HISTORY OF SAUSAGES Sausages are result of Economical Cookery. They are one of the oldest prepared food whether cooked or eaten immediately or dried to various degrees. The manufacture of sausages began over two thousand years ago, and it is still a growing industry. While some of its basic practices are almost as old as civilization. In olden days people did not have refrigeration to preserve their meat and so making sausage was a way of overcoming this problem
History….. 1st Sausage was made by early humans with roasted stomach stuffed in animal intestine. 589 BC in China mentioned as LACHANG. 550 BC-450 BC Greek poet Homer has mentioned it in books named Odyssey and Epicharmus as a comedy ,The Sausage. Greek and Rome already had sausages in its culinary world ,even illiterate tribes also using it greatly. Italy- Sausage in Italy has its roots in the actual Basilicata Philosophers such as Cicero and Martialstated a kind of sausage called "lucanica", actually widespread in Italy, was introduced by Lucanian slaves during the Roman empire. During the reign of the Roman emperor Nero, sausages were associated with the Lupercalia festival. Early in the 10th century in the Byzantine Empire, Leo VI the Wiseoutlawed the production of blood sausages following cases of food poisoning.
History…. Dry sausage was born as a result of the discovery of new spices, which helped to enhance, flavour and preserve the meat. Different countries and different cities within those countries started producing their own distinctive types of sausage, both fresh and dry. These different types of sausage were mostly influenced by the availability of ingredients as well as the climate. Some parts of the world with periods of cold climate, such as northern Europe were able to keep their fresh sausage without refrigeration, during the cold months. They also developed a process of smoking the sausage to help preserve the meat during the warmer months. The hotter climates in the south of Europe developed dry sausage, which did not need refrigeration at all.
History… Basically people living in particular areas developed their own types of sausage and that sausage became associated with the area. For example Bologna originated in the town of Bologna in Northern Italy, Lyons sausage from Lyons in France and Berliner sausage from Berlin in Germany, in England they became associated with the county's, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Lincolnshire, Cumberland Etc. In practice for over a millenia sausage-making was originally a method used to preserve meats, especially lesser cuts.
ORIGIN OF THE WORD The word sausage is derived from Old French saussiche, from the Latin word salsus, meaning salted. The term was probably originally applied to cured or salted meat generally. The word sausage comes from the Middle English sausige, which came from sal, Latin for salt. In France they are sausissons and in Germany, wurst
CLASSIFICATION BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION
Type of meat
Type of other ingredients present
Type of consistency
Regions of Countries
Contd…. According to type of consistency English Speaking Region
Cooked smoked sausages
Fresh Smoked sausages
Raw sausage (salsiccia)
Cured or cooked sausage (salume)
According to Regions of Various Countries France: Montbéliard, Morteau, Strasbourg, Toulouse, Merguez... Germany: Frankfurt, Thuringia, Nuremberg, Pomerania, ... Austria: Vienna
Contd… Italy: Meran… UK: Cumberland, Chiltern, Lincolnshire, Glamorgan, ... Slovenia: Kranjska (klobasa), after the Slovenian name for the province of Carniola
Contd… Spain: botifarracatalana, chorizo riojano, chorizo gallego, chorizo de Teror, longaniza de Aragón, morcilla de Burgos, morcilla de Ronda, morcillaextremeña, morcilladulcecanaria, llonganissa de Vic, fuetd'Olot, sobrassadamallorquina, botillo de León, llonganissa de Valencia, farinato de Salamanca, ...
Contd…. Poland: kielbasa krakowska (Kraków-style), toruńska (Toruń), żywiecka (Żywiec), bydgoska (Bydgoszcz), krotoszyńska (Krotoszyn), podwawelska (literally: "from under Wawel"), zielonogórska (ZielonaGóra), rzeszowska (Rzeszów), śląska (Silesia), swojska, wiejska, jałowcowa, zwyczajna, polska, krajańska, szynkowa, parówkowa, ... Hungary: kolbászgyulai (after the town of Gyula), csabai (after the city of Békéscsaba), Debrecener(after the city of Debrecen).
Cooked sausages are made with fresh meats, and then fully cooked. They are either eaten immediately after cooking or must be refrigerated. Examples include hot dogs, Braunschweiger and liver sausages. Cooked smoked sausages are cooked and then smoked or smoke-cooked. They are eaten hot or cold, but need to be refrigerated. Examples include Gyulaikolbász, kielbasa and Mortadella. Fresh sausages are made from meats that have not been previously cured. They must be refrigerated and thoroughly cooked before eating. Examples include Boerewors,Italian pork sausageand breakfast sausage. Fresh smoked sausages are fresh sausages that are smoked. They should be refrigerated and cooked thoroughly before eating. Examples include MettwurstandRomanian sausage. Dry sausages are cured sausages that are fermented and dried. They are generally eaten cold and will keep for a long time. Examples include salami, Droëwors, Sucuk, Landjäger, and summer sausage. Bulk sausage, or sometimes sausage meat, refers to raw, ground, spiced meat, usually sold without any casing.
Raw sausages are made with raw meat and are not cooked. They are preserved by lactic acid fermentation, and may be dried, brined or smoked. Most raw sausages will keep for a long time. Examples include cervelat, mettwurstand salami. Cooked sausages may include water and emulsifiers and are always cooked. They will not keep long. Examples include Jagdwurst and Weißwurst. Pre-cooked sausages are made with cooked meat, and may include raw organ meat. They may be heated after casing, and will keep only for a few days. Examples include Saumagen and Blutwurst.
The US has a particular type called pickled sausages, commonly found in gas stations and small roadside delicatessens. These are usually smoked and/or boiled sausages of a highly processed frankfurter (hot dog) or kielbasa style plunged into a boiling brine of vinegar, salt, spices (red pepper, paprika...) and often a pink coloring, then canned in wide-mouth jars. They are available in single blister packs, e.g., Slim Jim meat snacks, or in jars atop the deli cooler. They are shelf stable, and are a frequently offered alternative to beef jerky, beef stick, and kippered beef snacks.