Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Filters
Filters
Filters
Filters
Filters
Filters
Filters
Filters
Filters
Filters
Filters
Filters
Filters
Filters
Filters
Filters
Filters
Filters
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Filters

4,308

Published on

basic filters used in an industries

basic filters used in an industries

Published in: Education, Business, Technology
0 Comments
7 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
4,308
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
335
Comments
0
Likes
7
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. FILTERS…
  • 2. GENERAL• A Filter is an electrical circuit that is designed to pass a specified band of frequencies while attenuating all the signals outside that band.• It is a frequency selective circuit.• The filters are basically classified as active filters & passive filters.• They are used in circuits which require the separation of signals according to their frequencies.• They are widely use in communication & signal processing.
  • 3. ADVANTAGES OF ACTIVE FILTERS OVER PASSIVE FILTERS• All the elements alongwith op-amp can be used in the integrated form. Hence there is reduction in size & weight.• The op-amp gain can be easily controlled in the closed loop fashion hence active filter I/P signals is not attenuated.• The op-amp has high I/P impedance & low O/P impedance, hence the active filters using op-amp do not cause loading of the source or load.
  • 4. LIMITATIONS OF ACTIVE FILTERS• The finite bandwidth of the active devices places a limit on the highest frequency of operation.• A reasonably good filter performance can be achieved approximately upto 500 kHz,as against this passive filters can be used upto 500 MHz.• The active elements are more sensitive to the temperature & environmental changes than the passive elements.• The requirement of d.c power supply is another disadvantage of the active filters.
  • 5. COMMONLY USED FILTERS• The most commonly used filters are :-• Low Pass Filter• High Pass Filter• Band Pass Filter• Band Reject Filter• All Pass Filter &• Universal Filters.
  • 6. FREQUENCYRESPONSE OF LOW • A Low Pass Filter has aPASS FILTER constant gain from 0 Hz to aIDEAL & PRACTICAL high cut-off frequency, Fh.RESPONSE • Practically, the gain decreases as the frequency increases & at f=Fh, the gain is down by 3 db & after Fh, it decreases at a higher rate. • After the end of a transition band, the gain becomes zero.
  • 7. FRQUENCY RESPONSE OF HIGH PASS FILTER • For a High pass Filter, Fl is the low cut-off frequency. • The range of frequency 0<f<Fl is the stop band, while f>Fl is the pass band. • The transition band is not shown in the characteristics as it is very small.
  • 8. FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF BAND PASS FILTER • The band pass filter has two stop bands. • The range of frequency 0<f<Fl & range of frequency Fh<f<infinity are two stop bands while the range Fl<f<Fh is the pass band. • The bandwidth is thus Fh- Fl.
  • 9. FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF BAND STOP FILTER • The band elimination filter is also called band rejection filter or band stop filter. • Its characteristics is exactly opposite to that of band pass filter. • There are two pass bands while one stop band. • The two ranges are 0<f<Fl & Fh<f<infinity.
  • 10. FIRST ORDER LOW PASS FILTER• A first order filter consists of a single RC n/w connected to the i/p terminal of a non-inverting op- amp.• Resistors Ri & Rf determine the gain of the filter in the pass band.
  • 11. The voltage across the capacitor Let wh= 1/RCin the s-domain is:-The closed loop gain of the To determine the frequency response, putop-amp is:- s=jw in above eq.
  • 12. At very low frequency, i.e. f<<fh And At very High frequency i.e. f>>fh, we haveIt has the max. gain at f=0 Hz. At fh the gain falls to.707 time the max. gain.Hence gain rolls off at the rate of 20 dB/decade.
  • 13. SECOND ORDER HIGH PASS FILTERHigh pass filter is the complement of the low pass filter& can be obtained simply by interchanging R & C inthe low pass configuration as shown in the fig. This is the transfer function:
  • 14. BAND PASS FILTER There are two types of band pass filters which are classified as per Quality factor: 1. Narrow band pass filter (Q>10) 2. Wide band pass filter (Q<10) BW = f2 – f1 Q = f0 / BWAv R1 C2 C1 R2 Rfb Stage 2 Stage 1 R1 response R2 response BW Ri + Vin _ + VO _ f f1 fo f2
  • 15. BAND REJECT FILETR This can also be either as a Narrow or wide band reject filter. The narrow band reject filter is commonly called a notch filter & is useful for the rejection of a single frequency, such as 50 Hz power line frequency hum. Av(dB) low-pass high-pass C1 {-3dB R1 R1 Rfb R2 Ri + C2 + Vin VO _ _ f f1 f2
  • 16. ALL PASS FILTER• An all-pass filter passes all frequency components of the i/p signal without any attenuation & provides desired phase shifts at different frequencies of the I/P signal.• When signals are transmitted over transmission lines, such as telephone wires, they undergo change in phase. These phase changes can be compensated by all-pass filters.• Thus, they are also called as delay equalizers or phase correctors
  • 17. STATE VARIABLE FILTER• The state variable configuration uses two op-amp integrators & one op-amp adder to provide simultaneous second order low-pass, band-pass & high-pass filter responses.• As it is possible to obtain LP,BP,HP & notch filter O/P’s from a state variable filter & therefore these are also known as UNIVERSAL FILTERS

×