delivery System
    • Changes in PD
    • 115. Schedule in teaming time
    • 116. Establish assessment/ intervention times in schedule
    • 117. Restructure priorities
    Core Curriculum
    Universal Screening
    Tiered Interventions
    Progress Monitoring
    Data Based Decision Making
  • 118. Supporting Implementation
    • Identify potential barriers prior to implementation
    • 119. Prepare for potential barriers
    • 120. Build capacity of implementation teams to identify and address issues immediately
    The biggest mistake is to ignore or hope they will resolve themselves.
  • 121. Something to Think About: Implementation Matters
    (Fixsen, 2008)
  • 122. Things to Remember
    • 75 - 85% of LEA/SEA policies support innovations
    • 123. Remaining need to be changed
    • 124. Benefit will be seen when 60% are in full implementation
    • 125. Things don’t always work at first
    • 126. Keep the entire system in mind – even if you are only responsible for training in one area
  • System Alignment
    Local Education Agencies
    TA /PD System
    Teachers/ Staff
    Effective Practices
    (Fixsen, 2008)
  • 127. What are Implementation Drivers?
    • Methods to develop, improve, and sustain competent use of innovations
    • 128. Methods to create and sustain effective organizational and systems environments for effective services
    (National Implementation Research Network)
  • 129. Implementation Drivers
    • Staff Selection
    • 130. Preservice and Inservice Training
    • 131. Consultation and Coaching
    • 132. Staff and Program Evaluation
    • 133. Program Evaluation
    • 134. Facilitative Administrative Support
    • 135. Systems Interventions
    Developing Competency
    Creating Supportive Systems and Environments
    (National Implementation Research Network)
  • 136. Implementation Components or Drivers
    National Implementation Research Network
  • 137. National Implementation Research Network
  • 138. Driver 1: Staff Recruitment & Selection
    Selection may be a key ingredient of implementation at every level:
    • selection of practitioners,
    • 139. selection of organization staff (trainers, coaches, evaluators, administrators), and
    • 140. selection of staff for purveyor groups.
    National Implementation Research Network
  • 141. Sample Staff Selection Questions
    • Who is qualified to carry out the evidence-based practice or program that a program wants to implement?
    • 142. Beyond academic qualifications or experience factors, what practitioner characteristics are essential for carrying out the evidence-based practice “on the ground?” What characteristics or abilities will not or cannot be addressed through training and coaching?
    • 143. Do organizational staff members have a comprehensive understanding of the practices being implemented?
    • 144. Are organizational staff members prepared to support practitioners in carrying out the evidence-based practices that are slated to be implemented?
    (National Implementation Research Network)
  • 145.
  • 146. Driver 2: Pre-service or in-service training
    • Training appears to be a core implementation component for practitioners, agency staff, and purveyor staff.
    • 147. Includes activities related to providing
    • 148. Specialized information
    • 149. Instruction
    • 150. Skill development
    • 151. Most skills can be introduced in training but really are learned on the job with the help of a consultant/coach (Driver 3)
  • Research indicates that effective training involves:
    • Providing practitioners with the background information, theory, philosophy, and values of the new program or practice
    • 152. Introducing and demonstrating the components and rationales of key practices;
    • 153. Providing opportunities to practice specific skills related to the new way of work and receive feedback in a safe training environment
    • 154. Providing staff with opportunities for quality interaction
  • 155. Driver 3: Consultation and Coaching
    Coaching and mentoring include activities for either individuals or groups, on-the-job observation, instruction, modeling, feedback, or debriefing of practitioners and other key staff in the program.
    • Avoid “train and hope”
    • 156. Ensure coaching and mentoring are included as part of the training process
    • 157. GOAL: Behavior change
  • 158. Driver 4: Staff Evaluation
    • Assesses use and outcome of essential skills
    • 159. Component of overall program evaluation (Driver 5)
    • 160. OUTCOMES:
    • 161. Assess progress of implementation efforts for building staff competency
    • 162. Assess usefulness of training and coaching
  • 163. Driver 5: Program Evaluation
    • Ensure data system supports decision making
    • 164. Assess key aspects of overall performance
    • 165. Numerous Uses
    • 166. Improve quality professional development, training, and coaching
    • 167. Assess fidelity of implementation of intervention
    • 168. Allocate resources based on identified needs
    • 169. Identify and address innovations or barriers to implementation
    • 170. Assess cost efficiency
  • 171. Driver 6: Facilitative Administrative Supports
    • Proactive, vigorous and enthusiastic attention by the administration to…
    • 172. Reduce implementation barriers
    • 173. Create an administratively hospitable environment for practitioners.
    • 174. Facilitative administration includes…
    • 175. Internal policy analyses and decisions
    • 176. Procedural changes
    • 177. Funding allocations
    • 178. Culture focused on what it takes to implement with fidelity
  • National Implementation Research Network
  • 179. National Implementation Research Network
  • 180. Integrated and Compensatory
    • Behavior change must occur among professionals AND within the system
    • 181. An infrastructure (e.g., implementation drivers) is needed to support and sustain such changes
    • 182. These implementation components (drivers) must be integrated and can be compensatory
    • 183. internal consistency among selection variables, skills training, coaching, staff evaluation, etc.
