TYPES OF STEM CELLS
Type of stem cell What it can be Examples
Totipotent cells Each cell can
develop into a
Cells of embryo
of 1-3 days
Pluripotent cells Each cell can
form any cell type
Cells of blastocyst
Multipotent cells Cells differentiate
and can form a
number of tissue
Fetal tissue, cord
blood, adult cells
WHERE DO THEY COME FROM ??
• Embryos: Embryonic stem (ES) cells are stem cells derived
from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage embryo.
• Adults: Adult stem cells, also called somatic stem cells, are
stem cells which maintain and repair the tissue in which they
• Umbilical cord: Blood cells from the post-delivery umbilical
cord contain undifferentiated cells.
• Cloning in general refer to as reproduction without mating.
• Cloning is a scientific process that allows scientists to copy the
genetic traits of a plant or animal to create one or more living
• The baby that develops will have the identical genetic traits as
the animal that provided the nucleus used to fertilize the host’s
MILESTONES IN HISTORY OF
• In 1996 - Ian Wilmut and Keith Campbell cloned the first animal from adult
cells. Dolly the sheep, born on July 5, 1996, was created using the so-called
• In 1997, Infigen Inc., a biotechnology company, created the first cloned calf
named Gene in the world. It was cloned from a non-embryonic cell.
• In 1998 - Ryuzo Yanagimachi, Toni Perry and Teruhiko Wakayama of the
University of Hawaii reported cloning fifty mice from adult mouse cells.
• In 2001 - Scientists at Advanced Cell Technology, Inc. announced the birth of a
cloned baby bull gaur (a large wild ox) named Noah. Noah was the first
endangered animal to be cloned.
TYPES OF CLONING
• Therapeutic cloning : It involves the use
of (stem) cells for medicinal or research
• Reproductive cloning: It involve the use
(stem) cells to create cloned humans or animals.
WHY CLONING ??
• Substitute for Natural Reproduction
• Obtain Specific Traits in Organisms
• Cloning animals for excellent traits
• Possibility of repopulating
the endangered species
ISSUES RELATED TO STEM CELL RESEARCH
• In 2001 Bush announced federal funds can only be used to
study embryonic cells that already exist, all other will be
done by using private funding.
• United Kingdom made it legal to clone human embryos for
• South Korea, Sweden & Singapore allow therapeutic
• Australia did banned cloning in 2006 but now therapeutic
cloning is legal
FUTURE ASPECT & CONCLUSION
• Stem cells pose a bright future for the therapeutic world by promising treatment
options for the diseases which are considered as non-curable now a days.
• Although there has been limited success in cloning some animals, it's still seen as a
• Ever since the announcement of the birth of Dolly, additional
sheep, cows, goats, pigs, and mice have been cloned.
• Cloning is a big first step. Genetic
manipulation of cloned animals is the
future direction of the cloning frontier.