Cooked Sausage


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Technical presentation on the science and manufacture of cooked and fresh sausage.

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Cooked Sausage

  1. 2. <ul><li>Material </li></ul><ul><li> Meat </li></ul><ul><li> Fat </li></ul><ul><li> Water/ice </li></ul><ul><li> Casing </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Additives </li></ul><ul><li> Phosphate </li></ul><ul><li> Salt </li></ul><ul><li> Colour stabilizer </li></ul><ul><li> Spice/herbs </li></ul><ul><li> Salt of food grade </li></ul><ul><li> Acids (citrate….) </li></ul>
  3. 4. 3. Technology  Emulsion technology  Filling - stuffing  Pasteurising  Cooling  Storage
  4. 5. <ul><li>Meat: </li></ul><ul><li>Use only well chilled meat, temp < 4°C </li></ul><ul><li>Low bacteria count  impact on shelf life, & colour development </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-grinding/mincing is recommended </li></ul><ul><li>Not more than 20% PSE or DFD - meat from the total amount of lean meat </li></ul><ul><li> PSE: negative influence on water binding, pale (bright) colour </li></ul><ul><li> DFD: negative impact on colour development, short shelf life </li></ul><ul><li>Free of sinews </li></ul><ul><li>Meat should contain a certain amount of inter-muscular connective tissue (positive impact on bite and structure) </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>‘ Hot – carcass - meat’ shows best water binding  no addition of phosphate needed ! ! ! ! </li></ul><ul><li> No connecting bridges between actin and myosin </li></ul><ul><li> Large space between actin and myosin </li></ul><ul><li> Large amount of water can be bound </li></ul><ul><li> Solubility of protein is high  no connecting bridges and therefore higher solubility </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Beef within 3 - 4 hours, pork within one hour </li></ul><ul><li>Preserving of ‘hot - carcass - meat’: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Mincing - salting </li></ul><ul><li>Storage time max. 3 - 4 days </li></ul><ul><li>2. Fast freezing </li></ul><ul><li>Defrosting not necessary  usage of water instead of ice </li></ul><ul><li>Usage of meat in slightly frozen conditions & addition of </li></ul><ul><li>salt  risk of “Tau Rigor” </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Fat: </li></ul><ul><li>Use only well chilled fat only, temp < 4°C </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh, low bacteria count </li></ul><ul><li>No fat containing long - chained saturated fatty acid  suet taste </li></ul><ul><li>No rancid fat </li></ul><ul><li>Pre - grinding is recommended </li></ul><ul><li>Water/Ice: </li></ul><ul><li>Must be of good quality (food grade) </li></ul><ul><li>Cooling during chopping </li></ul><ul><li>Solubility of protein </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Casings: </li></ul><ul><li>Natural or artificial casings </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment as recommended according to the type of casing </li></ul><ul><li>Wash natural casings well before usage </li></ul><ul><li>Store natural casings under cold conditions with sufficient salt </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure adequate soaking time for artificial casings </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Phosphate: </li></ul><ul><li>Solubility of protein immensely improved </li></ul><ul><li> Positive impact on water binding and texture (firmness) </li></ul><ul><li>Pyro (di) – phosphate shows greatest impact </li></ul><ul><li>Proper dosage is required  otherwise negative impact in taste </li></ul><ul><li>Store in a dry area </li></ul><ul><li>Add at the beginning of your cutting process </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Curing salt: </li></ul><ul><li>Store in a dry area </li></ul><ul><li>Min. 16g/kg  increase of ionic concentration </li></ul><ul><li> impact on protein activation  water binding, texture taste…. </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrite:  colour  curing flavour  inhibits bacterial growth </li></ul><ul><li>Add total amount of salt to lean meat </li></ul><ul><li> activation of protein improved </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Colour stabilizer: (ascorbic acid…) </li></ul><ul><li>Store in dry area </li></ul><ul><li>Never add