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Many people, not just in the field of education agree with this statement. Many of us have triedto realize ideas and introduce new methods, but after a while we have been forced to admit thatthings didn’t turn out as we had originally intended and planned.
The National Center on Response to Intervention and Implementation Science: Building Capacity for Equity and Excellence for All Students
The National Center on Response to Intervention and Implementation Science<br />“Building Capacity for Equity and Excellence for All Students”<br />Tessie Rose, PhD<br />
Agenda<br /><ul><li>What is Response to Intervention (RTI)?
What is the National Center on Response to Intervention (NCRTI)?
assist in identifying students with SLD</li></li></ul><li>Continuum of School-wide Support<br />Tertiary Intervention (~5%)<br />Specialized Individualized<br />Systems for Students with Intensive Needs<br />~5% <br />~15% <br />Secondary Intervention (~15%)<br />Specialized Group<br />Systems for Students with <br />At Risk Performance<br />Primary Intervention (~80%)<br />School-/Classroom-wide <br />Systems for All Students,<br />Staff and Settings<br />~80% of Students<br />4<br />Adapted from”What is School-Wide PBS?”<br />
Essential Features of RTI<br /><ul><li>Core Curriculum
University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning
Don Deshler, Daryl Mellard</li></li></ul><li>Center Definition of RTI<br />Response to intervention integrates student assessmentand intervention within a multi-level prevention system to maximize student achievement and reduce behavior issues. With RTI, schools identify students at risk for poor learning outcomes, monitor their progress, provide evidence-based interventions and adjust the intensity and nature of those interventions based on a student’s responsiveness, and identify students with learning disabilities or other disabilities <br />
Our Mission<br />To build state capacity and support for implementing RTI in local districts and schools by serving as a central source of knowledge, expertise, and research-based information for educators, administrators, and parents.<br />
Achieving the Mission…<br /><ul><li>Strategy 1 – identify and evaluate RTI components for identifying and serving students with or at risk for a learning disability identification
Strategy 2 – provide ongoing technical assistance to states and to support the implementation of RTI in classrooms, schools, and local districts nationally
Strategy 3 – disseminate information about proven and promising RTI models to interested stakeholders across the country</li></li></ul><li>Strategic Activities<br /><ul><li>Knowledge Production
“To implement – is easier said than done.”<br />
What is Implementation?<br />Greenhalgh et al. (2005)<br /><ul><li>active and planned efforts to mainstream an innovation</li></ul>Other definitions of the verb “to implement” are:<br /><ul><li>introduce and put new ideas into use,
realize, apply or put plans, ideas, models, norms or policies into operation.</li></ul>Greenhalgh T, Robert G, Bate P, Macfarlane F, & Kyriakidou O. (2005) Diffusion of innovations in health service organisations. A systematic literature review. Oxford: BMJ Books, Blackwell Publishing.<br />See Guldbrandsson, 2008<br />
What is Implementation?<br />Fixsenet al. (2005) <br /><ul><li>a specified set of activities designed to put into practice an activity or program of known dimensions </li></ul>Fixsen DL, Naoom SF, Blase KA, Friedman RM, Wallace F. (2005). Implementation research: A synthesis of the literature. Tampa, Florida: University of South Florida, Louise de la Parte. Florida Mental Health Institute, The National Implementation Research Network.<br />
Implementation<br />Two Sets of Activities<br />Two Sets of Outcomes<br />Intervention Activities<br />Intervention Outcomes<br />Implementation Activities<br />Implementation Outcomes<br />
Why is implementation important?<br />As cited in Fixsen, 2008 (Institute of Medicine, 2000; 2001; New Freedom Commission of Mental Health, 2003; National Commission of Excellence in Education, 1983; Department of Health and Human Services, 1999) <br />
Evidence: What Doesn’t Work?<br />Most Common Approaches Used to Support Implementation!<br />Dissemination alone<br />Training/ professional development alone<br />Laws and policies alone<br />Special funding alone<br />(see Ager & O´May, 2001; National Implementation Research Network, n.d.; Paul Nutt, 2002; Rogers, Wellins, & Conner, 2002). <br />
Evidence: What Works?<br />Combination of several implementation measures leads to better results<br />e.g., distributing guidelines for innovations, offering education, practical training, coaching, feedback and consultation. <br />Quality of support is more important than quantity<br />(See Guldbrandsson, 2008)<br />
Implementation Support<br />Making it Happen<br />Effective Implementation<br />Benefits to Consumers<br />Helping it Happen<br />Letting it Happen<br />(Greenhalgh et al., 2005)<br />
Common Perceived Barriers<br /><ul><li>Scheduling (time)
Evidence: What Works?<br />Evaluate current infrastructure and identify and address potential barriers to implementation <br />Structure technical assistance and service delivery system to support innovation <br />Service Delivery System Changed to Fit Innovation<br />Innovation: Component #1<br />Innovation: Component #2<br />Innovation: Component #3<br />Innovation: Component #4<br />Innovation: Component #5<br />
Example: What Works?<br />Service Delivery System<br /><ul><li>Changes in PD
Keep the entire system in mind – even if you are only responsible for training in one area</li></li></ul><li>System Alignment<br />Federal<br />State<br />Local Education Agencies<br />TA /PD System<br />Teachers/ Staff <br />Effective Practices<br />(Fixsen, 2008)<br />
What are Implementation Drivers?<br /><ul><li>Methods to develop, improve, and sustain competent use of innovations
Methods to create and sustain effective organizational and systems environments for effective services </li></ul>(National Implementation Research Network)<br />
Systems Interventions </li></ul>Developing Competency<br />Creating Supportive Systems and Environments<br />(National Implementation Research Network)<br />
Implementation Components or Drivers <br />National Implementation Research Network <br />
National Implementation Research Network <br />
Driver 1: Staff Recruitment & Selection <br />Selection may be a key ingredient of implementation at every level:<br /><ul><li>selection of practitioners,
selection of organization staff (trainers, coaches, evaluators, administrators), and
selection of staff for purveyor groups.</li></ul>National Implementation Research Network <br />
Sample Staff Selection Questions<br /><ul><li>Who is qualified to carry out the evidence-based practice or program that a program wants to implement?
