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Project english2

  1. 1. Rizal Memorial College<br />
  2. 2. Presentation about Nouns<br />Presented By:<br />Julius Bryan Barrete<br />Jeza Mae Castro<br />GendelnessDelaCerna<br />Daryl Anubling<br />Gezer Jay Sevilla<br />Louie John Tabay<br />
  3. 3. Definition<br />A NOUN is a word that names a person, a place, a thing, or an idea.<br />thing<br />person<br />?<br />place<br />idea<br />
  4. 4. IDEA?<br />Why can’t we identify the idea in this picture?<br />Ideas are thoughts and cannot be seen. Examples of ideas include happiness, joy, pain, and fairness.<br />What ideas might this person have?<br />
  5. 5. Types of Nouns: Common & Proper Nouns<br />
  6. 6. Common Nouns <br />Common Nouns are any person, place, or thing. Common nouns are not capitalized.<br />The city<br />A policeman<br />That newspaper<br />
  7. 7. Proper Nouns <br />Common Nouns are the name of a special person, place, or thing. Proper nouns are capitalized.<br />Celine<br />Officer Smith<br />Florida Times Union<br />
  8. 8. Pronouns<br />A pronoun, essentially, is a word that replaces a noun so that you don't have to keep using the noun itself so much; some examples of pronouns include I, me, mine, myself,she, her, hers, herself, we, us, ours and ourselves. You may have noticed that they come in sets of four, all referring to the same person, group or thing. He, him, his and himself, for example, all refer to a male person or something belonging to him; they, them, theirsand themselves all refer to a group or something belonging to a group, and so on. The truth is that there are about four and a half different types of pronouns, each serving a different purpose in a sentence. Let's go ahead and dispose of the half-pronoun now so we can deal with the others.<br />
  9. 9. Types of Pronouns<br />Possessive Adjectives vs. Possessive Pronouns<br />Pronominal possessive adjectives include the following: my, your, our, their, his, her andits. They are sort of pronouns in that they refer to an understood noun, showing possession by that noun of something. They are technically adjectives, though, because they modify a noun that follows them.<br />My money is all gone.<br />I gambled it all away on your race horse.<br />His jockey was too fat.<br />
  10. 10. In all of these examples, there is a noun (money, race horse, jockey) that has not been replaced with a pronoun. Instead, an adjective is there to show whose money, horse and jockey we’re talking about. Possessive pronouns, on the other hand – mine, yours, ours,theirs, his, hers, its – are truly pronouns because they refer to a previously named or understood noun. They stand alone, not followed by any other noun. For comparison's sake, look at this sentence:<br />You have your vices, and I have mine.<br />
  11. 11. There are two types of pronouns here: subject (you/I) and possessive (mine). There's also a possessive adjective (your). We'll deal with the subject pronouns momentarily, but for now, just look at the others. Your is followed by the noun, vices, so although we know that your refers to you, it is not the noun or the noun substitute (pronoun). Vicesis the noun. In the second half of the sentence, however, the noun and the possessive adjective have both been replaced with one word – the pronoun, mine. Because it stands in the place of the noun, mine is a true pronoun whereas your is an adjective that must be followed by a noun.<br />
  12. 12. Subject Pronouns<br />Subject pronouns are often (but not always) found at the beginning of a sentence. More precisely, the subject of a sentence is the person or thing that lives out the verb.<br />I owe that bookie $3,000. – I am living out that debt. I is the subject pronoun.<br />He and I had a fight. – This sentence has two subjects because he and I were both involved in the fight.<br />He broke my kneecaps. – You get the idea.<br />To him, I must now pay my children's college funds. – If you'll notice, the verb in this sentence – the action – is "pay." Although I is not at the beginning of the sentence, it is the person living out the action and is, therefore, the subject.<br />
  13. 13. Object Pronouns<br />By contrast, objects and object pronouns indicate the recipient of an action or motion. They come after verbs and prepositions (to, with, for, at, on, beside, under, around, etc.).<br />The bookie showed me a crowbar and told me to pay him immediately.<br />I begged him for more time.<br />He said he'd given me enough time already.<br />I tried to dodge the crowbar, but he hit me with it anyway.<br />Just then, the police arrived and arrested us.<br />
