Fun with Parts of Speech.


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A very descriptive study of parts of speech.

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Fun with Parts of Speech.

  1. 1. By Dr. Nicholas Correa ELT Trainer, Ratnasagar Publication Grammar: Fun with Parts of Speech
  2. 2. Parts of speech are the basic types of words that are used in English. All the words in English language must belong to one or the part of speech. Just as there cannot be a number without 0 to 9 and a melody without the notation Do, re, mi pa so la ti so also there cannot be any word in English language that doesn’t come under jurisdiction of parts of speech.
  3. 3. It is important to recognize and identify the different types of words in English, so that one can understand grammar and use the right word form in the right place.
  4. 4. The word ‘ noun’ is derived from Latin word nomen which was the translation of Greek onoma, which means name.
  5. 5. A noun is a naming word. It names a person, place, thing, idea, living creature, quality, or action. Example:
  6. 6. Types of Nouns 1. Proper Nouns 2. Common Nouns a. Concrete nouns i. Countable nouns ii. Uncountable nouns iii. Collective nouns b. Abstract nouns
  7. 7. A proper noun has two distinctive features: 1) It names a specific [usually a one-of-a-kind] item. 2) 2) it begins with a capital letter no matter where it occurs in a sentence.
  8. 8. Common nouns are general names. They are used to name general persons, animals, places, things or ideas. They are not capitalized unless they begin a sentence or are part of a title.
  9. 9. Common Nouns can be further classified into concrete and abstract nouns. Examples:
  10. 10. One can experience concrete nouns with one’s five senses: one can see them, hear them, smell them, taste them, and feel them. One cannot feel abstract nouns through one’s five senses.
  11. 11. What is a Concrete Noun? Objects and substances that can be experienced through our senses are referred to as concrete nouns. That means we can touch, feel, smell, taste or hear them.
  12. 12. Examples of Concrete Nouns The vast majority of nouns are concrete nouns. Take all animals and people for example. You can touch, feel, see, and hear them. You can do the same for objects. We take in with our eyes all the sights of places we visit.
  13. 13. Examples: calf, cow, oxen, cattle, sheep, lamb, ram, goat, kid, castle, pyramid, jailhouse, cliff dwellings, igloo, pagoda, abbey, cathedral, chapel, apron, tie, belt, petal, sepal, stamen, pine boughs, bud, branch, blossom, fruit,
  14. 14. Abstract Nouns:
  15. 15. Abstract Nouns: A noun that denotes an abstract or intangible concept, such as envy or joy. An abstract noun is a noun that you cannot sense, it is the name we give to an emotion, ideal or idea. They have no physical existence, one can't see, hear, touch, smell or taste them. The opposite of an abstract noun is a concrete noun. Example:
  16. 16. Example Love, sadness, laughter, hunger, pleasure, poverty, wisdom, intelligence,
  17. 17. Concrete nouns are further classified into 1. Countable Nouns 2. Uncountable Nouns 3. Collective Nouns
  18. 18. Countable Nouns Countable nouns are easy to recognize. They are things that we can count. For example: "pen". We can count pens. We can have one, two, three or more pens. Here are some more countable nouns: •dog, cat, animal, man, person •bottle, box, litre •coin, note, dollar •cup, plate, fork •table, chair, suitcase, bag
  19. 19. Uncountable nouns Uncountable are substances, concepts etc that we cannot divide into separate elements. We cannot "count" them. For example, we cannot count "milk". We can count "bottles of milk" or "litres of milk", but we cannot count "milk" itself. Here are some more uncountable nouns: Example: rice, sugar, butter, water, electricity, gas,
  20. 20. Collective Nouns: A collective noun is a word for a group of specific items, animals or people. For example, a group of ships is called a fleet, a group of cows is called a herd, a group of lions is called a pride, a group of baseball players is called a team, and a group of ants is called a colony.
  21. 21. Pronouns Pronouns are words used instead of nouns or the words that substitute nouns.
  22. 22. An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words. An adjective usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies.
  23. 23. In the following examples, the highlighted words are adjectives: The truck-shaped balloon floated over the treetops. Mrs. Morrison papered her kitchen walls with hideous wall paper. The small boat foundered on the wine dark sea. The coal mines are dark and dank. Many stores have already begun to play irritating music. A battered music box sat on the mahogany sideboard. The back room was filled with large, yellow rain boots.
  24. 24. 1. Adjectives of Quality - These adjectives are used to describe the nature of a noun. They give an idea about the characteristics of the noun by answering the question ‘what kind’. Honest, Kind, Large, Bulky, Beautiful, Ugly etc. New Delhi is a large city with many historical monuments. Sheila is a beautiful woman.
