Stem cell and Cloning
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Stem cell and Cloning

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    Stem cell and Cloning Stem cell and Cloning Presentation Transcript

    • STEM CELL & CLONING By: Palwinder Kaur 1
    • 2
    • HISTORY OF STEM CELL RESEARCH 3
    • TYPES OF STEM CELLS 4 Type of stem cell What it can be Examples Totipotent cells Each cell can develop into a new individual Cells of embryo of 1-3 days Pluripotent cells Each cell can form any cell type (over 200) Cells of blastocyst 5-14 days Multipotent cells Cells differentiate and can form a number of tissue types. Fetal tissue, cord blood, adult cells
    • WHERE DO THEY COME FROM ?? • Embryos: Embryonic stem (ES) cells are stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage embryo. • Adults: Adult stem cells, also called somatic stem cells, are stem cells which maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found. • Umbilical cord: Blood cells from the post-delivery umbilical cord contain undifferentiated cells. 5
    • WHY STEM CELLS ?? 6
    • 7
    • CLONING • Cloning in general refer to as reproduction without mating. • Cloning is a scientific process that allows scientists to copy the genetic traits of a plant or animal to create one or more living replicas. • The baby that develops will have the identical genetic traits as the animal that provided the nucleus used to fertilize the host’s egg. 8
    • MILESTONES IN HISTORY OF CLONING • In 1996 - Ian Wilmut and Keith Campbell cloned the first animal from adult cells. Dolly the sheep, born on July 5, 1996, was created using the so-called Roslin Technique. • In 1997, Infigen Inc., a biotechnology company, created the first cloned calf named Gene in the world. It was cloned from a non-embryonic cell. • In 1998 - Ryuzo Yanagimachi, Toni Perry and Teruhiko Wakayama of the University of Hawaii reported cloning fifty mice from adult mouse cells. • In 2001 - Scientists at Advanced Cell Technology, Inc. announced the birth of a cloned baby bull gaur (a large wild ox) named Noah. Noah was the first endangered animal to be cloned. 9
    • 10 GENE MAGIC & STEM NOAH “THE CLONES”
    • RECIPE OF CLONING 11
    • 12
    • TYPES OF CLONING • Therapeutic cloning : It involves the use of (stem) cells for medicinal or research purposes. • Reproductive cloning: It involve the use (stem) cells to create cloned humans or animals. 13
    • WHY CLONING ?? 14 • Substitute for Natural Reproduction • Obtain Specific Traits in Organisms • Cloning animals for excellent traits • Possibility of repopulating the endangered species
    • ISSUES RELATED TO STEM CELL RESEARCH & CLONING 15
    • RELIGIOUS ISSUES 16
    • MEDICAL ISSUES 17 •Possible miscarriage •Unforeseen deaths in later life of the clone •Health risks from mutated genes •Developmental delays •Neurological disorders •Unstable immune system
    • CONTROVERSIAL ASPECTS 18 • • EMBRYONIC STEM CELL RESEARCH • REPRODUCTIVE CLONING •
    • CURRENT LAWS 19 • In 2001 Bush announced federal funds can only be used to study embryonic cells that already exist, all other will be done by using private funding. • United Kingdom made it legal to clone human embryos for medical research. • South Korea, Sweden & Singapore allow therapeutic cloning. • Australia did banned cloning in 2006 but now therapeutic cloning is legal
    • FUTURE ASPECT & CONCLUSION 20 • Stem cells pose a bright future for the therapeutic world by promising treatment options for the diseases which are considered as non-curable now a days. • Although there has been limited success in cloning some animals, it's still seen as a viable technology. • Ever since the announcement of the birth of Dolly, additional sheep, cows, goats, pigs, and mice have been cloned. • Cloning is a big first step. Genetic manipulation of cloned animals is the future direction of the cloning frontier.
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    • REFERENCES • http://www.faseb.org/portals/2/pdfs/opa/cloning.pdf • http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/index.php?page=the-potential-of-stem-cell-research • http://www.eurostemcell.org/faq/what-are-potential-applications-stem-cell-research • http://www.linacre.org/stemcell.html • http://www.academia.edu/207072/BIOETHICS_OF_STEM_CELL_RESEARCH_AND_ CLO NING? • http://www.bbc.com/future/tags/cloning • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stem_cell_therapy • http://www.eurostemcell.org/faq/what-are-potential-applications-stem-cell-research • http://www.cnn.com/2013/05/18/health/stem-cells-cloning/ 23
    • REFERENCES • http://www.nature.com/news/human-stem-cells-created-by-cloning-1.12983 • http://www.dw.de/stem-cell-cloning-remains-highly-controversial/a-16824112 • http://www.genome.gov/10004765 • http://www.livescience.com/32079-how-stem-cell-cloning-works-infographic.html • http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/health-ethics/human-embryos-and-cloning/stem-cells-cloning-and- related-issues • http://cbhd.org/stem-cell-research/overview • http://www.genome.gov/10004765 • http://www.stemcellsaustralia.edu.au/About-Stem-Cells/FAQ/What-has-cloning-got-to-do- with-stem-cell-research.aspx • https://www.google.ca/search?q=stem+cell+research+cloning&oq=STEM+CELL+&aqs=chrome.0 .6 9i59l3j69i57j0j69i59.5855j0j4&sourceid=chrome&espv=210&es_sm=122&ie=UTF-8 • Stem Cells and Cloning (2nd Edition) Kelly M Hogan (Author), Michael A. Palladino (Author) 24