  14. 14. Subject vs. Object<br />There is often confusion over which pronouns you should use when you are one half of a dual subject or object. For example, should you say, "Me and him had a fight," or, "He and I had a fight?" Should you say, "The police arrested me and him," or, "The police arrested he and I?" Some people will tell you that you should always put the other person first and refer to yourself as "I" because it's more proper, but those people are wrong. You can put the other person first out of politeness, but you should always use the correct pronouns (subject or object) for the sentence. A good test to decide which one you need is to try the sentence with one pronoun at a time. Would you say, "Me had a fight?" Of course not. You'd say, "I had a fight." What about, "Him had a fight?" No, you'd say, "He had a fight." So when you put the two subjects together, you get, "He and I had a fight." The same rule applies to the other example. You wouldn't say, "The police arrested he," or, "The police arrested I." You would use "him" and "me" So the correct sentence is, "The police arrested him and me."<br />
  15. 15. Reflexive Pronouns<br />There is one more type of pronoun, and that is the reflexive pronoun. These are the ones that end in “-self” or "-selves." They are object pronouns that we use when the subject and the object are the same noun.<br />I told myself not to bet all my money on one horse.<br />The bookie hurt himself chasing me through the alley.<br />We also use them to emphasize the subject.<br />Usually, bookies send an employee to collect their money for them, but since I owed so much, he himself came to my house.<br />
  16. 16. Definition of Adjectives<br />adjectives are words that describe or modify another person or thing in the sentence. The Articles — a, an, and the — are adjectives.<br />the tall professor<br />the lugubrious lieutenant<br />a solid commitment<br />a month's pay<br />a six-year-old child<br />the unhappiest, richest man<br />
  17. 17. If a group of words containing a subject and verb acts as an adjective, it is called an Adjective Clause. My sister, who is much older than I am, is an engineer. If an adjective clause is stripped of its subject and verb, the resulting modifier becomes an Adjective Phrase: He is the man who iskeeping my family in the poorhouse.<br />
  18. 18. Before getting into other usage considerations, one general note about the use — or over-use — of adjectives: Adjectives are frail; don't ask them to do more work than they should. Let your broad-shouldered verbs and nouns do the hard work of description. Be particularly cautious in your use of adjectives that don't have much to say in the first place: interesting, beautiful, lovely, exciting. It is your job as a writer to create beauty and excitement and interest, and when you simply insist on its presence without showing it to your reader — well, you're convincing no one.<br />
  19. 19. Consider the uses of modifiers in this adjectivally rich paragraph from Thomas Wolfe's Look Homeward, Angel. (Charles Scribner's, 1929, p. 69.) Adjectives are highlighted in this color; participles, verb forms acting as adjectives, are highlighted in this blue. Some people would argue that words that are part of a name — like "East India Tea House — are not really adjectival and that possessive nouns — father's, farmer's — are not technically adjectives, but we've included them in our analysis of Wolfe's text.<br />
  20. 20. He remembered yet the East India Tea House at the Fair, the sandalwood, the turbans, and the robes, the cool interior and the smell of India tea; and he had felt now the nostalgic thrill of dew-wet mornings in Spring, the cherry scent, the cool clarion earth, the wet loaminessof the garden, the pungent breakfast smells and the floating snow of blossoms. He knew the inchoate sharp excitement of hot dandelions in young earth; in July, of watermelons bedded in sweet hay, inside a farmer's covered wagon; of cantaloupe and crated peaches; and the scent of orange rind, bitter-sweet, before a fire of coals. He knew the good male smell of his father's sitting-room; of the smooth worn leather sofa, with the gaping horse-hair rent; of the blistered varnished wood upon the hearth; of the heated calf-skin bindings; of the flat moist plug of apple tobacco, stuck with a red flag; of wood-smoke and burnt leaves in October; of the brown tired autumn earth; of honey-suckle at night; of warm nasturtiums, of a clean ruddy farmer who comes weekly with printed butter, eggs, and milk; of fat limp underdone bacon and of coffee; of a bakery-oven in the wind; of large deep-hued string beans smoking-hot and seasoned well with salt and butter; of a room of old pine boards in which books and carpets have been stored, long closed; of Concord grapes in their long white baskets.<br />
