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Countering Terrorism and Democratization: Case Study of Turkey


Countering Terrorism and Democratization:
Case Study of Turkey

Süleyman ÖZEREN, Ph. D.

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  • 1. Countering Terrorism and Democratization: Case Study of Turkey Süleyman ÖZEREN, Ph. D.____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________
  • 2. OUTLINE  Introduction  Conceptualization and Understanding of the Threat  Case study: PKK/KCK Terrorist organization  Counterterrorism strategy  Current process  Integrated Counterterrorism Strategy: Whole-of-society approach
  • 3. TURKEY AND TERRORISM  Separatist terrorist gropus – PKK/KCK  Left wing terrorist organizations – DHKP/C  Terrorist organizations exploiting religion. 3
  • 4. UNDERSTANDING TERRORISM Multi ethnic Not classical hierarchical structure Not centrally structured Profiles of the terrorists may vary More deadly methods are in place Broader target profile Financial resources are broader Cyberterrorism and the use of communication technologies International and transnational, Has a broader impact on international relations (Afghanistan and Iraq…) Most of the time the religion of Islam is considered as the source of radicalization… 4
  • 5. UNDERSTANDING TERRORISM• Terrorism is a crime, having different dynamics.• Terrorism; violence, anger, vengeance, blood, illegitimacy, no rule,• State; democracy, human rights, winning the hearts and minds of the people, bounded by rules.• Competition between the terrorists and the state• The competition is all about gaining the ground.• Terrorists force the state to deviate from the path of rule of law,
  • 6. TERRORISM IS A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY Political periphery Society SecurityBusiness Terrorist Agencies& Capital group Media 6
  • 7. CONCEPTUALIZATIONHow you conceptualize terrorism will determine your counterterrorism policies.Conceptualization, not frame working; Islamic, Islamists, global jihadi network, jihadi terrrorism, etc. Terrorist are using the same concepts to describe themselves. The society will be pushed away, at least they won‟t be supportive of what you are doing. Identification of the ideological background is crucial Concepts should be carefully used
  • 8. INDIVIDUAL PROFILE- AGE14.0% 12.5%12.0% 10.5% 10.4%10.0% 7.8%8.0% 6.7% 6.3% 5.8%6.0%4.0% 3.3% 2.8% 2.9% 2.9% 2.2%2.0% 1.7% 1.4% 1.2% 1.1% 0.7% 0.4% 0.5% 0.3% 0.3% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1%0.0% 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 32 33 34 38 45
  • 9. INDIVIDUAL PROFILE- AGE30% 26%25% 20% 19% 18%20% 17%15%10%5%0% 24 yaş ve aşağısı 25-29 yaş 30-34 yaş 35-39 yaş 40 yaş ve yukarısı45% of the members of the PKK/KCK is between the age of 30-34.
  • 10. INDIVIDUAL PROFILE- PROFESSION 1% 21% Working at a public Kamu kurumunda çalışıyordu sector Working at a private sector Özel kurumda çalışıyordu Çalışmıyordu Jobless 78%
  • 12. GENDER AND MARITAL STATUS77 of % the members of the  92 of % the members of thePKK/KCK terrorists are male and 23 PKK/KCK terrorists are single and% are female. 8% of them are married.
  • 14. PROPAGANDA & COMMUNICATION WEB SITES OF THE PKK AND AFFILIATED www.gündem-online.comwww.yeniözgü www.yüksekovagü 14
  • 15. COUNTERTERRORISM STAGESSECURITY MEASURES: Countering the terrorist(operational aspects) FOCUSING ON UNDERLYING CAUSES: Countering terrorism (political, social, economic, cultural etc. policies)COUNTERING TERRORISM THROUGH IDEOLOGY:Being able to develop new approaches, ideas to tackleideological sentiments of the terrorist organization. 15
  • 17. WHO IS DEALING WITH TERRORISM IN TURKISH GOVERNMENT? Fighting Against Terrorism The Ministry Turkish Army The Ministry Prime Ministry of Interior General Stuff of Finance The Under Coast Guard The Financial National Turkish Gendarmerie secretariat of Command CrimesIntelligence National General Public Order InvestigationOrganization Police Command and Security Board Counter- Special Intelligence Terrorism Operations Department Department Department 17
  • 18. WHAT HAVE BEEN DONE?STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENTS  Establishment of the Police Counter Terrorism Dep.  Establishment of Police Special Forces Dep.  Contemporary developments in Intelligence services,  Establishment of temporary village guard system in 1985, - Voluntary and Source of income for the families  The Special Courts (State Security Courts)  Establishment of the Financial Crimes Investigation Board  Establishment of the Under secretariat of Public Order and Security in 2010  Coordination and cooperation within different units, organizations and institutions  New security measures in border protection 18
  • 19. WHAT HAVE BEEN DONE?STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENTS Correctional System  “Return to Life” operation in December 2000  Change from a dormitory system to F type cell  prevent recruitment  prevent propaganda  isolating the leadership Camera systems  Cells in the police centers are monitored for 24 hours.  Recording system cannot be altered. 19
  • 20. WHAT HAVE BEEN DONE?STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENTS Establishment of the Financial Crimes Investigation Board (MASAK) within the Ministry of Finance The mission of MASAK is to  make policies and to contribute making regulations,  to collect information fast and reliably and to analyze them,  to carry out examination and research,  and to convey the acquired information and results to  relevant authorities. 20
  • 21. WHAT HAVE BEEN DONE?STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENTS Human Rights Training to Law Enforcement Personnel During the course,  awareness of the officers about human rights,  international principles with respect to human rights  specific actions leading to violations of human rights are examined in order to avoid such violations. 21
