Baking

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bakery , bread,cookies,ingredients

Baking

  1. 2. baking flours yeast eggs proofing baking ovens wheat
  2. 3. Flour <ul><li>Finely ground meal of wheat </li></ul><ul><li>The quality of flour has direct implications </li></ul><ul><li>on the final product </li></ul><ul><li>Backbone structure of baked goods </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as a Binding and Absorbing agent </li></ul><ul><li>Effects the keeping quality of the product </li></ul><ul><li>Adds to the nutritional value of the product </li></ul>
  3. 4. Wheat <ul><li>Essential grain used for bread making </li></ul><ul><li>Has the right combination of Glutenin and Gliadin </li></ul><ul><li>With water forms gluten , which retains the gas produced by </li></ul><ul><li>the yeast </li></ul><ul><li>The two primary types of wheat are HARD & SOFT WHEAT </li></ul><ul><li>Hard wheat contains a high proportion of gluten </li></ul><ul><li>Hence very good for breads and related products </li></ul><ul><li>Soft wheat generally contains less gluten </li></ul><ul><li>Hence used for delicate baked goods </li></ul><ul><li>The three basic soft flours are – cake flour, pastry flour </li></ul><ul><li>& cookie flour </li></ul>
  4. 5. From Sowing to Milling <ul><li>Wheat belongs to the grass family – Triticum </li></ul><ul><li>Bread wheat – Triticum Aestivum – used in baking </li></ul><ul><li>Pasta wheat – Triticum Durum – mainly for pasta making </li></ul><ul><li>Science and research has developed many useful varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Grows very well in temperate climates </li></ul><ul><li>Except for the water, salt and optional yeast wheat has all </li></ul><ul><li>Varies from pale gold to ochre or a reddish brown </li></ul>
  5. 6. The wheat grain <ul><li>The tiny fruit comprises of </li></ul><ul><li>The Husk </li></ul><ul><li>The Bran – the cellulose envelope </li></ul><ul><li>Flour Kernel – creamy white starch and natural protein gluten </li></ul><ul><li>The Germ – the plant embryo –Vitamin B&E, minerals, </li></ul><ul><li>fatty acids etc., </li></ul>
  6. 7. Milling of Wheat <ul><li>Wind mills the traditional way </li></ul><ul><li>Beauce region of France – “bread basket of France” </li></ul><ul><li>The grain – quality / humidity / protein content etc… </li></ul><ul><li>Trial milling done in sample sizes </li></ul><ul><li>The grain is stored in huge/ immense “Silos” </li></ul><ul><li>The grist is cleaned meticulously in series of machines </li></ul><ul><li>Brushed/ magnetic field / washed thoroughly in fresh water </li></ul><ul><li>Let to settle in silos in the moisture </li></ul>
  7. 8. Milling of Wheat <ul><li>46- 48 hours in the silo – moisture of 15 percent </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional millstone – grinding. </li></ul><ul><li>The stone grinds the germ too.shelf life  flavour  </li></ul><ul><li>Modern roller milling effective and efficient </li></ul><ul><li>The rollers separate the germ too - shelf life  flavour  </li></ul><ul><li>Different sets of grinding / sifting with diff. grades of sieves </li></ul><ul><li>Pnuematic ducts / fractional milling </li></ul><ul><li>Final sifting – through a silk screen </li></ul>
  8. 9. Milling of Wheat <ul><li>For whole wheat flour </li></ul><ul><li>– the entire bran &germ milled </li></ul><ul><li>For White flour </li></ul><ul><li>– the large particles of bran are extracted </li></ul><ul><li>in the coarse sifters/ sieve </li></ul><ul><li>Bleaching / enhancing / additives </li></ul><ul><li>Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Grading </li></ul><ul><li>Bagging / stamps </li></ul><ul><li>Dispatch </li></ul><ul><li>What ever the the flour quality …. </li></ul><ul><li>-you need a good baker to produce good bread  </li></ul>
  9. 11. GRAVITY FED
  10. 13. EGGS <ul><li>Eggs are natural emulsifying agents </li></ul><ul><li>– they form smooth batters </li></ul><ul><li>Creaming / beating produces gas to be trapped </li></ul><ul><li>In turn helps in leavening </li></ul><ul><li>Application of heat coagulates the proteins and forms </li></ul><ul><li>the structure the framework for bread is formed </li></ul><ul><li>The fat in the egg yolks have a shortening effect </li></ul><ul><li>– E.g..Sponge cakes and yeast products </li></ul><ul><li>Egg white and the structure in meringues and sponges </li></ul><ul><li>They add colour, add volume, give structure to the products </li></ul><ul><li>Improve grain and texture </li></ul>
  11. 14. EGGS <ul><li>Shelled eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Frozen eggs </li></ul><ul><li>- They save time and labor </li></ul><ul><li>- They avoid wastage through spoilage / breakage </li></ul><ul><li>- The quality is of uniform nature and hence the products </li></ul><ul><li>- They can be egg yolk & white separate or combinations </li></ul><ul><li>Freshness of eggs a very important factor </li></ul><ul><li>The containers and cleanliness for whipping eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Bring eggs to room temperature for better results </li></ul>