  21. 21. Position of Adjectives<br />Unlike Adverbs, which often seem capable of popping up almost anywhere in a sentence, adjectives nearly always appear immediately before the noun or noun phrase that they modify. Sometimes they appear in a string of adjectives, and when they do, they appear in a set order according to category. (See Below.) When indefinite pronouns — such as something, someone, anybody — are modified by an adjective, the adjective comes after the pronoun:<br />Anyone capable of doing something horrible to someone nice should be punished.Something wicked this way comes.And there are certain adjectives that, in combination with certain words, are always "postpositive" (coming after the thing they modify):<br />The president elect, heir apparent to the Glitzy fortune, lives in New York proper.<br />
  22. 22. Degrees of Adjectives<br />Adjectives can express degrees of modification:<br />Gladys is a rich woman, but Josie is richer than Gladys, and Sadie is the richest woman in town.<br />
  23. 23. The degrees of comparison are known as the positive, the comparative, and the superlative. (Actually, only the comparative and superlative show degrees.) We use the comparative for comparing two things and the superlative for comparing three or more things. Notice that the word than frequently accompanies the comparative and the word the precedes the superlative. The inflected suffixes -er and -est suffice to form most comparatives and superlatives, although we need -ierand -iest when a two-syllable adjective ends in y(happier and happiest); otherwise we use more andmost when an adjective has more than one syllable.<br />
  24. 24. Certain adjectives have irregular forms in the comparative and superlative degrees:<br />
  25. 25. Be careful not to form comparatives or superlatives of adjectives which already express an extreme of comparison — unique, for instance — although it probably is possible to form comparative forms of most adjectives: something can be more perfect, and someone can have a fuller figure. People who argue that one woman cannot be more pregnant than another have never been nine-months pregnant with twins.<br />
  26. 26. According to Bryan Garner, "complete" is one of those adjectives that does not admit of comparative degrees. We could say, however, "morenearly complete." I am sure that I have not been consistent in my application of this principle in the Guide (I can hear myself, now, saying something like "less adequate" or "more preferable" or "less fatal"). Other adjectives that Garner would include in this list are as follows:<br />
  27. 27. Premodifiers with Degrees of Adjectives<br />Both adverbs and adjectives in their comparative and superlative forms can be accompanied by premodifiers, single words and phrases, that intensify the degree.<br />We were a lot more careful this time.<br />He works a lot less carefully than the other jeweler in town.<br />We like his work so much better.<br />You'll get your watch back all the faster.<br />
  28. 28. The same process can be used to downplay the degree:<br />The weather this week has been somewhat better.<br />He approaches his schoolwork a little less industriously than his brother does.<br />
  29. 29. And sometimes a set phrase, usually an informal noun phrase, is used for this purpose:<br />He arrived a whole lot sooner than we expected.<br />That's a heck of a lot better.<br />
  30. 30. If the intensifier very accompanies the superlative, a determiner is also required:<br />She is wearing her very finest outfit for the interview.<br />They're doing the very best they can.<br />
  31. 31. Occasionally, the comparative or superlative form appears with a determiner and the thing being modified is understood:<br />Of all the wines produced in Connecticut, I like this one the most.<br />The quicker you finish this project, the better.<br />Of the two brothers, he is by far the faster.<br />
  32. 32. Submitted to: <br />Mrs. Patalinghug<br />