  25. 25. 2. Adjectives of Quantity - These adjectives help to show the amount or the approximate amount of the noun or pronoun. These adjectives do not provide exact numbers; rather they tell us the amount of the noun in relative or whole terms. o All, Half, Many, Few, Little, No, Enough, Great etc. They have finished most of the rice. Many people came to visit the fair.
  26. 26. 3. Adjectives of Number - These adjectives are used to show the number of nouns and their place in an order. There are three different sections within adjectives of number; they are -
  27. 27. Definite Numeral Adjective - Those which clearly denote an exact number of nouns or the order of the noun. One, Two, Twenty, Thirty-Three etc. also known as Cardinals. First, Second, Third, Seventh etc. also known as Ordinals.
  28. 28. Indefinite Numeral Adjective - Those adjectives that do not give an exact numerical amount but just give a general idea of the amount. Some, Many, Few, Any, Several, All etc. E.g.: There were many people present at the meeting.
  29. 29. Distributive Numeral Adjective -Those adjectives that are used to refer to individual nouns within the whole amount. Either, Neither, Each, Another, Other etc. Taxes have to be paid by every employed citizen.
  30. 30. 4. Demonstrative Adjectives - These adjectives are used to point out or indicate a particular noun or pronoun using the adjectives - This, That, These and Those. o That bag belongs to Neil. o Try using this paintbrush in art class. o I really like those shoes. o These flowers are lovely.
  31. 31. 5. Interrogative Adjectives - These adjectives are used to ask questions about nouns or in relation to nouns, they are – Where, What, Which and Whose. o Where did he say he was going? o What assignment did I miss out on? o Which is your favourite author? o Whose pen is this?
  32. 32. Verbs are doing words. A verb can express a physical action, a mental action, or a state of being. •A physical action (e.g., to swim, to write, to climb). •A mental action (e.g., to think, to guess, to consider). •A state of being (e.g., to be, to exist, to appear).
  33. 33. Lots of Verbs Express Physical Actions Here are some sentences with the verbs highlighted. (These verbs express physical actions.) •She sells pegs and lucky heather. (In this example, the word sells is a verb. It expresses the physical activity to sell.) •The doctor wrote the prescription. (In this example, the word wrote is a verb. It expresses the physical activity to write.) •Alison bought a ticket. (The word bought is a verb. It expresses the physical activity to buy.)
  34. 34. Verbs Express Mental Actions Too As we covered at the start, verbs do not necessarily express physical actions like the ones above. They can express mental actions too: Example: She considers the job done. (The word considers is a verb. It expresses the mental activity to consider.) •Peter guessed the right number. (The word guessed is a verb. It expresses the mental activity to guess.) •I thought the same thing. (The word thought is a verb. It expresses the mental activity to think.)
  35. 35. Verbs Express a State of Being A small, but extremely important group of verbs do not express any activity at all. The most important verb in this group – arguably of all – is the verb to be. As already mentioned, this is seen in forms like is, are, were, was, will be, etc. Some real examples: •Edwina is the largest elephant in this area. (The word is is a verb from the verb to be.) •It was a joke. (The word was is a verb from the verb to be.) •I am. (The word am is a verb from the verb to be.) (Point of interest: I am is the shortest sentence in English.)
  36. 36. Types of verbs There are three types of verbs: action verbs, linking verbs, and helping verbs.
  37. 37. ACTION VERBS Action verbs are words that express action (ex: give, eat, walk, etc.) or possession (have, own, etc.). Action verbs can be either transitive or intransitive
  38. 38. TRANSITIVE VERBS A transitive verb always has a noun that receives the action of the verb. This noun is called the direct object. EXAMPLE: Sheela raises her hand. (The verb is raises. Her hand is an object receiving the verb’s action. Therefore, raises is a transitive verb.)
  39. 39. Transitive verbs sometimes have indirect objects, which name the object to whom or for whom the action was done. EXAMPLE: Jantzen gave Becky the pencil. (The verb is gave. The direct object is the pencil. [What did he give? the pencil]. The indirect object is Becky. [To whom did he give it? to Becky.])
  40. 40. INTRANSITIVE VERBS An intransitive verb never has a direct or indirect object. Although an intransitive verb may be followed by an adverb or adverbial phrase, there is no object to receive its action. EXAMPLE: Sheela rises slowly from her seat. (The verb is the word, rises. The words, slowly from her seat, modify the verb. But there is no object that receives the action.)