  • Implementation Drivers: In a Nut Shell
    Staff Competency
    Improved Outcomes
    Integrated and Compensatory
  • 184. Stages of Implementation
    2-4 Years
  • 190. Stage 1: Exploration and Adoption
    • Assess match between innovation and needs
    • 191. Common components
    • 192. identify the need considering the information available
    • 193. acquire information via interactions with one another
    • 194. assess fit between the intervention and needs
    • 195. prepare the organization, staff, and resources by mobilizing information and support (e.g., social marketing)
    • 196. Concludes with decision to move toward implementation
    National Implementation Research Network
  • 197. Stage 2: Program Installation
    • Active preparation prior to implementation
    • 198. Acquiring Required Resources and Materials
    • 199. Staff Selection
    • 200. Structural Supports (e.g., policies, funding
    • 201. Includes all start-up costs
    National Implementation Research Network
  • 202. Stage 3: Initial Implementation
    • Initial attempt to implement the innovation (e.g., smaller scale, pilots)
    • 203. Opportunity to re-assess potential barriers and identify additional needs (e.g., training, coaching) for full implementation
    • 204. WARNING: Implementation could end here unintentionally!
    National Implementation Research Network
  • 205. Stage 4: Full Implementation
    • Considered “business as usual” or “accepted practice”
    • 206. Occurs when 60% of those who would benefit have full and effective access
    • 207. Not just those who want the intervention
    • 208. NOTE: Evaluation of student outcomes can only begin once full implementation is reached.
    National Implementation Research Network
  • 209. Stage 5: Innovation
    • Occurs only after innovation has been implemented with fidelity
    • 210. Opportunity to refine and expand both the innovation and the implementation practices and programs
    National Implementation Research Network
  • 211. Stage 6: Sustainability
    • 212. Long-term survival of innovation
    • 213. Continued effectiveness within changing world
    National Implementation Research Network
  • 214. Stages of Implementation: In a Nut Shell
  • NCRTI Capacity Building
    According to Fullan (2001), “effective approaches to managing change call for combining and balancing factors that do not apparently go together--(such as) fidelity and adaptivity. More than anything else, effective strategies require an understanding of the process (of change), a way of thinking that cannot be captured in any list of steps to be followed” (p. 71).
  • 220. NCRTI Capacity Building Domains
  • Vision
    Identify the state’s vision for RTI. The dialogue includes discussions about (a) state’s goal for RTI, (b) roles and responsibilities for different agencies in meeting the goal, and (c) timeline for implementing its RTI initiative on a multi-district or statewide level.
    Develop overall vision and goals/objectives for RTI implementation
    Develop vision for initial implementation
    Develop vision for full implementation
    Develop procedures for revising and communicating vision
  • 225. Leadership
    Establish RTI leadership or implementation teams. The dialogue includes discussions about membership, roles and responsibilities, and implementation plans.
    Identify members, establish roles and responsibilities and establish administrative procedures
    Identify potential barriers and ensure infrastructures are in place
    Develop and implement plan (s) (PD, evaluation, ect.) for initial implementation
    Develop and implement plan (s) for full implementation
  • 226. Needs Assessment
    Conduct ongoing needs assessment (data collection). The dialogue includes discussions about assessing needs of the infrastructure, data system, students and teachers, and other key stakeholders.
    Assess SEA/LEA need for RTI
    Assess infrastructure
    Conduct ongoing needs assessment for initial implementation
    Conduct ongoing needs assessment for full implementation
  • 227. Outreach and Training
    Provide outreach and training. The dialogue includes discussions about broad outreach and communication about RTI, recruiting and training coaches, and scheduling and implementing a series of coordinated training events (including workshops and follow-up activities) to support LEAs
    Engage in RTI social marketing activities
    Build competency of leadership and implementation teams
    Implement training and coaching plan for initial implementation
    Implement training and coaching plan for full implementation
  • 228. Evaluation
    Conduct ongoing evaluation. The dialogue includes discussions about how to measure the efficiency with which the is implementing as well as the effectiveness.
    1. Evaluate the need and ability to implement RTI
    2. Evaluate infrastructure and develop comprehensive data system
    3. Evaluate efficacy and efficiency of initial implementation
    4. Evaluate efficacy and efficiency of full implementation and evaluate RTI effectiveness
  • 229. Capacity Building Dialogue Guide
    • PURPOSE: Guide dialogue discussions with LEAs and SEAs
    • 230. OUTCOMES:
    • 231. Identify strengths and weaknesses
    • 232. Develop an action plan
    • 233. Assess progress for implementation of RTI
  • Questions or Comments?
    National Center
    on Response to Intervention