BRIEF HISTORYThe high technology concept of intelligentbuilding systems was introduced in UnitedStates in early 1980’s.
In the early 1980s, several major technology trends were under way. the creation and services andemergence of the innovations enteredpersonal computer the telecom industry. marketplace
Smart Home Perspective ....a new kind of service delivery environment providingvalue to the consumer 21st Century Integration of comprehensive Living Environment 20th Century Functional System Integration makes life easier19th Cenrury Elementary tasks basedon Human Capability & Flexibility Infotainment Health care
Key DRIVER :Broadband Connectivity &Communicating DevicesBroadband connectivity -City Wide Broadband : Cable/DSL, -3GTelephony rollout starting (integrate the data) -WiFi deployment -Wimax is announced
This era also spawned the first real connection between real estatedevelopers and technology.
• Structured cabling systems, • Audio visual systems, building automation Some modest controllers with technological direct digital controladvancements in (DDC), buildings are: • Conditioned space for network equipment, • Access control systems, • Video surveillance.
The positive financial effects of integrated systems, Energy conservation, Greater systems functionality, The continuingThe drivers for smart evolution ofbuildings are :- technology. Increasing needs
WHAT IS SMART BUILDING? “a new generation of buildings Such a building was defined asthat almost think for themselves “a COMBINATION of two … called intelligent buildings.” technologies—old-fashioned building management and telecommunications.”
Building should know what ishappening insideand immediately outside. SMART BUILDING Building should decide the most effective way of providing a convenient, comfortable and productiveenvironment for its occupants.
AIM OF SMART BUILDINGS The technology allows us to operate the building more efficiently;and to differentiate to construct the and improve the buildings in a moremarketability of the efficient way, building. to provide to provide an productive and energy-efficient healthy spaces for and sustainable the occupants and environment, visitors, to provide a safe environment,
These systems include building A smart building involves the automation, lifeinstallation and use of advanced safety, telecommunications, user and integrated building systems, and facility technology systems. management systems. Smart buildings provide the most Smart buildings provide cost effective approach to the actionable information about a design and the deployment ofbuilding or space within a building building technology systems. The to allow the building owner or traditional way to design andoccupant to manage the building construct a building is to design, or space. install, and operate each system separately (Fig.1-1)
The above process reduces the inefficiencies in the design and construction process saving timeSo, further developments were being done. and money.—allowing information anddata about the buildings operation to be used by multiple individualsoccupying and managing the building(Fig. 1.2)
Some instances A smart building, that is equipped with specialstructured wiring to enable For example: a switch appliances on or occupants to remotely homeowner on vacation off, control lighting, control or program an can use a Touchtone program a home theater or array of automated home phone to arm a home entertainment system, and electronic devices by security system, control perform many other tasks. entering a single temperature gauges, command.
CONTD. RFID(Radio-frequency identification) readers (Thereader has an antenna that emits A tag is attached near each radio waves) and tags are also object in the building.used to achieve this goal (the tag responds by sending back its data).
HOW DOES IT WORK? Walls and ceilings will be embedded with sensors, and every aspect of a buildings performance and use will be metered and measured. Buildings will be fully Software tools will be used to interactive with the power automatically optimizegrid, and geospatial location building systems withoutsystems will be deployed for human intervention; every building asset. real-time information about the building that is relevant to their particular needs will be provided to occupants and building management.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ORDINARY BUILDINGS AND INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS.• Ordinary building, there will be • Intelligent building adjusts the different room conditions inside functional aspects such as depending on the changes in the lighting, ventilation, air environmental conditions. conditioning, etc. automatically• The cost of construction of with the changes in environmental Intelligent Building is very high as conditions controlled by computer. compared to an ordinary building. • In an Intelligent Building, the security system, communication system, etc. are coordinated and automatically controlled by computer work station where as in ordinary buildings there is no work station.
• But in case of ordinary • While planning an building, a building intelligent building, a service engineer and an building service engineer, architect is enough. an architect & hardware engineer is required.
BenefitsThe intelligent or • Optimal Intelligent buildings will provide:smart buildings canprovide many lighting levelbenefits to an • Reducedorganization. By energy useintegrating a number • Increasedof building securitysystems it helps an • Increasedorganization get the efficiencymost efficient use • Operationalout of all of their and Energybuilding systems. Cost Savings
BUILDING AUTOMATION Building The control system isautomation desc A building autom- a computerized, intelligent network of -ribes the ation system electronic devices advanced (BAS) is an designed to monitor functionality example of and control the provided by the a distributed mechanical, electronics, andcontrol system of control system. lighting systems in a a building. building.
FUNCTIONS:- BAS core functionality keeps the building climate within a specified range, Provides lighting based on an occupancy schedule, Monitors system performance and device failures.
Provides email The BAS functionality and/or text reduces building A building controlled by notifications to a BAS is often referred energy and to as an intelligent building maintenance costs building or a smart when compared to aengineering/maint non-controlled building. home. enance staff.
TOPOLOGY Most building which connect high- automation level controllers with networks consist of lower-levela primary and secon controllers, dary bus and a user interface (also input/output devicesknown as a human interface device).
BACnet, Optical fiber, The primary and secondary ethernet, bus can be ARCNET, RS-232, RS-485 or awireless network.
Inputs and outputs are either analog or digital. 4-20 mA, 0-10 volt or Analog inputs are used platinum resistance to read a variablethermometer (resistance temperature measurement. detector), or wireless Examples sensors. are temperature, humidity and pressure s ensor which could be thermistor,
WORKINGA digital input indicates if a device is turnedon or not. Some examples of a digital inputwould be a 24VDC/AC signal, an airflow switch, or a volta-free relay contact(Dry Contact). Analog outputs control the speed or position of a device, such as a variable frequency drive, a I-P (current to pneumatics) transducer, or a valve or damper actuator. An example is a hot water valve opening up 25% to maintain a setpoint.
Digital outputs are usedto open and close relays and switches. Anexample would be to turn on the parking lights whena photocell indicates it is dark outside.
FUTUTER SCOPE In the evolves and as matures. other, providing economics of future, the the regulatory Together, smart continuing operating the definition of a and standards buildings and opportunities to electricity grid.smart building environment for the smart grid improve energywill continue to DR and will continue to efficiency, asexpand, as the building reinforce each well as the technology automation
Let’s dream : tomorrow’s energy efficientbuildings would have … A structure and walls of such insulation performance that only 50 kWh/m2/year would suffice to achieve ideal thermal comfort All of its equipment to the optimal energy performance level (lighting, HVAC, office devices, …) Intelligence everywhere that would seamlessly handle energy usage optimization whilst guaranteeing optimal comfort, a healthy environment and numerous other services (security, assistance to elderly people, …) Renewable and non polluting energy sources The ability to satisfy its own energy needs (thermal and/or electric) or even contribute excess power to the community (zero/positive energy buildings) Users whose behaviors would have evolved towards a reasoned usage of energy