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  2. 2. HISTORY <ul><li>Scotland, with its temperate climate and abundance of indigenous game species, has provided a cornucopia of food for its inhabitants for millennia. The wealth of seafood available on and off the coasts provided the earliest settlers with their sustenance. Agriculture was introduced, with primitive oats quickly becoming the staple. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>In common with many medieval European neighbours, Scotland was a feudal state for a greater part of the second millennium. This put certain restrictions on what one was allowed to hunt, therefore to eat. In the halls of the great men of the realm, one could expect venison, boar, various fowl and songbirds, expensive spices (pepper, cloves, cinnamon, etc.), as well as the meats of domesticated species. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>From the Journeyman down to the lowest cottar, meat was an expensive commodity, and would be consumed rarely. For the lower echelons of Mediæval Scots, it was the products of their animals rather than the beasts themselves which provided nourishment. This is evident today in traditional Scots fayre, with its emphasis on dairy produce. It would appear that the average meal would consist of a pottage of herbs and roots, (and when available some meat or stock for flavouring) bread and cheese when possible. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Before Sir Walter Raleigh's introduction of the potato to the British Isles, the Scots' main sources of carbohydrate was gained from bread made from oats or barley. Wheat was generally difficult to grow because of the damp climate. Food thrift was evident from the earliest times, with excavated middens displaying little evidence of anything but the toughest bones. All parts of an animal were used. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The mobile nature of Scots society in the past required food that would not spoil quickly. It was common to carry a small bag of oatmeal that could be transformed into a basic porridge or oatcakes using a Girdle (griddle). It is theorised that Scotland's national dish, Haggis, originated in a similar way: A small amount of offal or low-quality meat, carried in the most inexpensive bag available, a sheep or pig's stomach. It has also been suggested that this dish was introduced by Norse invaders who were attempting to preserve their food during the long journey from Scandinavia. </li></ul>
  7. 7. FRENCH INFLUENCE <ul><li>During the Late Middle Ages and early modern era, the French cuisine started to play a role in Scottish cookery due to the cultural exchanges brought by the &quot;Auld Alliance&quot;; and especially during the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots. Mary, on her return to Scotland brought an entourage of French staff who are considered responsible for revolutionising Scots cooking and for some of Scotland's unique food terminology. </li></ul>
  8. 8. This influence continued until the downfall of Jacobitism and the defeat at Culloden, when Scotland came into the cultural sphere of England, and the faculties of continental gastronomy were out of bounds. Return to index
  9. 9. TRADITIONAL SCOTTISH SPECIALITIES <ul><li>CULLEN SKINK (soup) </li></ul><ul><li>Cullen Skink is a thick Scottish soup made of smoked Finnan haddie, potatoes and onions. </li></ul><ul><li>This soup is a local speciality, from the town of Cullen in Moray, on the north-east coast of Scotland. The soup is often served as a starter at formal Scottish dinners. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>RASPBERRY (fruit) </li></ul><ul><li>The raspberry is the edible fruit of a number of plant species in the subgenus Idaeobatus of the genus Rubus ; the name also applies to these plants themselves. The name originally referred to the European species Rubus idaeus , with red fruit, and is still used for that species as its standard English name in its native area. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>ARBROATH SMOKIE (fish) </li></ul><ul><li>The Arbroath Smokie originally came from the small fishing village of Auchmithie, 3 miles North-East of Arbroath. Local legend has it that a store caught fire one night, destroying barrels of Haddock preserved in salt. The following morning, the people of Auchmithie came to clean up the ruin and found some of the barrels had caught fire, cooking the Haddock inside. Further inspections revealed the Haddock was edible and quite tasty. </li></ul><ul><li>In reality, it's much more likely that the villagers at Auchmithie are of Scandinavian descent as the 'Smokie making' process is similar to methods of smoking which are still carried out today in areas of Scandinavia. </li></ul>Return to index
  12. 12. <ul><li>HAGGIS (meat) </li></ul><ul><li>Haggis is a traditional Scottish dish. </li></ul><ul><li>There are many recipes, most of which have in common the following ingredients: sheep's 'pluck' (heart, liver and lungs), minced with onion, oatmeal, suet, spices, and salt, mixed with stock, and traditionally boiled in the animal's stomach for approximately three hours. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>CLAPSHOT (vegetable) </li></ul><ul><li>Clapshot is a traditional Scottish dish that originated in Orkney and is frequently served with mince or haggis. It is created by the combining mashing of potatoes and turnips. Canadian immigrants added beetroot to the mixture in 2007, to wide acclaim. </li></ul>