Continuum of School-wide Support Tertiary Intervention (~5%) Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with Intensive Needs ~5% ~15% Secondary Intervention (~15%) Specialized Group Systems for Students with At Risk Performance Primary Intervention (~80%) School-/Classroom-wide Systems for All Students, Staff and Settings ~80% of Students 4 Adapted from”What is School-Wide PBS?”
Center Definition of RTI Response to intervention integrates student assessmentand intervention within a multi-level prevention system to maximize student achievement and reduce behavior issues. With RTI, schools identify students at risk for poor learning outcomes, monitor their progress, provide evidence-based interventions and adjust the intensity and nature of those interventions based on a student’s responsiveness, and identify students with learning disabilities or other disabilities
Our Mission To build state capacity and support for implementing RTI in local districts and schools by serving as a central source of knowledge, expertise, and research-based information for educators, administrators, and parents.
realize, apply or put plans, ideas, models, norms or policies into operation.
Greenhalgh T, Robert G, Bate P, Macfarlane F, & Kyriakidou O. (2005) Diffusion of innovations in health service organisations. A systematic literature review. Oxford: BMJ Books, Blackwell Publishing. See Guldbrandsson, 2008
a specified set of activities designed to put into practice an activity or program of known dimensions
Fixsen DL, Naoom SF, Blase KA, Friedman RM, Wallace F. (2005). Implementation research: A synthesis of the literature. Tampa, Florida: University of South Florida, Louise de la Parte. Florida Mental Health Institute, The National Implementation Research Network.
Implementation Two Sets of Activities Two Sets of Outcomes Intervention Activities Intervention Outcomes Implementation Activities Implementation Outcomes
Why is implementation important? As cited in Fixsen, 2008 (Institute of Medicine, 2000; 2001; New Freedom Commission of Mental Health, 2003; National Commission of Excellence in Education, 1983; Department of Health and Human Services, 1999)
Evidence: What Doesn’t Work? Most Common Approaches Used to Support Implementation! Dissemination alone Training/ professional development alone Laws and policies alone Special funding alone (see Ager & O´May, 2001; National Implementation Research Network, n.d.; Paul Nutt, 2002; Rogers, Wellins, & Conner, 2002).
Evidence: What Works? Combination of several implementation measures leads to better results e.g., distributing guidelines for innovations, offering education, practical training, coaching, feedback and consultation. Quality of support is more important than quantity (See Guldbrandsson, 2008)
Implementation Support Making it Happen Effective Implementation Benefits to Consumers Helping it Happen Letting it Happen (Greenhalgh et al., 2005)
Is this really true? Can these things really not be changed?
Evidence: What Doesn’t Work? Attempt to fit innovation into existing service delivery system OUTCOMES: Rarely fully implemented in a reasonable time Often viewed as incompatible Eventually disappears Innovation: Component #1 Innovation: Component #2 Service Delivery System Innovation: Component #3 Innovation: Component #4 Innovation: Component #5
Example: What Doesn’t Work? Core Curriculum Universal Screening Service Delivery System Tiered Interventions (some) Progress Monitoring Data Based Decision Making
Evidence: What Works? Evaluate current infrastructure and identify and address potential barriers to implementation Structure technical assistance and service delivery system to support innovation Service Delivery System Changed to Fit Innovation Innovation: Component #1 Innovation: Component #2 Innovation: Component #3 Innovation: Component #4 Innovation: Component #5
Who is qualified to carry out the evidence-based practice or program that a program wants to implement?
Beyond academic qualifications or experience factors, what practitioner characteristics are essential for carrying out the evidence-based practice “on the ground?” What characteristics or abilities will not or cannot be addressed through training and coaching?
Do organizational staff members have a comprehensive understanding of the practices being implemented?
Are organizational staff members prepared to support practitioners in carrying out the evidence-based practices that are slated to be implemented?
Most skills can be introduced in training but really are learned on the job with the help of a consultant/coach (Driver 3)
Research indicates that effective training involves:
Providing practitioners with the background information, theory, philosophy, and values of the new program or practice
Introducing and demonstrating the components and rationales of key practices;
Providing opportunities to practice specific skills related to the new way of work and receive feedback in a safe training environment
Providing staff with opportunities for quality interaction
Driver 3: Consultation and Coaching Coaching and mentoring include activities for either individuals or groups, on-the-job observation, instruction, modeling, feedback, or debriefing of practitioners and other key staff in the program.
Avoid “train and hope”
Ensure coaching and mentoring are included as part of the training process
NCRTI Capacity Building According to Fullan (2001), “effective approaches to managing change call for combining and balancing factors that do not apparently go together--(such as) fidelity and adaptivity. More than anything else, effective strategies require an understanding of the process (of change), a way of thinking that cannot be captured in any list of steps to be followed” (p. 71).
Vision Identify the state’s vision for RTI. The dialogue includes discussions about (a) state’s goal for RTI, (b) roles and responsibilities for different agencies in meeting the goal, and (c) timeline for implementing its RTI initiative on a multi-district or statewide level. Develop overall vision and goals/objectives for RTI implementation Develop vision for initial implementation Develop vision for full implementation Develop procedures for revising and communicating vision
Leadership Establish RTI leadership or implementation teams. The dialogue includes discussions about membership, roles and responsibilities, and implementation plans. Identify members, establish roles and responsibilities and establish administrative procedures Identify potential barriers and ensure infrastructures are in place Develop and implement plan (s) (PD, evaluation, ect.) for initial implementation Develop and implement plan (s) for full implementation
Needs Assessment Conduct ongoing needs assessment (data collection). The dialogue includes discussions about assessing needs of the infrastructure, data system, students and teachers, and other key stakeholders. Assess SEA/LEA need for RTI Assess infrastructure Conduct ongoing needs assessment for initial implementation Conduct ongoing needs assessment for full implementation
Outreach and Training Provide outreach and training. The dialogue includes discussions about broad outreach and communication about RTI, recruiting and training coaches, and scheduling and implementing a series of coordinated training events (including workshops and follow-up activities) to support LEAs Engage in RTI social marketing activities Build competency of leadership and implementation teams Implement training and coaching plan for initial implementation Implement training and coaching plan for full implementation
Evaluation Conduct ongoing evaluation. The dialogue includes discussions about how to measure the efficiency with which the is implementing as well as the effectiveness. 1. Evaluate the need and ability to implement RTI 2. Evaluate infrastructure and develop comprehensive data system 3. Evaluate efficacy and efficiency of initial implementation 4. Evaluate efficacy and efficiency of full implementation and evaluate RTI effectiveness