ascorbic acid directly to nitrite curing salt  chemical reaction  nitrite falls out (pop) </li></ul><ul><li>Spice / Herbs: </li></ul><ul><li>According to the product </li></ul><ul><li>Salts of food grade acids: </li></ul><ul><li>Increase of ionic concentration  improved solubility of muscular protein </li></ul><ul><li> Positive impact on water binding, texture, bite… </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>1) MSG Mono - Sodium - Glutamate or Potassium Glutamate </li></ul><ul><li> Salt of glutamic acid </li></ul><ul><li> Enhances meaty and salty taste </li></ul><ul><li> Reduces bitter taste </li></ul><ul><li> No impact on sweet and sour taste </li></ul><ul><li> 0.5 – 5 grams per kg of production </li></ul><ul><li>2) Ribotide </li></ul><ul><li> IMP: inosin - 5 Monophosphate </li></ul><ul><li> GMP: Guanosin - 5 Monophosphate </li></ul><ul><li> Strong synergistic effect when mixed in a ratio of 1:1 </li></ul><ul><li> Mix is called ‘Ribotide’ </li></ul><ul><li> 40 to 50 times stronger than MSG </li></ul><ul><li> Mix 19kg MSG & 1kg Ribotides = same effect as 100kg of MSG </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Goal: To reactivate protein as much as possible </li></ul>Before starting the emulsion process, standardizing of the materials to be used is of utmost importance!!!
  14. 15. <ul><li>1. Lean Meat Method: </li></ul><ul><li>Start chopping the lean meat in slow gear and add phosphate blend…, Spice,  temp: < 4°C </li></ul><ul><li>Add approx 60% of ice / water and curing salt  temperature approximately 0°C </li></ul><ul><li>Once 4°C is reached > add remaining ice and fat </li></ul><ul><li>Continue chopping with high rotational speed until approximately 12°C </li></ul><ul><li> Advantages:  Optimal activation of the protein </li></ul><ul><li> Good meat bite </li></ul><ul><li> Point of time for adding ice can be controlled </li></ul><ul><li> Disadvantage:  Quite labour intensive </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>2. Fat Method: </li></ul><ul><li>Start chopping the lean meat 4°C by adding phosphate, approx 60% of ice/ water, salt and spice  temperature approximately 0°C </li></ul><ul><li>Continue chopping until you reach 4°C and add the remaining ice </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature drops  continue chopping to approximately 0°C </li></ul><ul><li>Take cold, lean mass out of the bowl cutter </li></ul><ul><li>Place fat only in the cutter and cut fat fine  final temperature approximately 10°C </li></ul><ul><li>Gradually mix the cold lean mass to the fine fat and cut until 12°C is reached </li></ul><ul><li> Advantages:  For special types of sausages only (Weisswurst…), extremely soft bite, light colour </li></ul><ul><li> Disadvantage:  Very labour intensive </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>3. All – in - method </li></ul><ul><li>Place all materials and additives in the cutter and continue chopping until 12°C is reached </li></ul><ul><li> Advantages:  Little work and simple </li></ul><ul><li> Disadvantages:  Large fat surface > soft bite </li></ul><ul><li>  Lighter colour as lean meat method </li></ul><ul><li>  Less protein is activated due to the presence of fat right at the beginning of the chopping process </li></ul><ul><li>All these methods can be done in a bowl - cutter </li></ul><ul><li> Advantages of a bowl cutter:  Controlled process </li></ul><ul><li> Disadvantage of a bowl cutter:  Batch production </li></ul><ul><li> Loss in time through loading and unloading </li></ul>
  17. 18. 4°C Start chopping process in slow gear with raw materials used according to the recipe, lean meat, phosphate… Approx. 0°C After mixing add about 60% of ice and salt 4°C 4°C Approx. 12°C Spices are added Rest of the ice is added Fat material is added Finishing chopping after approx. 5 turns on slow gear          
  18. 19. 4°C Approx. 0°C After mixing add about 60% of ice and salt Spices are added 4°C 0°C to 2°C Take the ‘lean mass’ out of the cutter and place fat into cutter Approx. 8°C Chop the well chilled fat material finely & then gradually mix the ‘lean mass’ with the ‘fat mass’ Approx.12°C Finishing chopping after approx. 5 turns on slow gear Start chopping process in slow gear with raw materials used according to the recipe, lean meat, phosphate…           