  • 22. WHAT HAVE BEEN DONE?LEGAL MEASURES Anti-terrorism Law  The first criterion concerns the modus operandi: the law stipulates that terrorism involves the use of coercion, violence, terror, intimidation or threats.  The second criterion concerns the purposes for which the act is perpetrated.  The final criterion is that, in order to be considered a terrorist act, the act must have been committed by a person or persons belonging to an organization. 22
  • 23. WHAT HAVE BEEN DONE?LEGAL MEASURES The law on compensation for damage arising from terrorism or efforts to counter terrorism  Law No. 5233 on compensation for damage resulting from terrorism or efforts to counter terrorism was enacted on 17 July 2004.  The main aim of this law is to establish the rules and procedures governing compensation for physical injury and material damage, and losses arising from the impossibility of returning to villages destroyed by terrorist activities or in the course of efforts to combat terrorism. The Rehabilitation (repentance) Law  The main aim of Law No. 4959 of 29 July 2003 on social rehabilitation is to reintegrate members of terrorist organisations into Turkish society to strengthen peace and solidarity. 23
  • 24. WHAT HAVE BEEN DONE?LEGAL MEASURES The Law on Prevention of Money Laundering  The object of this law is to set forth the fundamentals that shall be applied for the prevention of money laundering.  Under this law: money-laundering offences are deemed to be offences preparatory to terrorism against the state. The Law on Witness Protection 24
  • 25. WHAT HAVE BEEN DONE?PREVENTION OF RADICALISATION Public Awareness, social projects, communication with families…  Projects  Development of Prevention Strategies and Tactics in Fighting against Radicalization in Terrorist Organization  Developing Prevention Model in Countering Terrorism  Training Activities  Workshops 25
  • 26. PREVENTION ACTIVITIES Activities involvingAwareness Programs Value Enlargement Families• High school and • Theater, university level • Activities, involving students prison system and • Football, inmates. • Sight seeing• School administrators and • Activities to reach out those who are in • Competitions teachers the terrorist• Families organization• Public officials in different agencies
  • 27. WHAT SHOULD BE DONE? No quick fix and need to know it will take time. Value system enlargement policies. Target groups need to be identified and contacted before terrorist organizations. A constructive relationship with the media. Suggestions need to fit in cultural structure.
  • 28. WHAT SHOULD BE DONE? Increase in cultural awareness of public officials especially by the concerned agencies. Special attention to prisons and incarceration system. Attention to social policies followed by prison sentences. National and international cooperation.
  • 29. What should be done? Social groups, movements, with moderate voice should be reached out by the governments. A harmonized groups, composed of different religious, cultural, ethnic background can be a constructive base for efforts. Such NGOs should be more active. When we start with a wrong question of whether such NGOs have affiliation with terrorism, then whatever the answer we get will not lead us to the right direction. The question should be “how can the governments work together with these NGOs?” Governments should take a step forward and empower civil society to counter radicalization.
  • 30. What should be done? Most of the time it is expected that the government agency calls the first shot to initiate dialogue,Governments should take a step forward and empower civil society to counter radicalization, This is not an easy task since it involves enduring effort to reach out every segment of the society. How the government agencies and NGOs can realize „confidence building‟ is the heart of the matter. If there is an issue of „trusting each other‟ then it should be the government agency to be the first to enlist some kind of dialogue or communication.
  • 31. What should be done? Most of the time those in counterterrorism sector become „the victims of their own presumptive concerns‟, These individuals become captives of their concerns, emanating from • lack of communication, • lack of knowledge, • miscommunication, or • misguided perceptions.• When it comes to enlisting channels of communication, same dilemma applies to the NGOs or religious groups as well.• To overcome such a dilemma security apparatus, agencies, local governments, and NGOs should work together at the organizational level as well as community level.
  • 32. What should be done?  Macro level policies and micro level policies are directly related to each other.  The success of macro level policies can be determined by the micro level ones.  Face-to-face interactions are as important as the large scale projects.  Both should go hand-to-hand.  NGOs become focal point for reaching out the society.  Public diplomacy: National and international level
  • 33. CURRENT PROCESS Democratization Solution Process initiative August 2009 2012-•New laws • Professional units•Socio-economic • Effective investments, welfare • Efforts&discussions coordination • Dialogue through policies • 12 September different channels•Kurdish TV channels 2010 Referendum • Operations • Additional legal • Habur amendments. Democratization incidents, Silvan • New constitution Process attack, etc. Effective Security 1999-2009 Strategy 2011--- 33
  • 34. PARADIGM SHIFT IN COUNTERING TERRORISMDemocratization, freedom, and building a peaceful society Socio-economic, cultural projects and programs Professionalization in countering the terrorists 34
  • 35. Communication Society and speaking a oriented common approach language CoordinationService andoriented information sharing Preventive Transparenc security y and liability strategy
  • 36. CONCLUSION 36
  • 37. Thank you for your participationSüleyman ÖZEREN, Ph.D.DirectorInternational Center for Terrorism and Transnational CrimePolice AcademyAnittepe, Ankara, Turkey(cell) + 90 505 655 4278(office) + 90 312 462 9080(fax) + 90 312 412 5296(Email)