Beyond academic qualifications or experience factors, what practitioner characteristics are essential for carrying out the evidence-based practice “on the ground?” What characteristics or abilities will not or cannot be addressed through training and coaching?
Do organizational staff members have a comprehensive understanding of the practices being implemented?
Are organizational staff members prepared to support practitioners in carrying out the evidence-based practices that are slated to be implemented?</li></ul>(National Implementation Research Network)<br />
Most skills can be introduced in training but really are learned on the job with the help of a consultant/coach (Driver 3)</li></li></ul><li>Research indicates that effective training involves:<br /><ul><li>Providing practitioners with the background information, theory, philosophy, and values of the new program or practice
Introducing and demonstrating the components and rationales of key practices;
Providing opportunities to practice specific skills related to the new way of work and receive feedback in a safe training environment
Providing staff with opportunities for quality interaction</li></li></ul><li>
Driver 3: Consultation and Coaching<br />Coaching and mentoring include activities for either individuals or groups, on-the-job observation, instruction, modeling, feedback, or debriefing of practitioners and other key staff in the program. <br /><ul><li>Avoid “train and hope”
Ensure coaching and mentoring are included as part of the training process
Sustain ‘it’</li></li></ul><li>NCRTI Capacity Building<br />According to Fullan (2001), “effective approaches to managing change call for combining and balancing factors that do not apparently go together--(such as) fidelity and adaptivity. More than anything else, effective strategies require an understanding of the process (of change), a way of thinking that cannot be captured in any list of steps to be followed” (p. 71).<br />
NCRTI Capacity Building Domains<br /><ul><li>Vision
Evaluation </li></li></ul><li>Vision<br />Identify the state’s vision for RTI. The dialogue includes discussions about (a) state’s goal for RTI, (b) roles and responsibilities for different agencies in meeting the goal, and (c) timeline for implementing its RTI initiative on a multi-district or statewide level.<br />Develop overall vision and goals/objectives for RTI implementation<br />Develop vision for initial implementation<br />Develop vision for full implementation<br />Develop procedures for revising and communicating vision<br />
Leadership <br />Establish RTI leadership or implementation teams. The dialogue includes discussions about membership, roles and responsibilities, and implementation plans. <br />Identify members, establish roles and responsibilities and establish administrative procedures<br /> Identify potential barriers and ensure infrastructures are in place<br />Develop and implement plan (s) (PD, evaluation, ect.) for initial implementation<br /> Develop and implement plan (s) for full implementation <br />
Needs Assessment <br />Conduct ongoing needs assessment (data collection). The dialogue includes discussions about assessing needs of the infrastructure, data system, students and teachers, and other key stakeholders. <br />Assess SEA/LEA need for RTI<br />Assess infrastructure<br />Conduct ongoing needs assessment for initial implementation<br />Conduct ongoing needs assessment for full implementation<br />
Outreach and Training<br />Provide outreach and training. The dialogue includes discussions about broad outreach and communication about RTI, recruiting and training coaches, and scheduling and implementing a series of coordinated training events (including workshops and follow-up activities) to support LEAs <br />Engage in RTI social marketing activities <br />Build competency of leadership and implementation teams <br />Implement training and coaching plan for initial implementation<br />Implement training and coaching plan for full implementation <br />
Evaluation<br />Conduct ongoing evaluation. The dialogue includes discussions about how to measure the efficiency with which the is implementing as well as the effectiveness.<br />1. Evaluate the need and ability to implement RTI<br />2. Evaluate infrastructure and develop comprehensive data system<br />3. Evaluate efficacy and efficiency of initial implementation<br />4. Evaluate efficacy and efficiency of full implementation and evaluate RTI effectiveness <br />
Capacity Building Dialogue Guide<br /><ul><li>PURPOSE: Guide dialogue discussions with LEAs and SEAs