  12. 15. SALT <ul><li>Brings out the desired flavour </li></ul><ul><li>Controls yeast action.> salt content retards yeast action </li></ul><ul><li>Also prevents objectionable bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>- and wild yeast types to develop </li></ul><ul><li>Helps to strengthen the gluten and in turns holds co2 better </li></ul><ul><li>It improves the texture and grain of the baked products </li></ul>
  13. 16. milk <ul><li>Improves texture </li></ul><ul><li>Food value </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping quality </li></ul><ul><li>Flavour </li></ul>Sweetening Agents <ul><li>Sugar – grain, fine granulated sugar, confectioner’s sugar, </li></ul><ul><li>pulverized sugar 7 brown sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Honey – natural invert syrup produced from </li></ul><ul><li>the nectars of flowers </li></ul><ul><li>Molasses – concentrated juice of sugar </li></ul>Colour, flavour, helps yeast fermentation, controls yeast
  14. 17. Yeast <ul><li>Grown in vats with warm mash of ground corn, barley malt </li></ul><ul><li>& water </li></ul><ul><li>Compressed yeast , dried yeast and natural yeast </li></ul><ul><li>60 deg F – slow reaction to 188 deg F -Terminal death point </li></ul><ul><li>Increases volume </li></ul><ul><li>Improves grain and texture </li></ul><ul><li>Improved flavour </li></ul>CHEMICAL LEAVENERS ACID LEAVENERS – BAKING POWDER SODIUM BI-CARB + ACID IN THE BAKING PRODUCT BASIC LEAVENERS -AMMONIUM CARBONATE > CO2 ON HEAT grain, texture, uniform symmetry and increase volume
  15. 18. FATS & SHORTENINGS <ul><li>Edible fats – vegetable or hydrogenated or animal origion </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the tender texture of the baked products </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping and eating quality enhanced </li></ul><ul><li>The food value of the product is improved </li></ul><ul><li>Grain and texture is improved </li></ul>Flavouring Material <ul><li>Natural oils – lemon and vanilla </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid artificial flavours </li></ul><ul><li>Spices, seeds, fruit, root, buds, barks, </li></ul><ul><li>Salt – and its kind adds flavour </li></ul><ul><li>Chocolate and cocoa </li></ul>
  16. 19. Bread Making Process <ul><li>Start with raw ingredients and weigh them accurately </li></ul><ul><li>Mix and knead </li></ul><ul><li>Allow fermentation – primary </li></ul><ul><li>Scaling </li></ul><ul><li>Rounding </li></ul><ul><li>Bench proofing </li></ul><ul><li>Molding </li></ul><ul><li>Panning </li></ul><ul><li>Pan proofing </li></ul><ul><li>Baking </li></ul><ul><li>Cooling </li></ul>
  17. 20. Dough Mixing <ul><li>Uniform mixture of ingredients all along the dough </li></ul><ul><li>To develop gluten to promote the elasticity of the dough </li></ul><ul><li>Also to distribute the yeast cells uniformly so that receive </li></ul><ul><li>uniform nutrition and also proof evenly </li></ul><ul><li>SPONGE DOUGH METHOD: </li></ul><ul><li>Partial dough is made a s base starter and the rest of the </li></ul><ul><li>Ingredients mixed in later </li></ul><ul><li>STRAIGHT DOUGH METHOD: </li></ul><ul><li>All ingredients mixed in together </li></ul>
  18. 21. FREMENTATION <ul><li>The most favourable temp 80 – 82 deg F </li></ul><ul><li>The length of the fermentation depends on the yeast, </li></ul><ul><li>temperature of the dough and the surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>Young dough – indicates under proofed </li></ul><ul><li>Old dough – indicates over proofed </li></ul><ul><li>The punching of the dough helps in relaxing the gluten </li></ul><ul><li>and equalises the temperature of the dough </li></ul><ul><li>Best indication – punch when double the size </li></ul>
  19. 22. Controlling Dough Temperature <ul><li>Very important to moderate the dough temperature </li></ul><ul><li>The ingredients temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Machine friction </li></ul><ul><li>Heat due to fermentation process </li></ul><ul><li>Water Temperature chart </li></ul>
  20. 23. TYPES OF FLOUR
  21. 28. HARVE S T LOAF
  22. 29. HOT CROSS BUNS
  23. 30. FRENCH BREAD
  24. 31. PITA
  25. 35. Cakes <ul><li>Methods of making Cake batters : </li></ul><ul><li>Creaming Method - sugar / butter flavours and spices/ egg / </li></ul><ul><li>milk + water / sifted flour with the baking powder </li></ul><ul><li>Two stage method - All dry ingredients + fat + milk mix. </li></ul><ul><li>… 2 nd stage add the remaining milk and mix at a slow speed </li></ul><ul><li>Sponge or foaming - Eggs and sugar to around 100 deg F/ </li></ul><ul><li>beat until the required consistency is reached / Fold in flour </li></ul><ul><li>uniformly </li></ul>
  26. 36. Cookies <ul><li>Creaming method – sugar+butter + eggs + flour </li></ul><ul><li>One stage method – mix all ingredients </li></ul><ul><li>Rolled Cookies </li></ul><ul><li>Ice box Cookies </li></ul><ul><li>Spritz Cookies </li></ul><ul><li>Bar Cookies </li></ul><ul><li>Sheet Cookies </li></ul><ul><li>Drop Cookies </li></ul>

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