  41. 41. LINKING VERBS A linking verb connects the subject of a sentence to a noun or adjective that renames or describes it. This noun or adjective is called the subject complement. EXAMPLES: Jason became a business major. (The verb, became, links the subject, Jason, to its complement, a business major.) Lisa is in love with Jason. (The verb, is, links the subject, Lisa, to the subject complement, in love with Jason, which describes Lisa.)
  42. 42. The most common linking verb is the verb to be in all of its forms (am, are, is, was, were, etc.). This verb may also be used as a helping verb (see next section). Two other common linking verbs, to become and to seem, are always used as linking verbs. Other verbs may be linking verbs in some cases and action verbs in others: to appear, to feel, to look, to remain, to stay, to taste, to continue, to grow, to prove, to sound, to smell, to turn, LINKING: Libby appeared happy. (Appeared links Libby to the subject complement, happy.) ACTION: Deon suddenly appeared. (Here, appeared is an intransitive action verb.)
  43. 43. HELPING VERBS Helping verbs are used before action or linking verbs to convey additional information regarding aspects of possibility (can, could, etc.) or time (was, did, has, etc.). They are also called auxiliary verbs. The main verb with its accompanying helping verb is called a verb phrase. EXAMPLES: Teju is (helping verb) going (main verb) to Florida. The trip might (helping verb) be (main verb) dangerous.
  44. 44. The following words, called modals, always function as helping verbs: can may must shall will could might ought to should would EXAMPLES: Tanya could learn to fly helicopters. (Could helps the main verb, learn.) Janine will drive to Idaho tomorrow. (Will helps the main verb, drive.) In addition, the following forms of the verbs to be, to do, and to have sometimes serve as helping verbs.
  45. 45. Note: In other cases, they may serve as action or linking verbs.) am be being do had have was are been did does has is were HELPING: Jana is moving to a new house. LINKING: Jana is ready to go. HELPING: Dustin did eat his vegetables! ACTION: Dustin did his homework last night. (transitive verb) HELPING: Erin has jumped off the cliff. ACTION: Erin has a good attitude. (transitive verb)
  46. 46. An adverb can modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a phrase, or a clause. An adverb indicates manner, time, place, cause, or degree and answers questions such as "how," "when," "where," "how much".
  47. 47. Types of adverbs Adverbs of Manner Adverbs of Manner tell us the manner or way in which something happens. They answer the question "how?". Adverbs of Manner mainly modify verbs. He speaks slowly. (How does he speak?) They helped us cheerfully. (How did they help us?) James Bond drives his cars fast. (How does James Bond drive his cars?)
  48. 48. We normally use Adverbs of Manner with dynamic (action) verbs, not with stative or state verbs. He ran fast. She came quickly. They worked happily.
  49. 49. Adverbs of Place Adverbs of Place tell us the place where something happens. They answer the question "where?". Adverbs of Place mainly modify verbs. Please sit here. (Where should I sit?) They looked everywhere. (Where did they look?) Two cars were parked outside. (Where were two cars parked?)
  50. 50. Adverbs of Time Adverbs of Time tell us something about the time that something happens. Adverbs of Time mainly modify verbs. They can answer the question "when?": He came yesterday. (When did he come?) I want it now. (When do I want it?) Or they can answer the question "how often?": They deliver the newspaper daily. (How often do they deliver the newspaper?) We sometimes watch a movie. (How often do we watch a movie?)
  51. 51. Adverbs of Degree Adverbs of Degree tell us the degree or extent to which something happens. They answer the question "how much?" or "to what degree?". Adverbs of Degree can modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs. She entirely agrees with him. (How much does she agree with him?) Mary is very beautiful. (To what degree is Mary beautiful? How beautiful is Mary?) He drove quite dangerously. (To what degree did he drive dangerously? How dangerously did he drive?)
  52. 52. Conjunctions A conjunction is a word that "joins". A conjunction joins two parts of a sentence. Here are some example conjunctions: Coordinating Conjunctions Subordinating Conjunctions and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so although, because, since, unless
  53. 53. A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in asentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition. Prepositions are short words (on, in, to) that usually stand in front of nouns (sometimes also in front of gerund verbs). A preposition usually comes before a noun, pronoun or noun phrase. It joins the noun to some other part of the sentence. Examples: on, in, by, with, under, through, at
  54. 54. Interjections are words or phrases used to exclaim or protest or command. An interjection is a word added to a sentence to convey an emotion or a sentiment such as surprise, disgust, joy, excitement, or enthusiasm. It is not grammatically related to any other part of the sentence. They sometimes stand by themselves, but they are often contained within larger structures. •Wow! I won the lottery! •Oh, I don't know about that. •I don't know what the heck you're talking about. •No, you shouldn't have done that.