  19. 20. Comminute the lean meat, fat, ice, salt, additives… in one step Approx. 12°C Finishing chopping after approx. 5 turns on slow gear 
  20. 21. <ul><li>Chopping without a vacuum: </li></ul><ul><li>High speed of the knives  considerable amount of oxygen is incorporated into the sausage mix </li></ul><ul><li>Effect on: </li></ul><ul><li> C olour (too pale, graying, bad colour stability </li></ul><ul><li> Taste (off taste, rancidity is accelerated) </li></ul><ul><li> C onsistency (soft in bite) </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Chopping under vacuum: </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Stronger colour </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of oxidative processes </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of the number of pores (pockets) which may turn gray </li></ul><ul><li>★ Note: </li></ul><ul><li>Complete absence of air during chopping  compression of the mix  volume reduction and firm bite </li></ul><ul><li>Re-gasing with nitrogen is possible </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>To handle the temperature problem more effective  cooling of the sausage mix </li></ul><ul><li> CO 2 (carbon dioxide): </li></ul><ul><li>This gas reacts with the water in the sausage mix  formation of carbonic acid  pH-value drops down  water binding negatively influenced </li></ul><ul><li>Release of bound gas  bursting of the casings possible </li></ul><ul><li> N 2 (nitrogen): </li></ul><ul><li>This gas doesn’t react with water  inert gas </li></ul><ul><li> When coarse meat particles (pre-salted) are mixed with the fine mass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difference in temperature is little </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water separation </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>Filling - stuffing: </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical treatment of the sausage mix  always negative impact on the emulsion </li></ul><ul><li>Speed (pressure) not too high </li></ul><ul><li>Application of vacuum is recommended </li></ul><ul><li>Keep filling machine clean & sterilised </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Smoking – pasteurising: </li></ul><ul><li> Smoking  according to the product type </li></ul><ul><li> impact on: </li></ul><ul><li>* Colour </li></ul><ul><li>* Flavour (taste) </li></ul><ul><li>* Bite (formaldehyde reacts with amino acids -hardening of the casing) </li></ul><ul><li>* Shelf life </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Pasteurising: </li></ul><ul><li>Min. 70°C core temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Coagulation of protein </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of bacteria count  impact on shelf life </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilization of the colour </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid long resting time of the sausage mix before pasteurization </li></ul><ul><li> microorganism ferment sugar into lactic acid  pH drops  less water binding  water separation </li></ul><ul><li>Pasteurizing by F- value is possible as well </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>Cooling: </li></ul><ul><li>Cold water shower or cold water bath </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t cool down too fast (ice/water…)  negative impact on the structure of the protein </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature range of 20 to 50°C should be passed through fast  spores germinate  negative impact on shelf life </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Storage: </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature <4°C, inhibits bacterial growth </li></ul><ul><li>Exclude light and oxygen </li></ul><ul><li> Impact on shelf life, colour, taste…. </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>Frozen meat is flaked/cut into cubes </li></ul><ul><li>Meat + ice + water + premix is mixed thoroughly </li></ul><ul><li>Mass is put through at: - 2 to 2°C </li></ul><ul><li>Fine mass can be done in bowl chopper (emulsifier) </li></ul><ul><li>Fill into casing </li></ul><ul><li>★ Important : </li></ul><ul><li>Personal hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Low bacteria count of the meat </li></ul><ul><li>3) Temperature of mass must never be above 4°C during production, filling, packing, transport and storage </li></ul>